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Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution

Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution is a clause in the national Constitution of Japan outlawing war as a means to settle international disputes involving the state. The Constitution came into effect on May 3, 1947, following World War II. In its text, the state formally renounces the sovereign right of belligerency and aims at an international peace based on justice and order; the article states that, to accomplish these aims, armed forces with war potential will not be maintained. The Constitution was imposed by the United States in the post-World War II period. However, Japan maintains de facto armed forces, referred to as the Japan Self-Defense Forces, which may have been thought of as something akin to what Mahatma Gandhi called the Shanti Sena or a collective security police force operating under the United Nations. In July 2014, instead of using Article 96 of the Japanese Constitution to amend the Constitution itself, the Japanese government approved a reinterpretation which gave more powers to the Japan Self-Defense Forces, allowing them to defend other allies in case of war being declared upon them, despite concerns and disapproval from China, South Korea and North Korea, whereas the United States supported the move.

This change is considered illegitimate by some Japanese political parties and citizens, since the Prime Minister circumvented Japan's constitutional amendment procedure. In September 2015, the Japanese National Diet made the reinterpretation official by enacting a series of laws allowing the Japan Self-Defense Forces to provide material support to allies engaged in combat internationally; the stated justification was that failing to defend or support an ally would weaken alliances and endanger Japan. The full text of the article in Japanese: The official English translation of the article is: ARTICLE 9. Aspiring sincerely to an international peace based on justice and order, the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes. In order to accomplish the aim of the preceding paragraph, land and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained; the right of belligerency of the state will not be recognized.

The failure of the collective security of the League of Nations led to the realization that a universal system of security could only be effective if nations agreed to some limitation of their national sovereignty with regard to their right to belligerency, if the Security Council, a "closed shop" during League of Nations times, would open itself up to UN Members who would cede constitutional powers in favor of collective security. Like the German Article 24, incorporated in the post-war German Constitution, which provides for delegating or limiting sovereign powers in favor of collective security, Article 9 was added to the Constitution of Japan during the occupation following World War II; the source of the pacifist clause is disputed. According to the Allied Supreme Commander Douglas MacArthur, the provision was suggested by Prime Minister Kijūrō Shidehara, who "wanted it to prohibit any military establishment for Japan—any military establishment whatsoever". Shidehara's perspective was that retention of arms would be "meaningless" for the Japanese in the post-war era, because any substandard post-war military would no longer gain the respect of the people, would cause people to obsess with the subject of rearming Japan.

Shidehara admitted to his authorship in his memoirs Gaikō Gojū-Nen, published in 1951, where he described how the idea came to him on a train journey to Tokyo. However, according to some interpretations, he denied having done so, the inclusion of Article 9 was brought about by the members of the Government Section of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers Charles Kades, one of Douglas MacArthur's closest associates. There is, another theory by constitutional scholar Toshiyoshi Miyazawa that the idea came from MacArthur himself and that Shidehara was a pawn in his plans; the article was endorsed by the Diet of Japan on November 3, 1946. Kades rejected the proposed language that prohibited Japan's use of force "for its own security", believing that self-preservation was the right of every nation. Soon after the adoption of the Constitution of Japan in 1947, the Chinese Civil War ended in victory for the Communist Party of China in 1949 and the establishment of the People's Republic of China.

As a consequence, the United States was left without the Republic of China on Taiwan as a military ally against communism in the Pacific. There was a desire on the part of the United States occupation forces for Japan to take a more active military role in the struggle against communism during the Cold War. If Article 9 is looked upon as a motion to abolish war as an institution—as envisaged in the 1961 McCloy–Zorin Accords—then the Korean crisis was the first opportunity for another country to second the Japanese motion and embark on the transition toward a true system of collective security under the United Nations. In fact, however, in 1950, following the outbreak of the Korean War, the U. S. 24th Infantry Division was pulled out of Japan and sent to fight on the front lines in Korea, so Japan was left without any armed protection. MacArthur ordered the creation of a 75,000-strong National Police Reserve to maintain order in Japan and repel any possible invasion from outside; the NPR was organized by United States Army Col. Frank Kowalski using Army surplus equipment.

