Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O. F. M. was a Roman Catholic Spanish priest and friar of the Franciscan Order who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain. Serra was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 1988, in the Vatican City. Pope Francis canonised him on September 23, 2015, at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D. C. during his first visit to the United States. His missionary efforts earned him the title of Apostle of California. Serra was born in the village of Petra on the island of Majorca off the Mediterranean coast of Spain. A few hours after birth, he was baptized in the village church, his baptismal name was Miquel Josep Serra. His father Antonio Nadal Serra and mother Margarita Rosa Ferrer were married in 1707. By age seven, Miquel was working the fields with his parents, helping cultivate wheat and beans, tending the cattle.
But he showed a special interest in visiting the local Franciscan friary at the church of San Bernardino within a block of the Serra family house. Attending the friars' primary school at the church, Miquel learned reading, mathematics, Latin and liturgical song Gregorian chant. Gifted with a good voice, he eagerly took to vocal music; the friars sometimes let him sing at special church feasts. Miquel and his father Antonio visited the friary for friendly chats with the Franciscans. At age 16, Miquel's parents enrolled him in a Franciscan school in the capital city, Palma de Majorca, where he studied philosophy. A year he became a novice in the Franciscan order. On September 14, 1730, some two months before his 17th birthday, Serra entered the Franciscan Order at Palma the Alcantarine branch of the Friars Minor, a reform movement in the Order; the slight and frail Serra now embarked on his novitiate period, a rigorous year of preparation to become a full member of the Franciscan Order. He was given the religious name of Junípero in honor of Brother Juniper, among the first Franciscans and a companion of Saint Francis.
The young Junípero, along with his fellow novices, vowed to scorn property and comfort, to remain celibate. He still had seven years to go to become an ordained Catholic priest, he immersed himself in rigorous studies of logic, metaphysics and theology. The daily routine at the friary followed a rigid schedule: prayers, choir singing, physical chores, spiritual readings, instruction; the friars would wake up every midnight for another round of chants. Serra's superiors discouraged visitors. In his free time, he avidly read stories about Franciscan friars roaming the provinces of Spain and around the world to win new souls for the church suffering martyrdom in the process, he followed the news of famous missionaries winning sainthood. In 1737, Serra became a priest, three years earned an ecclesiastical license to teach philosophy at the Convento de San Francisco, his philosophy course, including over 60 students, lasted three years. Among his students were fellow future missionaries Francisco Palóu and Juan Crespí.
When the course ended in 1743, Serra told his students: "I desire nothing more from you than this, that when the news of my death shall have reached your ears, I ask you to say for the benefit of my soul:'May he rest in peace.' Nor shall I omit to do the same for you so that all of us will attain the goal for which we have been created."Serra was considered intellectually brilliant by his peers. He received a doctorate in theology from the Lullian College in Palma de Majorca, where he occupied the Duns Scotus chair of philosophy until he joined the missionary College of San Fernando de Mexico in 1749. During Serra's last five years on the island of Majorca and plague afflicted his home village of Petra. Serra sometimes went home from Palma for brief visits to his parents—now separated—and gave them some financial support. On one occasion he was called home to anoint his ill father with the last rites. In one of his final visits to Petra, Serra found his younger sister Juana María near death.
In 1748, Serra and Palóu confided to each other their desire to become missionaries. Serra, now 35, was assured a prestigious career as scholar if he stayed in Majorca. Applying to the colonial bureaucracy in Madrid, Serra requested that both he and Palóu embark on a foreign mission. After weathering some administrative obstacles, they received permission and set sail for Cádiz, the port of departure for Spain's colonies in the Americas. While waiting to set sail, Serra wrote a long letter to a colleague back in Majorca, urging him to console Serra's parents—now in their 70's—over their only son's pending departure. "They will learn to see how sweet is His yoke," Serra wrote, "and that He will change for them the sorrow they may now experience into great happiness. Now is not the time to muse or fret over the happenings of life but rather to be conformed to the will of God, striving to prepare themselves for that happy death which of all the things of life is our principal concern." Serra asked his colleague to read this letter to his parents.
