RMS Campania was a British ocean liner owned by the Cunard Steamship Line Shipping Company, built by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company of Govan and launched on Thursday, 8 September 1892. Identical in dimensions and specifications to her sister ship RMS Lucania, Campania was the largest and fastest passenger liner afloat when she entered service in 1893, she crossed the Atlantic in less than six days, on her second voyage in 1893, she won the prestigious Blue Riband held by the Inman Liner SS City of Paris. The following year, Lucania won the Blue Riband and kept the title until 1898 - Campania being the marginally slower of the two sisters. Campania and Lucania were financed by the Admiralty; the deal was that Cunard would receive money from the Government in return for constructing vessels to admiralty specifications and on condition that the vessels go on the naval reserve list to serve as armed merchant cruisers when required by the government. The contracts were awarded to the Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, which at the time was one of Britain’s biggest producers of warships.
Plans were soon drawn up for a large, twin-screw steamer powered by triple expansion engines, construction began in 1891, just 43 days after Cunards' order. Campania and Lucania had the largest triple expansion engines fitted to a Cunard ship the largest in the world at the time, rank amongst the largest of the type constructed, they represent the limits of development for this kind of technology, superseded a few years by turbines. The engines were 47 feet in height, reaching from the double-bottom floor of the engine room to the top of the superstructure - over five decks; each engine had five cylinders: each measuring 37 in in diameter. They operated with a stroke of 69 in. Steam was raised from twelve double-end Scotch boilers, each measuring 18 ft in diameter and having eight furnaces. There was one single-ended boiler for auxiliary machinery and one smaller donkey boiler. Boiler pressure was 165 psi, enabling the engines to produce 31,000 ihp, which translated to an average speed of 22 knots, a record speed of 23½ knots.
Normal operating speed for the engines was about 79 rpm. Each engine was located in a separate watertight engine compartment. In the case of a hull breach in that area, only one engine room would be flooded, the ship would still have use of the adjacent engine. In addition to this, Campania had 16 transverse water-tight compartments with water-tight doors that could be manually closed on command from the telegraph on the bridge, she could remain afloat with any two compartments flooded. During Campania's first trips across the Atlantic, hull vibration was noted to be a problem and sea-spray had been a nuisance to passengers in heavy seas; this led to design modifications being made to Lucania, still under construction. The modifications to Lucania proved to be successful, so Cunard decided to make similar modifications to Campania. Campania was returned to the builder's yard and her aft section was strengthened to reduce the vibration, her promenade deck was extended over the forward and aft well-decks.
The sides of the well-decks were enclosed by plating which extended some way along the lower promenade. While the aft well deck was left open from above, the forward well deck and gangway over it were dispensed with completely; the new forward design would be echoed 14 years in the design of the Lusitania and Mauretania. In their day and her sister offered the most luxurious first-class passenger accommodation available. According to maritime historian Basil Greenhill, in his book Merchant Steamships, the interiors of Campania and Lucania represented Victorian opulence at its peak — an expression of a confident and prosperous age that would never be quite repeated on any other ship. Greenhill remarked that vessels' interiors degenerated into "grandiose vulgarity, the classical syntax debased to mere jargon". All the first-class public rooms, the en-suite staterooms of the upper deck, were heavily paneled in oak, satinwood or mahogany. Velvet curtains hung aside the windows and portholes, while the furniture was richly upholstered in matching design.
The predominant style was Art Nouveau, although other styles were in use, such as "French Renaissance", applied to the forward first-class entrance hall, whilst the 1st class smoking room was in "Elizabethan style", comprising heavy oak panels surrounding the first open fireplace to be used aboard a passenger liner. The finest room in the vessels was the first class dining saloon, over 10' high and measuring 98' long by 63' wide. Over the central part of this room was a well that rose through three decks to a skylight, it was done in a style described as "modified Italian style", with the a coffered ceiling in white and gold, supported by ionic pillars. The paneled walls were done in Spanish mahogany, inlaid with ivory and richly carved with pilasters and decorations. In 1901, her sister Lucania became the first Cunard liner to be fitted with a Marconi wireless system, followed a few months by Campania. Shortly after these installations, the two ships made history by exchanging the first wireless-transmitted ice bulletin.