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Domenick DiCicco

Domenick DiCicco Jr. is an American Republican Party politician who served in the New Jersey General Assembly from 2010 to 2012, where he represented the 4th Legislative District. DiCicco served in the Assembly on the Commerce and Economic Development Committee and the Consumer Affairs Committee, he received a B. A. degree in political science from Rowan University, an M. B. A. degree from Pennsylvania State University, a J. D. degree from Delaware Law School. He is the executive vice president and general counsel of Alexander Gallo Holdings, LLC. In 2009, DiCicco ran for the General Assembly seat vacated by a Democrat. Running in a district where Democrats outnumber Republicans two to one, DiCicco defeated the Democratic candidate, local school board president William Collins, by a margin of 601 votes, he was sworn into office on January 12, 2010. In the 2011 apportionment based on the results of the 2010 United States Census, DiCicco was placed in the 3rd District where he faced Democratic incumbents John J. Burzichelli and Celeste Riley.

Burzichelli and Riley won re-election, defeating DiCicco and his running mate Bob Villare DiCicco's loss made his seat the only gain by the Democrats in the Assembly in the 2011 election cycle. His seat in the 4th District was filled by a Democrat, he resides in Gloucester County. Assemblyman DiCicco's legislative webpage, New Jersey Legislature New Jersey Legislature financial disclosure forms 2010 2009 Assembly Member Domenick DiCicco, Project Vote Smart

Kim Stafford

Kim Robert Stafford is an American poet and essayist who lives in Portland, Oregon. The son of poet William Stafford, Kim Stafford received a B. A. in 1971, an M. A. in English in 1973 and a Ph. D. in medieval literature in 1979 from the University of Oregon. Since 1979, he has taught writing at Clark College in Portland, he has taught courses at Willamette University in Salem, at the Sitka Center for Art and Ecology, at the Fishtrap writers' gathering, private workshops in Scotland and Bhutan. In July 2018, he was appointed Oregon's next Poet Laureate by Governor Kate Brown, he is the founding director of the Northwest Writing Institute and is the literary executor of the Estate of William Stafford. His books include: Legacy of Beginning: Poems in Bhutan. 100 Tricks Every Boy Can Do: How My Brother Disappeared Prairie Prescription. The Muses Among Us: Eloquent Listening and other Pleasures of the Writer's Craft. Early Morning: Remembering My Father, William Stafford. A Thousand Friends of Rain: New & Selected Poems.

Oregon Pilgrimage in Green, illus. Margot Voorhies Thompson. Lochsa Road: A Pilgrim in the West, illus. Hannah Hinchman. Wind on the Waves': Stories from the Oregon Coast. We Got Here Together. Deborah Frasier. Entering the Grove, with photographs by Gary Braasch. A Gypsy's History of the World. Places & Stories. Having Everything Right: Essays of Place. Music: Pilgrim at Home: Vagabond Songs Wheel Made of Wind Kim Stafford served as editor or contributor for several books by William Stafford: Ask Me: 100 Essential Poems" Down in My Heart: Peace Witness in Wartime, edited with an Introduction by Kim Stafford; every War Has Two Losers: William Stafford on Peace and War, edited with an introduction by Kim Stafford. In Quiet Places, with an afterword by Kim Stafford, he was a contributor to the Multnomah County project When You Were 15, in which "adults from our community share their stories about how an adult made a difference to them when they were fifteen. Several stories from today’s young people prove that they, need caring adults.

These real life stories show how a small act of encouragement can make a big difference in a teen’s life."His work is featured at the Orenco Station on the Rings of Memory Plaza and the Witness Tree Rest. Kim Stafford's Website Northwest Writing Institute Guide to the Kim Robert Stafford papers at the University of Oregon

Pillai (surname)