In 1749, Serra and the Franciscan missionary team landed in Veracruz, on the Gulf coast of New Spain
California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894
The California Midwinter International Exposition of 1894 referred to as the "Midwinter Exposition" or the "Midwinter Fair", was a World's Fair that operated from January 27 to July 5 in San Francisco's Golden Gate Park. In 1892, U. S. President Benjamin Harrison appointed Michael H. de Young as a national commissioner to the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago. During the exposition in Chicago, de Young recognized an opportunity to stimulate California's economy in its time of depression. In the summer of 1893, de Young announced his plans for the California Midwinter International Exposition to be held in Golden Gate Park. One of the draws, according to de Young, was California's weather, which would allow for a fair in the middle of winter. Golden Gate Park Superintendent John McLaren fought against holding the exposition in the park claiming,"the damage to the natural setting would take decades to reverse."In August 1893, the U. S. Congress approved for the fair to be held in Golden Gate Park.
Prior to the Midwinter Fair's opening day, in 1893, Isaiah West Taber won the concession to be the official photographer of the fair. Taber documented the fair from when the grading of the land began, continued photographing the fair throughout its entirety, he sold his photos in a striking, multi-story pavilion on the fair grounds. At the end of the fair, he compiled about 130 of his original photographs into a souvenir book entitled Souvenir of the California Midwinter International Exposition. Much of what is known about the fair visually, comes from Taber's photographs; the fair encompassed 200 acres centered on the park's current Music Concourse. 120 structures were constructed for the exposition, more than 2 million people visited. The fair was to feature four major buildings; these buildings included the Fine Arts Building, the Agriculture and Horticulture Building, the Mechanical Arts Building, the Manufacturers and Liberal Arts building. The Fine Arts building has become the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum.
Other major attractions include the park's famed Japanese Tea Garden, Bonet's Tower, the amusement attractions, the many cultural exhibits. In 1893, M. H. de Young, a San Francisco local who attended the Chicago World Fair, realized that California could reap major benefits from hosting its own world fair. De Young envisioned a world fair in the middle of winter, where people from the frigid East coast and all over the world could enjoy the nice crisp weather of California, along with its bountiful opportunities. Furthermore, de Young sought to boost California's economy, faltering and weakening. During this time period and the rest of the country was struggling during one of the 19th century's worst depressions. De Young and other leaders believed that a world fair in San Francisco would create jobs and stimulate the local economy. However, their grander vision was to promote California as a land of endless opportunities, with good weather and arable lands. Support for de Young's plan came immediately.
De Young held a series of meetings in Chicago, declared that he had raised $41,500 in just two weeks since announcing his intentions. In a short amount of time, 4,400 exhibitors committed to move from Chicago to San Francisco in support of the fair. Mayor Levi Richard Ellert of San Francisco and Governor Henry Markham of California both expressed support for the plan; the public showed their support by donating various amounts. Mayor Ellert established a Finance Committee, charged with raising and maintaining the necessary funds; this committee's main strategy was to collect donations from the public. As a result, the fair was financed by donations, it did not receive any federal, state, or local bonds, grants, or subsidies. In the end, the fair raised $344, 319.59. The fair began and ended without any debt; the Administration Building was built at the western end of the Grand Court, where the current Spreckels Temple of Music is today. The main purpose of the building was for offices of the fairs department chiefs and other general administrators of the fair.
The architecture of the Administration Building was decided by Arthur Page Brown. His design featured Arabic, Byzantine and Islamic styles, it featured a 135-foot-tall dome with figures in relief. The building was three stories and was illuminated entirely by natural light. During the night, the building could be seen from miles away because it was lit up by incandescent lamps; the Agriculture and Horticulture Building was located just west of the Fine Arts building, is part of where the DeYoung Museum stands today. It was designed by Samuel Newsom, it cost $58,000, was designed in a California Mission style with Romanesque influence. It featured three domes to let in light for the plants. Inside, there were plants and flowers, California foliage, statues. Fruit from the south and livestock from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, strawberries and artichokes from the Salinas Valley, as well as California's winter crops were featured; the Bonet Tower was a large steel tower set in the center of the Grand Court of Honor that harnessed the recent discovery of electrical lighting, designed by French architect Leopold Bonet.