Campania earned one more distinction in the history of wireless communication in 1905, when she became the first liner to have permanent radio connection to coastal stations around the world. From that time on, a sh
RMS Carmania (1905)
RMS Carmania was a British ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown & Company for the Cunard Line. In World War I, Carmania was converted to an armed merchant cruiser; when launched and her running mate, were the largest ships in the Cunard fleet. Carmania had steam turbines and Caronia had quadruple-expansion engines; the identical ships with the two different engine suites was seen by the industry as an opportunity to compare operations and removed all doubt about the advantages of turbine engines. Another feature that differentiated the two liners was that Carmania had two tall forward deck ventilator cowls, which were absent on Caronia. Carmania left Liverpool 2 December 1905 for her maiden voyage to New York arriving 10 December making the voyage in 7 days, 9 hours and 31 minutes for 15.97 knots over the 2,835 mile route. The ship traveled the New York-Liverpool route from 1905 to 1910. In the spring of 1906, she carried H. G. Wells to North America for the first time.
Greater ships are to follow and greater". Carmania suffered a major fire in June 1910. In October 1913, while eastward bound, she responded to a distress call from Volturno to pick up survivors in a storm, which resulted in many awards for gallantry being presented to various members of her crew and Captain James Clayton Barr. Following the outbreak of World War I, Carmania was converted into an armed merchant cruiser, equipped with eight 4.7-inch guns, put under the command of Captain Noel Grant. She sailed from Liverpool to Shell Bay in Bermuda, she subsequently engaged and sank the German merchant cruiser SMS Cap Trafalgar, during the Battle of Trindade. At the time Cap Trafalgar's appearance had been altered to resemble Carmania; the ship suffered several casualties to her crew. After repairs in Gibraltar, she patrolled the coast of Portugal and the Atlantic islands for the next two years. In 1916, she was summoned to assist in the Gallipoli campaign. From March 1916, she was used as a troop ship.
After the war, she transported Canadian troops back from Europe. By 1919, she returned to passenger liner service and was refitted in 1923. In 1932, she was scrapped at Blyth; the Carmania's bell is on display aboard the permanently moored HQS Wellington at Embankment, London, UK. Video dedicated to RMS Carmania advertisement poster for "Carmania" and "Caronia"
The Saxons were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany. Earlier, in the late Roman Empire, the name was used to refer to Germanic inhabitants of what is now England, as a word something like the "Viking", as a term for raiders. In Merovingian times, continental Saxons were associated with the coast of what became Normandy. Though sometimes described as fighting inland, coming in conflict with the Franks and Thuringians, no clear homeland can be defined. There is a single classical reference to a smaller homeland of an early Saxon tribe, but it is disputed. According to this proposal, the Saxons' earliest area of settlement is believed to have been Northern Albingia; this general area is close to the probable homeland of the Angles. In contrast, the British "Saxons", today referred to in English as Anglo-Saxons, became a single nation bringing together Germanic peoples with the Romanized populations, establishing long-lasting post-Roman kingdoms equivalent to those formed by the Franks on the continent.
Their earliest weapons and clothing south of the Thames were based on late Roman military fashions, but immigrants north of the Thames showed a stronger North German influence. The term "Anglo-Saxon" came into use by the 8th century to distinguish English Saxons from continental Saxons, but the Saxons of Britain and those of Old Saxony continued to be referred to as'Saxons' in an indiscriminate manner in the languages of Britain and Ireland. However, while the English Saxons were no longer raiders, the political history of the continental Saxons is unclear until the time of the conflict between their semi-legendary hero Widukind and the Frankish emperor Charlemagne. While the continental Saxons are no longer a distinctive ethnic group or country, their name lives on in the names of several regions and states of Germany, including Lower Saxony, as well as the two states that make up Upper Saxony, known today as Saxony-Anhalt and Saxony; the latter have their names from dynastic history, not their ethnic history.
