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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, was an Anglo-Irish soldier and Tory statesman, one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister. He won a notable victory against Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. Wellesley was born in Dublin into the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland, he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons, he was a colonel by 1796 and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803. Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French Empire at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813.

Following Napoleon's exile in 1814, he was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, together with a Prussian Army under Blücher, defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellington's battle record is exemplary. Wellington is famous for his adaptive defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses, he is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, many of his tactics and battle plans are still studied in military academies around the world. After the end of his active military career, he returned to politics, he was twice British prime minister as a member of the Tory party: from 1828 to 1830, for a little less than a month in 1834. He oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832, he continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement and remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.

Wellesley was born into an aristocratic Anglo-Irish family in Ireland as The Hon. Arthur Wesley, the third of five surviving sons of Anne and Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, his mother was the eldest daughter of Arthur Hill-Trevor, 1st Viscount Dungannon, after whom Wellesley was named. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy, his biographers follow the same contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born on 1 May 1769, the day before he was baptised. His birthplace is uncertain, he was most born at his parents' townhouse, 24 Upper Merrion Street, now the Merrion Hotel. But his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. Other places have been put forward as the location of his birth, including Mornington House, as his father had asserted, he spent most of his childhood at his family's two homes, the first a large house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle, 3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath.

In 1781, Arthur's father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his father's earldom. He went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whyte's Academy when in Dublin, Brown's School in Chelsea when in London, he enrolled at Eton College, where he studied from 1781 to 1784. His loneliness there caused him to hate it, makes it unlikely that he said "The Battle of Waterloo was won on the playing fields of Eton", a quotation, attributed to him. Moreover, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of family funds due to his father's death, forced the young Wellesley and his mother to move to Brussels; until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating, "I don't know what I shall do with my awkward son Arthur."A year Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed becoming a good horseman and learning French, which proved useful.

Upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement. Despite his new promise, he had yet to find a job and his family was still short of money, so upon the advice of his mother, his brother Richard asked his friend the Duke of Rutland to consider Arthur for a commission in the Army. Soon afterward, on 7 March 1787, he was gazetted ensign in the 73rd Regiment of Foot. In October, with the assistance of his brother, he was assigned as aide-de-camp, on ten shillings a day, to the new Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, Lord Buckingham, he was transferred to the new 76th Regiment forming in Ireland and on Christmas Day, 1787, was promoted lieutenant. During his time in Dublin his duties were social. While in Ireland, he overextended himself in borrowing due to his occasional gambling, but in his defence stated that "I have known what it was to be in want of money, but I have never got helplessly into debt". On 23 January 1788, he transferred into the 41st Regiment of Foot again on 25 June 1789, still a lieutenant, he transferred to the 12th Regi

Williams FW16

The Williams FW16 is a Formula One car designed by Adrian Newey for the British Williams team. The FW16 competed in the 1994 Formula One season, with Williams winning the Constructor's Championship, British driver Damon Hill finishing runner-up in the Drivers' Championship, it was the car in which 3 time world champion Ayrton Senna was killed during the third race of the 1994 season, the San Marino Grand Prix. Its engine was a Renault RS6 3.5 V10. The team's main sponsor was Rothmans, replacing Camel Cigarettes and Canon used on the FW14 and FW15C; the car was designed around the major regulation changes that the FIA had introduced in the off-season, banning the various electronic devices, used by the front running cars during the preceding two seasons. The FW16 was a passive evolution of the FW15C, it featured revised bodywork, including a low profile engine cover. In addition to these changes, the FW16 featured an innovative rear suspension wishbone design, an improved version of the Renault Sport Formula One engine, a fuel valve to enable the ability for mid-race refuelling.

As with the previous season, the number 0 car was driven by Damon Hill for the entire year, as reigning champion Alain Prost had taken his number 1 with him when he left the sport. The number 2 car was driven by Ayrton Senna, David Coulthard, Nigel Mansell. Although it was fast, the car proved to be a tricky proposition in early testing and in the early part of the season; the car had a number of problems that were not properly remedied: a design flaw was discovered in the car's frontal section and there were attempts to correct this in time for the ill-fated third race, at the San Marino Grand Prix. Various other alterations were made by Newey and Patrick Head to alleviate the car's handling problems, such as the addition of bargeboards at the Spanish Grand Prix; this revised B-spec car was labelled the FW16B from the German race onwards. It was developed by Hill, but the Benetton B194 and Michael Schumacher were dominant in the first half of the season. Rookie test driver David Coulthard shared the second car with former champion Nigel Mansell.