Standing at 266-feet, the Bonet Tower was a third the size of the Eiffel Tower, after which it was modeled. The tower was adorned with 3,200 multicolored lights; the top level of the tower housed a spotlight, used to illuminate popular locations in the park, as well as the nearby Lone Mountain. The tower proved to be the largest source of income for the fair, as elevator rides to the top cost $0.25, rides to the first level cost $0.10. Bonet'
Legion of Honour
The Legion of Honour is the highest French order of merit for military and civil merits, established in 1802 by Napoleon Bonaparte and retained by all French governments and régimes. The order's motto is Honneur et Patrie, its seat is the Palais de la Légion d'Honneur next to the Musée d'Orsay, on the left bank of the Seine in Paris; the order is divided into five degrees of increasing distinction: Chevalier, Commandeur, Grand officier, Grand-croix. During the French Revolution, all of the French orders of chivalry were abolished, replaced with Weapons of Honour, it was the wish of Napoleon Bonaparte, the First Consul, to create a reward to commend civilians and soldiers. From this wish was instituted a Légion d'honneur, a body of men, not an order of chivalry, for Napoleon believed that France wanted a recognition of merit rather than a new system of nobility. However, the Légion d'honneur did use the organization of the old French orders of chivalry, for example the Ordre de Saint-Louis; the insignia of the Légion d'honneur bear a resemblance to those of the Ordre de Saint-Louis, which used a red ribbon.
Napoleon created this award to ensure political loyalty. The organization would be used as a façade to give political favours and concessions; the Légion d'honneur was loosely patterned after a Roman legion, with legionaries, commanders, regional "cohorts" and a grand council. The highest rank was not a Grand Cross but a Grand aigle, a rank that wore the insignia common to a Grand Cross; the members were paid, the highest of them generously: 5,000 francs to a grand officier, 2,000 francs to a commandeur, 1,000 francs to an officier, 250 francs to a légionnaire. Napoleon famously declared, "You call these baubles, well, it is with baubles that men are led... Do you think that you would be able to make men fight by reasoning? Never; that is good only for the scholar in his study. The soldier needs glory, rewards." This has been quoted as "It is with such baubles that men are led." The order was the first modern order of merit. Under the monarchy, such orders were limited to Roman Catholics, all knights had to be noblemen.
The military decorations were the perks of the officers. The Légion d'honneur, was open to men of all ranks and professions—only merit or bravery counted; the new legionnaire had to be sworn into the Légion d'honneur. It is noteworthy that all previous orders were crosses or shared a clear Christian background, whereas the Légion d'honneur is a secular institution; the badge of the Légion d'honneur has five arms. In a decree issued on the 10 Pluviôse XIII, a grand decoration was instituted; this decoration, a cross on a large sash and a silver star with an eagle, symbol of the Napoleonic Empire, became known as the Grand aigle, in 1814 as the Grand cordon. After Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804 and established the Napoleonic nobility in 1808, award of the Légion d'honneur gave right to the title of "Knight of the Empire"; the title was made hereditary after three generations of grantees. Napoleon had dispensed 15 golden collars of the Légion d'honneur among his family and his senior ministers.
This collar was abolished in 1815. Although research is made difficult by the loss of the archives, it is known that three women who fought with the army were decorated with the order: Virginie Ghesquière, Marie-Jeanne Schelling and a nun, Sister Anne Biget; the Légion d'honneur was visible in the French Empire. The Emperor always wore it and the fashion of the time allowed for decorations to be worn most of the time; the king of Sweden therefore declined the order. Napoleon's own decorations were captured by the Prussians and were displayed in the Zeughaus in Berlin until 1945. Today, they are in Moscow. Louis XVIII changed the appearance of the order. To have done so would have angered the 35,000 to 38,000 members; the images of Napoleon and his eagle were removed and replaced by the image of King Henry IV, the popular first king of the Bourbon line. Three Bourbon fleurs-de-lys replaced the eagle on the reverse of the order. A king's crown replaced the imperial crown. In 1816, the grand cordons were renamed grand crosses and the legionnaires became knights.
The king decreed. The Légion d'honneur became the second-ranking order of knighthood of the French monarchy, after the Order of the Holy Spirit. Following the overthrow of the Bourbons in favour of King Louis Philippe I of the House of Orléans, the Bourbon monarchy's orders were once again abolished and the Légion d'honneur was restored in 1830 as the paramount decoration of the French nation; the insignia were drastically altered. In 1847, there were 47,000 members, yet another revolution in Paris brought a new design to the Légion d'honneur. A nephew of the founder, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was elected president and he restored the image of his uncle on the crosses of the order. In 1852, the first recorded woman, Angélique Duchemin, an old revolutionary of the 1789 uprising against the absolute monarchy, was admitted into the order. On 2 December 1851, President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte staged a coup d'état with the help of the armed forces, he made himself Emperor of the French one year on 2 December 1852, after a successful plebiscite.
