Arthur Rackham

Arthur Rackham was an English book illustrator. He is recognised as one of the leading literary figures during the Golden Age of British book illustration, his work is noted for its robust pen and ink drawings, which were combined with the use of watercolour. Rackham's 51 colour pieces for the Early American tale became a turning point in the production of books since – through colour-separated printing – it featured the accurate reproduction of colour artwork; some of his best-known works include the illustrations for Rip Van Winkle, Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm. Rackham was born in Lewisham still part of Kent, as one of 12 children. In 1884, at the age of 17, he was sent on an ocean voyage to Australia to improve his fragile health, accompanied by two aunts. At the age of 18, he worked as a clerk at the Westminster Fire Office and began studying part-time at the Lambeth School of Art. In 1892, he left his job and started working for the Westminster Budget as a reporter and illustrator.

His first book illustrations were published in 1893 in To the Other Side by Thomas Rhodes, but his first serious commission was in 1894 for The Dolly Dialogues, the collected sketches of Anthony Hope, who went on to write The Prisoner of Zenda. Book illustrating became Rackham's career for the rest of his life. By the turn of the century, Rackham had developed a reputation for pen and ink fantasy illustration with richly illustrated gift books such as The Ingoldsby Legends, Gulliver's Travels and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm; this was developed further through the austere years of the Boer War with regular contributions to children's periodicals such as Little Folks and Cassell's Magazine. In 1901 he moved to Wychcombe Studios near Haverstock Hill, in 1903 married his neighbour Edyth Starkie. Edith suffered a miscarriage in 1904, but the couple had one daughter, Barbara, in 1908. Although acknowledged as an accomplished black-and-white book illustrator for some years, it was the publication of his full colour plates to Washington Irving's Rip Van Winkle by Heinemann in 1905 that brought him into public attention, his reputation being confirmed the following year with J.

M. Barrie's Peter Pan in Kensington Gardens, published by Stoughton. Income from the books was augmented by annual exhibitions of the artwork at the Leicester Galleries. Rackham won a gold medal at the Milan International Exhibition in 1906 and another one at the Barcelona International Exposition in 1912, his works were included in numerous exhibitions, including one at the Louvre in Paris in 1914. From 1906 the family lived in Chalcot Gardens, near Haverstock Hill, until moving from London to Houghton, West Sussex in 1920. In 1929 the family settled into a newly built property in Surrey. Arthur Rackham died in 1939 of cancer at his home. Arthur Rackham is regarded as one of the leading illustrators from the'Golden Age' of British book illustration which encompassed the years from 1890 until the end of the First World War. During that period, there was a strong market for high quality illustrated books which were given as Christmas gifts. Many of Rackham's books were produced in a de luxe limited edition vellum bound and signed, as well as a smaller, less ornately bound quarto'trade' edition.

This was sometimes followed by a more modestly presented octavo edition in subsequent years for popular books. The onset of the war in 1914 curtailed the market for such quality books, the public's taste for fantasy and fairies declined in the 1920s. Arthur Rackham's works have become popular since his death, both in North America and Britain, his images have been used by the greeting card industry and many of his books are still in print or have been available in both paperback and hardback editions. His original drawings and paintings are keenly sought at the major international art auction houses. Rackham's illustrations were chiefly based on robust pen and India ink drawings. Rackham perfected his own uniquely expressive line from his background in journalistic illustration, paired with subtle use of watercolour, a technique which he was able to exploit due to technological developments in photographic reproduction. With this development, Rackham's illustrations no longer needed an engraver to cut clean lines on a wood or petal plate for printing because the artist had his works photographed and mechanically reproduced.