The car configuration included a distinctive anhedral rear wing lower element, the effectiveness of which depended on a low outboard tail section, achieved by enclosing the driveshafts within wing-section carbon fibre composite shrouds that doubled as the upper wishbones. This shroud was removable in case it was deemed to be outside the imposed regulations; the car was powered by a 67-degree V10 engine by Renault Sport termed the RS6 specification, delivering 830 hp. Its power was transmitted by means of a revised and lightened version of the six-speed transverse gearbox used the previous year; the FW16 featured power-assisted steering, hydraulically driven and reacting to input from electronic sensors, a system that drew from the knowledge gained from the teams active suspension technology. It lacked the automatic gear change system of the preceding year and was restricted to a "semi-automatic" transmission. In accordance with the new 1994 regulations, the FW16 did not have adjustable anti-roll bar controls accessible by the driver from the cockpit, present in FW15C and earlier Williams F1 cars.

Early season performance of the FW16 indicated. The window of setup in which the car was competitive was narrow, with many external factors which would otherwise be unrelated to the mechanics of the car, having unusually large influences on the overall performance; the early problems led to a raft of aerodynamic changes in the first half of the season, the first coming for the ill-fated San Marino GP at Imola. The front wing was a significant area of development. "The problem is that the front wing is too sensitive to the rideheight," said Patrick Head in 1994. "If you were in a corner and went over a bump, the car could pick up a lot more front downforce than rear. So if you were balanced at that point, with the car neutral, you’d lose the rear quickly."The first comprehensive set of modifications to widen this driveability window were introduced at Imola. These included a revised nose profile with the wings positioned higher, new aerodynamic end plates which were taller, a revised wheelbase and a re-shaped cockpit surround.

Other cockpit changes were designed to accommodate Senna's desire to be made more comfortable in the car and included changes to the steering column design to adjust the steering wheel position in line with Senna's personal preference. This included welding an additional extension onto the steering column; the car was shown to have severe shortcomings at its debut. The FW16 lacked the active suspension and traction control of the previous season's FW15C, yet was an evolution of a chassis, designed for and depended on these systems, it suffered from a narrow driveability setup window that made it difficult to drive until the modifications to become the FW16B. This could be seen when Senna, pushing to close the gap between himself and Schumacher, spun out of second place during the Brazilian Grand Prix, by the identical spins in practice by Hill and Senna at Aida, with Senna commenting on the Aida practice spin: "I can't explain it. I was in one of my best positions at that corner when it went.

It looked silly and stupid but better it happens today than tomorrow." The narrow driveability window stemmed from the fact that

José García Narezo

José García Narezo was a Mexican painter and a founding member of the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana. García Narezo was born in Spain, his Mexican mother was named Amelia Narezo Dragonné and his father was a Spanish writer and critic, Gabriel García Maroto. José García Narezo went to Mexico in 1928 to study, returned to Mexico again to escape from the Spanish Civil War. After that, García Narezo received citizenship there. During 1931 and 1932, he studied at the Escuela de Pintura al Aire Libre in Tlalpan, studied drawing and watercolor in 1935 in Spain. José García Narezo died at age 70 in his home in the Xochimilco borough of Mexico City. García Narezo has made oil paintings and drawings, but is known for his murals; these include La electricidad al servicio de Sonora in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora and an Italian mosaic at the Plaza Cívica in Lomas de Cuernavaca, Morelos named Juego con luna. One of his murals from 1938, Un niño y la Guerra, is located in the Ministerio de Instrucción in Madrid. García Narezo participated in a large number of collective exhibitions, the most important ones were held at the Arden Gallery in New York, the Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles, the Institute of Modern Art in Boston and the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana.

The artist had numerous individual exhibitions of his work, including those held at the Spanish embassy in Washington DC, the Gallaudet College Gallery, the Casa de la Cultura in Havana, the Arden Gallery, New York, the Palacio de Bellas Artes, the Stendhal Gallery, Los Angeles, the Los Angeles Museum of Art, the Modern Art Institute in Boston, the Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco, the Fine Arts Gallery in San Francisco, the Pan American Union Gallery in Washington, the ARS Gallery in Mexico City, the Galería de Arte Moderno and the Galería ECO in Mexico City, the Galería Proteo and Galerái ACA in Mexico City, the Galería Diana in Mexico City, the Librería Cristal in Mexico City and the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana. His work was featured in exhibitions held in Mexico, Europe and the United States. In 1945 García Narezo illustrated a reprinted version of the "Book of the People" or Popol Vuh with a series of fourteen watercolors and thirteen drawings