The Saxons may have derived their name from a kind of knife for which they were known. The seax has a lasting symbolic impact in the English counties of Essex and Middlesex, both of which feature three seaxes in their ceremonial emblem, their names, along with those of Sussex and Wessex, contain a remnant of the word "Saxon". The Elizabethan era play Edmund Ironside suggests the Saxon name derives from the Latin saxa: Their names discover what their natures are, More hard than stones, yet not stones indeed. In the Celtic languages, the words designating English nationality derive from the Latin word Saxones; the most prominent example, a loanword in English, is the Scottish word Sassenach, used by Scots- or Scottish English-speakers in the 21st century as a jocular term for an English person. The Oxford English Dictionary gives 1771 as the date of the earliest written use of the word in English, it derives from the Scottish Gaelic Sasannach. The Gaelic name for England is Sasann, Sasannach means "English" in reference to people and things, though not to the English Language, Beurla.
Sasanach, the Irish word for an Englishman, has the same derivation, as do the words used in Welsh to describe the English people and the language and things English in general: Saesneg and Seisnig. Cornish terms the English Sawsnek, from the same derivation. In the 16th century Cornish-speakers used the phrase Meea navidna cowza sawzneck to feign ignorance of the English language."England" in Scottish Gaelic is Sasann. Other examples include the Welsh Saesneg, Irish Sasana, Breton saoz, Cornish Sowson and Pow Sows for'Land of Saxons'; the label "Saxons" became attached to German settlers who migrated during the 13th century to southeastern Transylvania. From Transylvania, some of these Saxons migrated to neighbouring Moldavia, as the name of the town Sas-cut shows. Sascut lies in the part of Moldavia, today part of Romania. During Georg Friederich Händel's visit to Italy, much was made of his origins in Saxony; the Finns and Estonians have changed their usage of the root Saxon over the centuries to apply now to the whole country of Germany and the Germans.
The Finnish word sakset reflects the name of the old Saxon single-edged sword - seax - from which the name "Saxon" derives. In Estonian, saks means "a nobleman" or, colloquially, "a wealthy or powerful person"; the word survives as the surnames of Saß/Sass and Sachs. The Dutch female first name, Saskia meant "A Saxon woman". Following the downfall of Henry the Lion, the subsequent splitt
A clipper was a fast sailing ship of the middle third of the 19th century. Developed from a type of schooner known as Baltimore clippers, clipper ships had three masts and a square rig, they were narrow for their length, small by 19th century standards, could carry limited bulk freight, had a large total sail area. Clipper ships were constructed in British and American shipyards, though France, the Netherlands and other nations produced some. Clippers sailed all over the world on the trade routes between the United Kingdom and its colonies in the east, in transatlantic trade, on the New York-to-San Francisco route around Cape Horn during the California Gold Rush. Dutch clippers were built beginning in the 1850s for the tea passenger service to Java; the boom years of the clipper ship era began in 1843 as a result of a growing demand for a more rapid delivery of tea from China. It continued under the stimulating influence of the discovery of gold in California and Australia in 1848 and 1851, ended with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869.
The term "clipper" most derives from the verb "clip", which in former times meant, among other things, to run or fly swiftly. Dryden, the English poet, used the word "clip" to describe the swift flight of a falcon in the 17th century when he said "And, with her eagerness the quarry missed, Straight flies at check, clips it down the wind." The ships appeared to clip along the ocean water. The term "clip" became synonymous with "speed" and was applied to fast horses and sailing ships. "To clip it," and "going at a good clip," remained familiar expressions in the early 20th century. While the first application of the term "clipper" in a nautical sense is by no means certain, it seems to have had an American origin when applied to the Baltimore clippers of the late 18th century; when these vessels of a new model were built, which were intended to "clip" over the waves rather than plough through them, the improved type of craft became known as "clippers" because of their speed. In England the nautical term "clipper" appeared a little later.