Rackham would first block in shapes and details of the drawing with a soft pencil, for the more elaborate colour plates utilising one of a small selection of compositional devices. Over this, he would carefully work in lines of pen and India ink, removing the pencil traces after the drawing had begun to take form. For colour pictures, Rackham preferred the 3-colour process or trichromatic printing, which reproduced the delicate half-tones of photography through letterpress printing, he would begin painting by building up multiple thin washes of watercolour creating translucent tints. One of the disadvantages of the 3-colour printing process in the early years was that definition could be lost in the final print. Rackham would sometimes compensate for this by over-inking his drawings once more after painting, he would go on to expand the use of silhouette cuts in illustration work in the period after the First World War, as exemplified by his Sleeping Beauty and Cinderella. Rackham contributed both colour and monotone illustrations towards the works incorporating his images – and in the case of Hawthorne's Wonder Book, he provided a number of part-coloured block images si

Fuji (train)

The Fuji was a sleeper train that operated between Tokyo and Ōita in Japan. Operated by the Kyushu Railway Company and classified as a limited express service, it was discontinued from the start of the revised timetable on 14 March 2009; the train was coupled with the Hayabusa sleeper between Moji Station. The Hayabusa continued to Hakata and Kumamoto; the 1,240 km Tokyo-Ōita run took just over seventeen hours, leaving Tokyo at 18:03 and arriving in Ōita at 11:17. The return service left Ōita at 16:48 and arrived in Tokyo at 09:58; the Fuji began as a long-distance daytime service in 1912, although the train did not receive a name until September 1929. It was one of two long-distance services on the Tōkaidō-Sanyō corridor; the other train on the route, named Sakura, was aimed at middle-class travelers, while Fuji had higher-class rooms, dining cars serving Western food and a "Momoyama" observation car. Fuji and Sakura were the first named trains in Japan. Fuji services operated between Tokyo and Shimonoseki Station.

Connecting ferries were available from Shimonoseki to Pusan, from which passengers could connect to train services bound for China and Europe. In November 1942, service was extended from where ferries were available to Shanghai. Fuji services were suspended in April 1944 due to Japan's deteriorating situation in World War II; the Fuji name was used on a Shinjuku - Kawaguchiko service in 1950, but did not return to the Tokaido corridor until 1 October 1961, when the Fuji service resumed as a daytime limited express between Tokyo and Kobe using 151 series EMUs. After the Tokaido Shinkansen opened on 1 October 1964, the Fuji became a Tokyo-Ōita sleeper service using 20 series sleeping cars. Between 1965 and 1980, the service was extended to Nishi-Kagoshima Station, becoming the longest train service in Japanese history: the 1,574.2 km Tokyo-Kagoshima run took over 24 hours. From 1980 to 1997, the Fuji operated between Miyazaki. Dining car service was discontinued from March 1993. From 1 March 2005, the Fuji was combined with the Hayabusa service between Tokyo and Moji, following the discontinuation of the Sakura service which operated in conjunction with the Hayabusa.

The Fuji was discontinued in its entirety from the start of the revised timetable on 14 March 2009, due to declining ridership. The train was formed of 14 series sleeping cars based at JR Kyushu's Kumamoto Depot consisting of six cars in the Hayabusa portion and six cars in the Fuji portion; the train was hauled by a JR West Class EF66 electric locomotive between Tokyo and Shimonoseki, a JR Kyushu Class EF81-400 electric locomotive between Shimonoseki and Moji, by a JR Kyushu Class ED76 electric locomotive from Moji to Ōita. Blue Train Hayabusa & Fuji train information JR Kyushu website

Magdalene (album)

Magdalene is the second studio album by English singer and songwriter FKA Twigs. It was released on 8 November 2019 by Young Turks, it is her first project since her EP M3LL155X, first full-length record since LP1. FKA Twigs produced the album herself, with a wide range of co-producers including Nicolas Jaar, Daniel Lopatin, Benny Blanco, Michael Uzowuru and Noah Goldstein, who served as executive producer alongside Twigs; the singles "Cellophane", "Holy Terrain" featuring American rapper Future, "Home with You", "Sad Day" were released on 24 April, 9 September, 7 October, 4 November, respectively. The album will be supported by the Magdalene Tour, beginning in North America on 2 November and continuing in Europe on 25 November. On 9 September 2019, FKA Twigs announced that her second studio album Magdalene would be released on 25 October; the album cover was designed by English artist Matthew Stone. Barnett wrote in a press release announcing her second studio album: I never thought heartbreak could be so all-encompassing.