An Imperial crown was added. During Napoleon III's reign, the first American was admitted
San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco, San Pablo and Suisun Bay estuaries in the northern part of the U. S. state of California. Although the exact boundaries of the region vary depending on the source, the Bay Area is defined by the Association of Bay Area Governments to include the nine counties that border the aforementioned estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and San Francisco. Other sources may exclude parts of or entire counties, or expand the definition to include neighboring counties that don't border the bay such as San Benito, San Joaquin, Santa Cruz. Home to 7.68 million people, Northern California's nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns and associated regional and national parks, connected by a complex multimodal transportation network. The larger combined statistical area of the region, which includes twelve counties, is the second-largest in California, the fifth-largest in the United States, the 41st-largest urban area in the world with 8.75 million people.
The Bay Area's population is ethnically diverse: for example half of the region's residents are Hispanic, African American, or Pacific Islander, all of whom have a significant presence throughout the region. The earliest archaeological evidence of human settlements in the Bay Area dates back to 3000 BC. In 1769, the Bay Area was inhabited by the Ohlone people when a Spanish exploration party led by Gaspar de Portolà entered the Bay – the first documented European visit to the Bay Area. After Mexico established independence from Spain in 1821, the region was controlled by the Mexican government until the United States purchased the territory in 1846 during the Mexican–American War. Soon after, discovery of gold in California attracted a flood of treasure seekers, many using ports in the Bay Area as an entry point. During the early years of California's statehood, state legislative business rotated between three locations in the Bay Area before a permanent state capital was established in Sacramento.
A major earthquake leveled the city of San Francisco and environs in 1906, but the region rebuilt in time to host the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exposition. During World War II, the Bay Area played a major role in America's war effort in the Asiatic-Pacific Theater, with San Francisco's Fort Mason acting as a primary embarkation point for American forces. In 1945, the United Nations Charter was signed in San Francisco, establishing the United Nations, in 1951, the Treaty of San Francisco ended the U. S.'s war with Japan. Since the Bay Area has experienced numerous political and artistic movements, developing unique local genres in music and art and establishing itself as a hotbed of progressive politics. Economically, the post-war Bay Area saw huge growth in the financial and technology industries, creating a vibrant and diverse economy with a gross domestic product of over $800 billion, home to the second highest concentration of Fortune 500 companies in the United States. Despite its urban character, the San Francisco Bay is one of California's most ecologically important habitats, providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers, supporting a number of endangered species.
The region is known for the complexity of its landforms, the result of millions of years of tectonic plate movements. Because the Bay Area is crossed by six major earthquake faults, the region is exposed to hazards presented by large earthquakes; the climate is temperate and very mild, is ideal for outdoor recreational and athletic activities such as hiking. The Bay Area is host to seven professional sports teams and is a cultural center for music and the arts, it is host to several institutions of higher education, ranging from primary schools to major research universities. Home to 101 municipalities and nine counties, governance in the Bay Area is multifaceted and involves numerous local and regional actors, each with wide-ranging and overlapping responsibilities; the borders of the San Francisco Bay Area are not delineated, the unique development patterns influenced by the region's topography, as well as unusual commute patterns caused by the presence of three central cities and employment centers located in various suburban locales, has led to considerable disagreement between local and federal definitions of the area.
Because of this, professor of geography at the University of California, Berkeley Richard Walker claimed that "no other U. S. city-region is as definitionally challenged."When the region began to develop during and after World War II, local planners settled on a nine-county definition for the Bay Area, consisting of the counties that directly border the San Francisco, San Pablo, Suisun estuaries: Alameda, Contra Costa, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara and Sonoma counties. Today, this definition is accepted by most local governmental agencies including San Francisco Regional Water Quality Control Board, Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the San Francisco Bay Restoration Authority, the Metropolitan Transportation Commission, the Association of Bay Area Governments, the latter two of which partner to deliver a Bay Area Census using the nine-county definition. Various U. S. Federal government agencies use definitions that differ from their local counterparts' nine-county definition.