The Oxford English Dictionary says its earliest quotation for "clipper" is from 1830. This does not mean, that little British opium clippers from prior to 1830 were not called "opium clippers" just as they are today. Carl C. Cutler reports the first newspaper appearance was in 1835, by the term was familiar. An undated painting of the British Water Witch built in 1831 is labeled OPIUM CLIPPER "WATER WITCH" so the term had at least passed into common usage during the time that this ship sailed. There is no single definition of the characteristics of a clipper ship, but mariner and author Alan Villiers describes them as follows:To sailors, three things made a ship a clipper, she must be sharp-lined. She must carry the utmost spread of canvas, and she must use that sail and night, fair weather and foul. Optimized for speed, they were too fine-lined to carry much cargo. Clippers carried extra sails such as skysails and moonrakers on the masts, studding sails on booms extending out from the hull or yards, which required extra sailors to handle them.
In conditions where other ships would shorten sail, clippers drove on, heeling so much that their lee rails were in the water. A clipper is confused with a windjammer, but they are different types of ship. Clippers were optimized for speed only and carrying priced cargo in small quantities, such as tea, spices or opium. Whereas clippers had short lifespans—most were scrapped after only two decades of service—windjammers could have fifty or more years of service life, several windjammers are still today in use as school ships; the first ships to which the term "clipper" seems to have been applied were the Baltimore clippers. Baltimore clippers were topsail schooners developed in the Chesapeake Bay before the American Revolution, which reached their zenith between 1795 and 1815, they were small exceeding 200 tons OM, modelled after French luggers. Some were armed in the War of 1812, sailing under Letters of Marque and Reprisal, when the type—exemplified by Chasseur, launched at Fells Point, Baltimore in 1814—became known for her incredible speed.
Clippers, running the British blockade of Baltimore, came to be recognized for speed rather than cargo space. Speed was required for the Chinese opium trade between England and China. Small, sharp-bowed British vessels were the result. An early example, today known as an opium clipper, was Transit of 1819, she was followed by many more. Meanwhile, Baltimore Clippers still continued to be built, were built for the China opium trade running opium between India and China, a trade that only became unprofitable for American shipowners in 1849. Ann McKim is considered to be the original clipper ship, she was built in Baltimore in 1833 and was the first attempt at building a larger swift vessel in the United States. Ann McKim, 494 tons OM, was built on the enlarged lines of a Baltimore clipper, with raked stem, counter stern and square rig, she was built in Baltimore in 1833 by the Williamson shipyard. Although Ann McKim was the first large clipper ship constructed, it cannot be said that she founded the clipper ship era, or that she directly influenced shipbuilders, since no other ship was built like her.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Cunard Line is a British–American cruise line based at Carnival House at Southampton, operated by Carnival UK and owned by Carnival Corporation & plc. Since 2011, Cunard and its three ships have been registered in Bermuda. In 1839 Samuel Cunard, a Halifax, Nova Scotia, was awarded the first British transatlantic steamship mail contract, the next year formed the British and North American Royal Mail Steam-Packet Company together with Robert Napier, the famous Scottish steamship engine designer and builder, to operate the line's four pioneer paddle steamers on the Liverpool–Halifax–Boston route. For most of the next 30 years, Cunard held the Blue Riband for the fastest Atlantic voyage. However, in the 1870s Cunard fell behind the White Star Line and the Inman Line. To meet this competition, in 1879 the firm was reorganised as the Cunard Steamship Company, Ltd, to raise capital. In 1902 White Star joined the American-owned International Mercantile Marine Co. and the British Government provided Cunard with substantial loans and a subsidy to build two superliners needed to retain its competitive position.