Pillai or Pillay is a surname found among the Malayalam and Tamil-speaking people of India and Sri Lanka. The term Pillai means "child" in the Tamil language; the title occur both as a suffix to the name. The title is used by different castes such as the Agamudayars, Isai Vellalars, Karaiyars and Vellalars. Notable people with this surname or its variants include: A. R. Pillai, Indian freedom fighter Ananda Ranga Pillai, dubash in the service of French East India Company Ariranga Pillay, former Chief Justice and Acting President of Mauritius Arumuka Navalar, born as Kandarpillai Arumugapillai, a Sri Lankan Hindu reformer Bastiampillai Anthonipillai Thomas, Sri Lankan Tamil priest and founder of Rosarians Order Bastiampillai Deogupillai, Sri Lankan Tamil Roman Catholic bishop B. Ravi Pillai is an Indian entrepreneur, he is the founder and managing director of RP Group of Companies. Candice Pillay, born 1981, singer and songwriter Changampuzha Krishna Pillai, Malayalam poet Chempakaraman Pillai, freedom fighter from Travancore of Tamil descent Chinna Migapillai, 17th century feudal lord and rebel leader from the Jaffna Kingdom Devasahayam Pillai, Indian court official, controversial convert to Christianity Dhanraj Pillay, Indian hockey player G. P. Pillai, established the first English newspaper in South India G. Parameswaran Pillai, Dewan of Travancore Gooty Kesava Pillai, Indian journalist and freedom-fighter.

Delegate from Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh at the first session of the Indian National Congress. K. C. Pillai, Doctor of Divinity, a Bishop-at-large of the Indian Orthodox Church, Antiochean Succession, India. K. Appavu Pillai, Indian politician K. C. Sreedharan Pillai, Indian mathematician K. Perumal Pillai K. Thamboosamy Pillay, a prominent member of the Tamil community in British Malaya. Kavimani Desigavinayagam Pillai, Indian freedom fighter, poet L. D. Swamikannu Pillai, Indian astronomer, Speaker of Tamil Nadu Assembly M. P. Narayana Pillai, a Malayalam writer Manonmaniam Sundaram Pillai, eminent writer in Tamil literature. Marimutthu Pillai, musician Maruthanayagam Pillai, Indian soldier and administrator known as Muhammed Yusuf Khan. Murali Pillai, Singaporean politician of Indian descent Nadakkal Parameswaran Pillai, leader of Indian Coffee House movement Naraina Pillai, a social entrepreneur and businessman Navanethem Pillay, South African Judge, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Nisha Pillai, Indian-born journalist and BBC news anchor P. Govinda Pillai, a Communist Party of India leader Rao Bahadur P. I.

Chinnaswamy Pillai, first Municipal Chairman of Palakkad, India Palani Subramaniam Pillai, Carnatic music percussionist Paravoor T. K. Narayana Pillai, Indian freedom fighter Pattom A. Thanu Pillai, Second Chief Minister of unified Kerala, Communist leader Periyapillai, 16th century king of the Jaffna Kingdom Prabhakaran Velupillai, leader of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Pradani Muthirulappa Pillai, minister of Ramnad during the reign of Muthuramalinga Sethupathy Prem Nath Pillai Malaysian based filmmaker and editor R. Balakrishna Pillai, former State minister in Kerala Rajmohan Pillai, Indian businessman Rhea Pillai, Indian model Sreekanteswaram Padmanabha Pillai, lexicographer Subbayya Sivasankaranarayana Pillai, Indian mathematician Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai and political activist. Translated Karl Marx's biography into Malayalam T. S. Ramasamy Pillai, Freedom-fighter and former Member of the Legislative Assembly Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, Malayalam author C. W. Thamotharampillai, publisher of ancient Tamil texts V. N. Rajasekharan Pillai, current Vice Chancellor of Indira Gandhi National Open University IGNOU V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Indian freedom fighter, popularly known as V.

O. C. and as Kappalottiya Tamilan Venkatarama Ramalingam Pillai and freedom fighter

Sofiane Hanni

Sofiane Hanni is an Algerian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for Qatari club Al-Gharafa and the Algeria national team. After starting out at Nantes in France, he went on to compete professionally in Turkey and Russia. Hanni is an Algeria international, gaining his first cap for the full side in June 2016, aged 25, in an Africa Cup of Nations qualification match against Seychelles. Hanni made his professional debut on 1 December 2009 in a league match against Sedan. On 11 June 2010, he was slated to sign a one-year contract with hometown club Paris Saint-Germain. However, a week it was announced that he would not be joining the club due to a disagreement between the club and the player's father, it is tested in Kayseri Erciyesspor. He stayed three years until the 2013 summer transfer window and despite his title of best passer and the rise of the club in the first division, it is sold at the club Ankaraspor A.Ş. 2 Turkish division. This is the season, he form a good duo with Tim Matthys.