I never thought that my body could stop working to the point that I couldn't express myself physically in the ways that I have always loved and found so much solace. I have always practiced my way into being the best I could be, but I couldn't do that this time, I was left with no option but to tear every process down, but the process of making this album has allowed me for the first time, in the most real way, to find compassion when I have been at my most ungraceful and fractured. I at that moment found hope in Magdalene. To her I am forever grateful; the lead single "Cellophane" was released on 24 April 2019. The second single "Holy Terrain" featuring American rapper Future was released on 9 September. "Home with You" was released on 7 October after the album's release date was pushed from 25 October to 8 November. "Sad Day" was released on 4 November. For the Magdalene album tour, FKA Twigs learned pole wushu. Magdalene was met with widespread critical acclaim. At Metacritic, the album received an average score of 88, based on 28 reviews.

Aggregator AnyDecentMusic? gave it 8.5 out of 10, based on their assessment of the critical consensus. Heather Phares of AllMusic gave a positive review, stating "At once more delicate and more concentrated than any of her previous work, Magdalene is a testament to the strength and skill it takes to make music this fragile and revealing. Like the dancer she is, Barnett pushes through pain in pursuit of beauty and truth, the leaps she makes are breathtaking." Alexandra Pollard of The Independent said, "The follow-up to 2014's LP1 is the sound of a woman teetering on the brink of collapse, gathering herself, erupting into a kind of defiance." Magdalene was named "Album of the Week" by The Line of Best Fit, reviewer Jack Bray called it the "fullest and most developed work from FKA Twigs to date", writing that Barnett "comprehensively opens herself up to consider the traumas of her past. It is an unsparing, anguished release in which we see an artist laid bare and tapping into a more natural and resonant version of her sound and self."

Reviewing the album for NME, El Hunt stated "Tahliah Barnett's been to tabloid hell and back and experienced gruelling ill-health, all of, explored on her huge, panoramic second album." The Daily Telegraph's Neil McCormick wrote, "Magdalene is a magnificently twisted sci-fi torch album, an enthralling account of love, loss and recovery. It is erotic and neurotic and revelatory, summoning the spirits of such iconoclastic talents as David Bowie, Kate Bush and Björk while affirming its own unique personality." Exclaim! Critic Ryan B. Patrick said, "The intent and expression is pure, but the ominous feel of the entire project overwhelms, in parts, with a forlorn sense of distance and dread – which appears to be the point – yet its subsuming sense of femininity, free will and determinism paradoxically draws us in."Josh Gray from Clash enjoyed the album, saying, "Almost every track on Magdalene is built upwards from a simple piano line, hammering home the impression of someone delicately yet decisively knitting themselves back together after coming undone."

Emily Mackay of The Observer saying "Magdalene is a much starker, more direct album than 2014's LP1, most noticeably in twigs's voice, which moves with sleek power from delicate operatic acrobatics to muscular intimacy. It's bracingly frank." Pitchfork awarded Magdalene the distinction of "Best New Music", with Julianne Escobedo Shepherd describing it as "her best album so far", saying that it "is as introspective as anything she's written, but more centers her voice as a conduit for plain emotion". In a mixed review, The Guardian's Alexis Petridis stated: "Sometimes the results are stunning... Sometimes, the songs are weirdly stifling." Credits are adapted from FKA Twigs' Instagram. Notes ^ signifies an additional producer ^ signifies a vocal producer All track titles are stylised in all lowercase. Samples "Holy Terrain" contains a sample from "Moma Hubava", composed by Petar Lyondev, performed by Le Mystère des Voix Bulgares, conducted by Prof. Dora Hristova and recorded by KEXP. "Fallen Alien" contains a sample from "Storm Clouds Rising" by the Florida Mass Choir.

Credits are adapted from the album's liner notes and FKA Twigs' Instagram