Mauretania held the Blue Riband from 1909 to 1929. The sinking of her running mate Lusitania in 1915 was one of the causes of the United States' entering the First World War. In the late 1920s, Cunard faced new competition when the Germans and French built large prestige liners. Cunard was forced to suspend construction on its own new superliner because of the Great Depression. In 1934 the British Government offered Cunard loans to finish Queen Mary and to build a second ship, Queen Elizabeth, on the condition that Cunard merged with the ailing White Star line to form Cunard-White Star Ltd. Cunard owned two-thirds of the new company. Cunard purchased White Star's share in 1947. Upon the end of the Second World War, Cunard regained its position as the largest Atlantic passenger line. By the mid-1950s, it operated 12 ships to the United States and Canada. After 1958, transatlantic passenger ships became unprofitable because of the introduction of jet airliners. Cunard undertook a brief foray into air travel via the "Cunard Eagle" and "BOAC Cunard" airlines, but withdrew from the airliner market in 1966.
Cunard withdrew from its year-round service in 1968 to concentrate on cruising and summer transatlantic voyages for vacationers. The Queens were replaced by Queen Elizabeth 2, designed for the dual role. In 1998 Cunard was acquired by the Carnival Corporation, accounted for 8.7% of that company's revenue in 2012. In 2004, QE2 was replaced on the transatlantic runs by Queen Mary 2; the line operates Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth. As of 2019, Cunard is the only shipping company to operate a scheduled passenger service between Europe and North America; the British Government started operating monthly mail brigs from Falmouth, Cornwall, to New York in 1756. These ships carried no cargo. In 1818, the Black Ball Line opened a scheduled New York–Liverpool service with clipper ships, beginning an era when American sailing packets dominated the North Atlantic saloon-passenger trade that lasted until the introduction of steamships. A Committee of Parliament decided in 1836 that to become more competitive, the mail packets operated by the Post Office should be replaced by private shipping companies.
The Admiralty assumed responsibility for managing the contracts. The famed Arctic explorer Admiral Sir William Edward Parry was appointed as Comptroller of Steam Machinery and Packet Service in April 1837. Nova Scotians led by their young Assembly Speaker, Joseph Howe, lobbied for steam service to Halifax. On his arrival in London in May 1838, Howe discussed the enterprise with his fellow Nova Scotian Samuel Cunard, a shipowner, visiting London on business. Cunard and Howe were associates and Howe owed Cunard £300. Cunard returned to Halifax to raise capital, Howe continued to lobby the British government; the Rebellions of 1837 were ongoing and London realized that the proposed Halifax service was important for the military. That November, Parry released a tender for North Atlantic monthly mail service to Halifax beginning in April 1839 using steamships with 300 horsepower; the Great Western Steamship Company, which had opened its pioneer Bristol–New York service earlier that year, bid £45,000 for a monthly Bristol–Halifax–New York service using three ships of 450 horsepower.
While British American, the other pioneer transatlantic steamship company, did not submit a tender, the St. George Steam Packet Company, owner of Sirius, bid £45,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax service and £65,000 for a monthly Cork–Halifax–New York service; the Admiralty rejected both tenders. Cunard, back in Halifax did not know of the tender until after the deadline, he returned to London and started negotiations with Admiral Parry, Cunard's good friend from when Parry was a young officer stationed in Halifax 20 years earlier. Cunard offered Parry a fortnightly service beginning in May 1840. While Cunard did not own a steamship, he had been an investor in an earlier steamship venture, Royal William, owned coal mines in Nova Scotia. Cunard's major backer was Robert Napier whose Robert Napier and Sons was the Royal Navy's supplier of steam engines, he had the strong backing of Nova Scotian political leaders at the time when London needed to rebuild support in British North America after the rebellion.
