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Arthur Sullivan

Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO was an English composer. He is best known for 14 operatic collaborations with the dramatist W. S. Gilbert, including H. M. S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado, his works include 24 operas, 11 major orchestral works, ten choral works and oratorios, two ballets, incidental music to several plays, numerous church pieces and piano and chamber pieces. His hymns and songs include "Onward, Christian Soldiers" and "The Lost Chord"; the son of a military bandmaster, Sullivan composed his first anthem at the age of eight and was a soloist in the boys' choir of the Chapel Royal. In 1856, at 14, he was awarded the first Mendelssohn Scholarship by the Royal Academy of Music, which allowed him to study at the academy and at the Leipzig Conservatoire in Germany, his graduation piece, incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest, was received with acclaim on its first performance in London. Among his early major works were a ballet, L'Île Enchantée, a symphony, a cello concerto, his Overture di Ballo.

To supplement the income from his concert works he wrote hymns, parlour ballads and other light pieces, worked as a church organist and music teacher. In 1866 Sullivan composed a one-act comic opera and Box, still performed, he wrote his first opera with W. S. Gilbert, Thespis, in 1871. Four years the impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte engaged Gilbert and Sullivan to create a one-act piece, Trial by Jury, its box-office success led to a series of twelve full-length comic operas by the collaborators. After the extraordinary success of H. M. S. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance, Carte used his profits from the partnership to build the Savoy Theatre in 1881, their joint works became known as the Savoy operas. Among the best known of the operas are The Mikado and The Gondoliers. Gilbert broke from Sullivan and Carte after a quarrel over expenses at the Savoy, they reunited in the 1890s for two more operas, but these did not achieve the popularity of their earlier works. Sullivan's infrequent serious pieces during the 1880s included two cantatas, The Martyr of Antioch and The Golden Legend, his most popular choral work.

He wrote incidental music for West End productions of several Shakespeare plays, held conducting and academic appointments. Sullivan's only grand opera, though successful in 1891, has been revived. In his last decade Sullivan continued to compose comic operas with various librettists and wrote other major and minor works, he died at the age of 58, regarded as Britain's foremost composer. His comic opera style served as a model for generations of musical theatre composers that followed, his music is still performed and pastiched. Sullivan was born in Lambeth, the younger of the two children, both boys, of Thomas Sullivan and his wife, Mary Clementina née Coghlan, his father was a military bandmaster and music teacher, born in Ireland and raised in Chelsea, London. Thomas Sullivan was based from 1845 to 1857 at the Royal Military College, where he was the bandmaster and taught music to supplement his income. Young Arthur became proficient with many of the instruments in the band and composed an anthem, "By the Waters of Babylon", when he was eight.

He recalled: I was intensely interested in all that the band did, learned to play every wind instrument, with which I formed not a passing acquaintance, but a real, life-long, intimate friendship. I learned the peculiarities of each... What it could do and what it was unable to do. I learned in the best possible way. While recognising the boy's obvious talent, his father knew the insecurity of a musical career and discouraged him from pursuing it. Sullivan studied at a private school in Bayswater. In 1854 he persuaded his parents and the headmaster to allow him to apply for membership in the choir of the Chapel Royal. Despite concerns that, at nearly 12 years of age, Sullivan was too old to give much service as a treble before his voice broke, he was accepted and soon became a soloist. By 1856, he was promoted to "first boy". At this age, his health was delicate, he was fatigued. Sullivan flourished under the training of the Reverend Thomas Helmore, Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal, began to write anthems and songs.

Helmore encouraged his compositional talent and arranged for one of his pieces, "O Israel", to be published in 1855, his first published work. Helmore enlisted Sullivan's assistance in creating harmonisations for a volume of The Hymnal Noted and arranged for the boy's compositions to be performed. In 1856 the Royal Academy of Music awarded the first Mendelssohn Scholarship to the 14-year-old Sullivan, granting him a year's training at the academy, his principal teacher there was John Goss, whose own teacher, Thomas Attwood, had been a pupil of Mozart. He studied piano with William Sterndale Arthur O'Leary. During this first year at the academy Sullivan continued to sing solos with the Chapel Royal, which provided a small amount of spending money. Sullivan's scholarship was extended to a second year, in 1858, in what his biographer Arthur Jacobs calls an "extraordinary gesture of confidence", the scholarship committee extended his grant for a third year so that he could study in Germany, at the Leipzig Conservatoire.