For example, the Federal Communications Commission which regulates broadcast and satellite transmissions, includes nearby Colusa and Mendocino counties in their "San Francisco-Oaklan
East Bay (San Francisco Bay Area)
The eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area referred to as the East Bay, includes cities along the eastern shores of the San Francisco Bay and San Pablo Bay. The region has grown to include inland communities in Contra Costa Counties. With a population of 2.5 million in 2010, it is the most populous subregion in the Bay Area. Oakland is the third largest in the Bay Area; the city serves as a major transportation hub for the U. S. West Coast, its port is the largest in Northern California. Increased population has led to the growth of large edge cities such as Alameda, Fremont, San Ramon and Walnut Creek. Although initial development in the larger Bay Area focused on San Francisco, the coastal East Bay came to prominence in the middle of the nineteenth century as the part of the Bay Area most accessible by land from the east; the Transcontinental Railroad was completed in 1869 with its western terminus at the newly constructed Oakland Long Wharf, the new city of Oakland developed into a significant seaport.
Today the Port of Oakland is the Bay Area's largest port and the fifth largest container shipping port in the United States. In 1868, the University of California was formed from the private College of California and a new campus was built in what would become Berkeley; the 1906 San Francisco earthquake saw a large number of refugees flee to the undamaged East Bay, the region continued to grow rapidly. As the East Bay grew, the push to connect it with a more permanent link than ferry service resulted in the completion of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge in 1936; the Bay Area saw further growth in the decades following World War II, with the population doubling between 1940 and 1960, doubling again by 2000. The 1937 completion of the Caldecott Tunnel through the Berkeley Hills fueled growth further east, where there was undeveloped land. Cities in the Diablo Valley, including Concord and Walnut Creek, saw their populations increase tenfold or more between 1950 and 1970; the addition of the BART commuter rail system in 1972 further encouraged development in far-flung regions of the East Bay.
Today, the valleys east of the Berkeley Hills contain large affluent suburban communities such as Walnut Creek, San Ramon and Pleasanton. The East Bay is not a formally defined region, aside from its being described as a region inclusive of Alameda and Contra Costa counties; as development moves eastward, new areas are described as being part of the East Bay. In 1996, BART was extended from its terminus in Concord to a new station in Pittsburg, symbolically incorporating the newly expanded Delta communities of Pittsburg and Antioch as extended regions of the East Bay. Beyond the borders of Alameda County, the large population of Tracy is connected as a bedroom community housing commuters traveling to or through the East Bay. Except for some hills and ridges which exist as parklands or undeveloped land, some farmland in eastern Contra Costa and Alameda Counties, the East Bay is urbanized; the East Bay shoreline is an urban corridor with several cities exceeding 100,000 residents, including Oakland, Fremont and Berkeley.
In the inland valleys on the east side of the Berkeley Hills, the land is developed on the eastern fringe of Contra Costa county and the Tri-Valley area. In the inland valleys, the population density is the cities smaller; the only cities exceeding 100,000 residents in the inland valleys are Concord. East Bay cities include: The East Bay has a free weekly newspaper, the East Bay Express, which has reported on the culture and politics of the East Bay for over 30 years, has influenced the identification of the East Bay as a culturally defined region of the Bay Area; the free East Bay Monthly has been published since 1970. In the early years of the evolution of USA Today, during the early 1980s, they operated regional newspapers, with the region's paper entitled East Bay Today; the Solano Avenue Stroll, the oldest and largest street festival in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, is held every September on the Solano Avenue shopping district in Albany and Berkeley. The East Bay is the birthplace of many musical acts, including Creedence Clearwater Revival, Counting Crows and Today, Digital Underground, Green Day, Operation Ivy, Rancid, Set Your Goals, Tower of Power, The Pointer Sisters, MC Hammer, Tony!