Over Great Western's protests, in May 1839 Parry accepted Cunard's tender of £55,000 for a three-ship Liverpool–Halifax service with an extension to Boston and
HMS Excellent (shore establishment)
HMS Excellent is a Royal Navy "stone frigate" sited on Whale Island near Portsmouth in Hampshire. HMS Excellent is itself part of the Maritime Warfare School, with a Headquarters at HMS Collingwood, although a number of lodger units are resident within the site, the principal of, the Headquarters of Fleet Commander. In the 1829 a Commander George Smith advocated the establishment of a Naval School of Gunnery. Smith was given oversight and set up Excellent not only as a training establishment but as a platform for experimental firing of new weapons. In 1832 Smith was replaced in command by Captain Thomas Hastings, under whom the school grew both numerically and in reputation, as trained gunners began to prove their effectiveness in combat situations. In 1834 the original Excellent was replaced by the second rate HMS Boyne, duly renamed Excellent. In 1845 Captain Henry Ducie Chads took over command of Excellent in succession to Hastings, he remained in post until 1854, by which time the Admiralty had purchased'Whaley Island'.
Chads was succeeded first by Captain Thomas Maitland and in 1857, by Richard Hewlett. In December 1859 the first-rate Queen Charlotte took over the role of gunnery training ship and was renamed Excellent. In 1863 Hewlett was replaced by Captain Astley Cooper Key, in turn succeeded by Captain Arthur Hood some three years later. By this time, a rifle range had been established on the island for the use of HMS Excellent and the first building appeared there, the land having been somewhat drained and levelled. Under Hood's leadership a torpedo section was set up within the school, it was under Fisher's command, in the 1880s, that approval was given to move the gunnery school ashore, on to Whale Island. The initial proposal had come from a Lieutenant Percy Scott, who used the island as a running track; the island had grown in size since the 1850s: indeed, up until the early 1890s excavated spoil from the expansion of the Dockyard was conveyed there, using convict labour, to build the island up. Scott returned to Excellent as an instructor in 1883 and took the opportunity to submit a detailed proposal to Fisher, accepted.
The first buildings of the shore establishment were begun in 1885 and building work continued alongside the tasks of draining and levelling the land. By 1891 the whole operation had moved ashore and the old ship was paid off. Centred on a large open drill ground, the site includes the officers' mess in a range to the north with rows of barracks blocks for ratings arrayed behind. To the west, opposite the Quarterdeck, were long gun battery sheds. Firing training took place on the batteries and all different varieties of guns were kept on site for instruction on their maintenance and operation. Full-sized dummy gun turrets were provided for training purposes. Seagoing training took place up until 1957 on a series of battleships and destroyers that were attached to the facility. From the late 1950s guided missile training was provided; the Portsmouth Field Gun Crew, competing in the Royal Navy field gun competition at the Royal Tournament, used to be based at the site. A small museum in the Quarterdeck block preserves artefacts from Excellent's days as a gunnery school.
The gunnery school closed in 1985 whereupon HMS Excellent was decommissioned. The site became part of HMS Nelson; the establishment was recommissioned as HMS Excellent in 1994 following the closure of the old HMS Phoenix in nearby Tipner and Horsea Island, the relocation of the school of Fire Fighting and Damage Control from there to Whale Island. The following list goes as far as 1984, it shows the date of appointment, rank and decorations held at the time. In some cases a captain held several sequential appointments, it does not show captains held on the books of the Excellent who were not commanding officers of Excellent. Maritime Warfare School elements within the site are: MWS Phoenix school of Nuclear and Chemical Defence, damage control and fire fighting HMS Phoenix South East Naval Military Training Centre Defence Diving School Boat SectionHMS Excellent provides administrative and infrastructure support to the Maritime Warfare School elements at Defence Diving School, Horsea Island, small arms ranges at Tipner.
Lodger units are: Navy Command Headquarters – Fleet Commander Headquarters of UK Maritime Battle Staff HMS King Alfred Royal Naval Reserve Fleet Regional Photographic Unit Volunteer Cadet Corps Sea Cadet Corps National Training Centre HMS Bristol – Accommodation and Cadet Forces training ship TS Alamein Sea Cadet Corps DASA: Defence Analytical Services and Advice is a Division of the MOD t