There, Sullivan studied composition with Julius Rietz and Carl Reinecke

Matheson (surname)

Matheson is a surname derived from the patronymic form of a short form of the English Matthew. This English personal name is derived from the Hebrew Mattathia, which means "gift of God". An early record form of the surname Matheson is Mathyson, recorded in 1392. Two different Scottish Gaelic surnames have been Anglicised Matheson. One such surname is Mac Mhathghamhuin, which became Anglicised Matheson on account of its similar sound; this Gaelic surname is of an different etymology than Matheson, as the Gaelic mathghamhuin means "bear". Another Gaelic surname Anglicised Matheson is Mac Matha; this Gaelic surname is derived from the patronymic form of a Gaelic form of Matthew. Alexander Matheson, multiple people Angus Matheson, inaugural Professor of Celtic at the University of Glasgow Arthur Matheson, Canadian politician Bob Matheson, National Football League player Charlie Matheson, fictional character in Revolution Chris Matheson, British politician Dan Matheson, Canadian television sportscaster, host & news reader Danny Matheson, fictional character in Revolution Diana Matheson, Canadian football midfielder Donald Macleod Matheson CBE, Secretary of the National Trust, Traditionalist author Ewing Matheson, British civil engineer and consulting engineer George Matheson, Scottish theologian Guy Matheson, Australian politician Hans Matheson, Scottish actor Hilda Matheson, first Director of Talks at the BBC Hugh Matheson, British oarsman Hugh Mackay Mateson, Scottish industrialist James Matheson, Scottish businessman Jim Matheson, American politician, son of Scott M. Matheson John Matheson, Canadian politician Karen Matheson, Scottish folk musician Louis Matheson, British-Australian academic Luke Matheson, English footballer Mal Matheson, New Zealand cricketer Michael Matheson, multiple people Miki Matheson, Japanese Paralympic gold medalist Norma Matheson, American politician, former First Lady of Utah Rachel Matheson, fictional characters Richard Matheson, American writer Richard Christian Matheson, American writer, son of Richard Matheson Robert J. Matheson, American politician and businessman Robert Matheson Robert Matheson Robert Matheson, National Football League player Roderick N. Matheson, American Civil War figure Scott Milne Matheson, Sr.

US Attorney for Utah 1949-1953 Scott M. Matheson, son of the above, governor of Utah 1977-1985 Scott Matheson, Jr. son of the above, US Attorney for Utah from 1993–1997 a judge on the 10th United States Circuit Court Shirlee Matheson, Canadian children's writer Tim Matheson, American actor William Matheson, Scottish Gaelic scholar, ordained minister of the Church of Scotland William John Matheson, American industrialist Mathieson Mathison Matthiessen

Particle acceleration

In a compressible sound transmission medium - air - air particles get an accelerated motion: the particle acceleration or sound acceleration with the symbol a in metre/second2. In acoustics or physics, acceleration is defined as the rate of change of velocity, it is thus a vector quantity with dimension length/time2. In SI units, this is m/s2. To accelerate an object is to change its velocity over a period. Acceleration is defined technically as "the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time" and is given by the equation a = d v d t where a is the acceleration vector v is the velocity vector expressed in m/s t is time expressed in seconds; this equation gives a the units of m/, or m/s2. An alternative equation is: a ¯ = v − u t where a ¯ is the average acceleration u is the initial velocity v is the final velocity t is the time interval Transverse acceleration causes change in direction. If it is constant in magnitude and changing in direction with the velocity, we get a circular motion.

For this centripetal acceleration we have a = − v 2 r r r = − ω 2 r One common unit of acceleration is g-force, one g being the acceleration caused by the gravity of Earth. In classical mechanics, acceleration a is related to force F and mass m by way of Newton's second law: F = m ⋅ a The Particle acceleration of the air particles a in m/s2 of a plain sound wave is: a = δ ⋅ ω 2 = v ⋅ ω = p ⋅ ω Z = ω J Z = ω E ρ = ω P a c Z ⋅ A Sound Sound particle Particle displacement Particle velocity Relationships of acoustic quantities associated with a plane progressive acoustic sound wave - pdf