Toni! Tone!, Tupac Shakur, Too Short, Spice 1, en Vogue, Pete Escovedo and Sheila E, Keyshia Cole, Mac Dre. The region is a major center for the development of rock, funk, hip hop and women's music. Bay Area thrash metal has centered on the East Bay, including the bands Exodus and Metallica, among others. Possessed and Death, both considered the first death metal bands, have roots or connections in the East Bay: Possessed formed in El Sobrante, with Death debuting nationally while in Concord. Major music venues include home arena of the Golden State Warriors. Major museums include the Oakland Museum of California, the Lawrence Hall of Science and the Chabot Space and Science Center; the East Bay Regional Parks District operates over fifty parks, many consisting of significant acreage of wildlands, in the East Bay, many directly adjacent to urban centers. Tilden Regional Park, is one of the largest regional parks (2,000 acres (8.1
A world's fair, world fair, world expo, universal exposition, or international exposition is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions are held in different parts of the world; the most recent international exhibition, Expo 2017, was held in Kazakhstan. Dubai, United Arab Emirates has been selected to host WORLD EXPO 2020. Osaka, Japan has been selected to host World Expo 2025. Since the 1928 Convention Relating to International Exhibitions came into force, the Bureau International des Expositions has served as an international sanctioning body for world's fairs. Four types of international exhibition are organised under the auspices of the BIE: World Expos, Specialized Expos, Horticultural Expos and the Triennale di Milano. Depending on their category, international exhibitions may last from three weeks to six months. World's fairs originated in the French tradition of national exhibitions, a tradition that culminated with the French Industrial Exposition of 1844 held in Paris.
This fair was followed by other national exhibitions in the United Kingdom. The best-known'first World Expo' was held in The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, United Kingdom, in 1851, under the title "Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations"; the Great Exhibition, as it is called, was an idea of Prince Albert, Queen Victoria's husband, is considered to be the first international exhibition of manufactured products. It influenced the development of several aspects of society, including art-and-design education, international trade and relations, tourism; this expo was the precedent for the many international exhibitions called world's fairs, that have continued to be held to the present time. The character of world fairs, or expositions, has evolved since the first one in 1851. Three eras can be distinguished: the era of industrialization, the era of cultural exchange, the era of nation branding; the first era, the era of "industrialization", roughtly covered the years from 1800 to 1938.
In these days, world expositions were focused on trade and displayed technological advances and inventions. World expositions were platforms for state-of-the-art technology from around the world; the world expositions of 1851 London, 1853 New York, 1862 London, 1876 Philadelphia, 1889 Paris, 1893 Chicago, 1897 Brussels, 1900 Paris, 1901 Buffalo, 1904 St. Louis, 1915 San Francisco, 1933–34 Chicago were notable in this respect. Inventions such as the telephone were first presented during this era; this era set the basic character of the world fair. The 1939–40 New York World's Fair, those that followed, took a different approach, one less focused on techology and aimed more at cultural themes and social progress. For instance, the theme of the 1939 fair was "Building the World of Tomorrow"; these fairs encouraged effective intercultural communication alongside with sharing of techological innovation. The 1967 International and Universal Exposition in Montreal was promoted under the name Expo 67.
Event organizers retired the term world's fair in favor of Expo. From World Expo 88 in Brisbane onwards, countries started to use expositions as a platform to improve their national image through their pavilions. Finland, Canada and Spain are cases in point. A major study by Tjaco Walvis called "Expo 2000 Hanover in Numbers" showed that improving national image was the main goal for 73% of the countries participating in Expo 2000. Pavilions became a kind of advertising campaign, the Expo served as a vehicle for "nation branding". According to branding expert Wally Olins, Spain used Expo'92 and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona in the same year to underscore its new position as a modern and democratic country and to show itself as a prominent member of the European Union and the global community. At Expo 2000 Hanover, countries created their own architectural pavilions, investing, on average, €12 million each. Given these costs, governments are sometimes hesitant to participate, because the ultimate benefits do not justify the costs.
While the tangible effects are difficult to measure, an independent study for the Dutch pavilion at Expo 2000 estimated that the pavilion generated around €350 million of potential revenues for the Dutch economy. It identified several key success factors for world-exposition pavilions in general. Presently, there are two types of international exhibition: Specialised Expos. World Expos known as universal expositions, are the biggest category events. At World Expos, participants build their own pavilions, they are therefore most expensive expos. Their duration may be between six months. Since 1995, the interval between two World Expos has been at least five years; the latest World Expo Expo 2015 was held in Milan, from 1 May to 31 October 2015. Specialized Expos are smaller in scope and investments and shorter in duration; these Expos were called Special Exhibitions or International Specialized Exhibitions but these terms are no longer used officially. Their total surface area must not exceed 25
The Call of the Wild
The Call of the Wild is a short adventure novel by Jack London published in 1903 and set in Yukon, during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush, when strong sled dogs were in high demand. The central character of the novel is a dog named Buck; the story opens at a ranch in Santa Clara Valley, when Buck is stolen from his home and sold into service as a sled dog in Alaska. He becomes progressively feral in the harsh environment, where he is forced to fight to survive and dominate other dogs. By the end, he sheds the veneer of civilization, relies on primordial instinct and learned experience to emerge as a leader in the wild. London spent a year in the Yukon, his observations form much of the material for the book; the story was serialized in the Saturday Evening Post in the summer of 1903 and was published a month in book form. The book's great popularity and success made a reputation for London; as early as 1923, the story was adapted to film, it has since seen several more cinematic adaptations. The story opens with Buck, a large and powerful St. Bernard-Scotch Shepherd, living in California's Santa Clara Valley as the pampered pet of rich Judge Miller and his family.
However, he is stolen by the gardener's assistant and sold to finance his gambling addiction. He is shipped to Seattle. Put in a crate, he is ill-treated; when released, he attacks his overseer, known only as the "man in the red sweater" but this man teaches the "law of the club", hitting Buck until he is sufficiently cowed. Buck is sold to a pair of French-Canadian dispatchers from the Canadian government, François and Perrault, who take him with them to the Klondike region of Canada. There, they train him as a sled dog. From his teammates, he learns to survive cold winter nights and the pack society. A rivalry develops between the vicious, quarrelsome lead dog, Spitz. Buck beats Spitz in a fight. Spitz is killed by the pack after his defeat by Buck, Buck becomes the leader of the team; when Francois and Perrault reach Dawson with their dispatches, are given new orders from the Canadian government, the team is sold to a "Scottish half-breed" man, working the mail service. The dogs must carry heavy loads to the mining areas, the journeys they make are tiresome and long.
One of the team, a morose husky named Dave, becomes sick and is shot. Buck's next owners are a trio of stampeders from the United States, who are inexperienced at surviving in the Northern wilderness, they struggle to control the sled and ignore helpful advice from others, in particular the warnings that the spring melt poses dangers. They overfeed the dogs and starve them when the food runs out; some dogs on the team die from either neglect or sickness. On their journey they meet John Thornton, an experienced outdoorsman, who notices the dogs have been poorly treated and are in a weakened condition, he warns the trio against crossing the river. Exhausted and sensing the danger ahead, Buck refuses and continues to lie unmoving in the snow. After Buck is beaten by Hal, Thornton recognizes him to be a remarkable dog. Disgusted by the driver's treatment of Buck, Thornton hits Hal with the butt of his axe, cuts Buck free from his traces, tells the trio he is keeping him, much to Hal's displeasure. After some argument, the trio leaves and tries to cross the river, but as Thornton warned, the ice breaks, the three fall into the river and drown, along with the sled and neglected dogs.
Buck comes to grow devoted to Thornton as he nurses him back to health. He saves Thornton. After Thornton takes him on trips to pan for gold, a bonanza king, named Matthewson, wagers Thornton on the dog's strength and devotion. Buck wins by breaking a half-ton sled free of the frozen ground, pulling it 100 yards and winning US$1,600 in gold dust. A king of the Skookum Benches offers a large sum to buy Buck, but Thornton has grown fond of him and declines. Using his winnings, John Thornton elects to continue searching for gold. While Thornton and his two friends Pete and Hans are panning in a campsite, Buck explores the wilderness and socializes with a timber wolf from a local pack. However, Buck decides not to join the wolves and elects to return to Thornton, mirroring John's refusal to sell Buck. However, Buck returns to the campsite to find Hans and Pete murdered sees John Thornton has suffered the same fate. Buck finds out. Buck kills the natives to avenge Thornton, he is attacked by an entire pack of wolves.
Buck wins the fight finds that the same timber wolf he had socialized with was in the pack he fought. Buck follows the wolf and its pack into the forest, answers the call of the wild; the legend of Buck is spread among other Indian tribes as the "Ghost Dog of the Northland". Buck comes out of the backwoods once a year on the anniversary of his attack on the Yeehats, at the former campsite where he was last with John Thornton and Pete, in order to mourn their deaths. California native Jack London had traveled around the United States as a hobo, returned to California to finish high school, spent a year in college at Berkeley, when in 1897 he went to the Klondike by way of Alaska during the height of the Klondike Gold Rush, he said of the experience: "It was in the Klondike I found myself."He left California in July and traveled by boat