He knows a discreet beginning of season. This changes 17 October 2015 to face meeting in Sint-Truidense accounting for 11th round of Jupiler League, it is indeed involved in the 3 goals KV Mechelen. First causing a penalty, converted by Milos Kosanovic in the first period, providing an assist to Tim Matthys before scoring his first goal of the season, he is elected by the press best player of the day. On 24 October 2015, the 12th round, during a dramatic confrontation with the Zulte Waregem that his team lost on the score of, it marks 2 goals including the second on a direct free kick. A week he scored his fourth goal of the season against Waasland-Beveren on behalf of 14th round. KV Mechelen is required allowing it to be 11th in the standings with 15 points; the game against Oostende, when 16th round he opened the scoring for his team winning the match. On 5 December 2015, the movement in Royal Excel Mouscron, it contributes again to the win by scoring a headed goal, he returned from the next match against Lokeren in mark at the 8th minute with a superb strike from 30 meters.

Lokeren still returns to score and the match ends. At the 30th round face Standard Liege, Hanni scored twice and two assists to address Nicolas Verdier; the meeting ended with a score of and is involved in all the goals for his team, 16 April 2016 in the game against Charleroi in Play-Offs 2, it can not prevent the defeat of his despite another double he realizes late in the game, Following its full and regular season he first won 2 May 2016 the Belgian Lion and 9 May 2016, he succeeded Neeskens Kebano, winning the Ebony Boot in 2016 which rewards the best African player of African origin or the Belgian championship. It is the first Algerian football player to win this trophy, at the end of the season he is the author of 17 goals and 7 assists, which he calls " His best season at the professional level ". For his performances in Mechelen colours, Hanni was named Belgian Footballer of the Year 2015-16, attracting the attention of Ànderlecht. On 20 May 2016, Anderlecht announced the signing of Hanni from Mechelen for a fee of €3 million on a four-year contract.

Hanni played his first official game with his new club in the preliminary round of the UEFA Champions League against the Russian club Rostov scored his first goal with the team and after that missing a significant opportunity by not fit, delivers an assist to Tielemans which doubles the score in the first Continental participation in its history. On 31 January 2018, Hanni signed a three-and-a-half-year contract with Russian defending champions Spartak Moscow. On 22 July 2019, Al-Gharafa has signed Hanni for one season from Spartak Moscow. Having represented France youth teams, Hanni announced his intent to represent Algeria at international level in November 2009, though he was still eligible at that moment to play for France. In 26 March 2016, he was called up for the Algeria national team against Ethiopia in the 2017 Africa Cup of Nations qualification. Hanni made his debut for Algeria in a 2–0 win over the Seychelles on 2 May 2016; as of match played 1 November 2018 Scores and results list Algeria's goal tally first.

Kayseri Erciyesspor TFF First League: 2012–13Anderlecht Belgian First Division A: 2016–17 Belgian Super Cup: 2017 Ebony Shoe Award: 2015–16 Belgian League Professional Footballer of the Year: 2015–16 Belgian Lion Award: 2016 Sofiane Hanni – French league stats at LFP Sofiane Hanni – UEFA competition record

Satanic Blood Angel

Satanic Blood Angel is the first compilation album by American black metal band Von. It features the Satanic Blood demo released in 1992, the unreleased Blood Angel demo and a live recording of a gig played in their home city, San Francisco, California; the compilation was released in 2003 by Nuclear War Now! Productions as a double CD and by From Beyond Productions as a single CD. Besides the Satanic, Blood Angel and Satanic Blood demos, Satanic Blood Angel is the only current licensed re-release of the Von demos compiled for sale, excluding Satanic. CD 1 "Devil Pig" – 2:23 "Veinen" – 2:26 "Watain" – 2:49 "Lamb" – 1:41 "Veadtuck" – 3:17 "Satanic Blood" – 2:05 "Christ Fire" – 2:56 "Von" – 2:25 "Evisc" – 1:56 "Release" – 1:18 "Blood Angel" – 1:27 "Chalice of Blood" – 4:06 "Vennt" – 2:16 "Backskin" – 3:21CD 2 "Veinen" – 2:27 "Watain" – 3:02 "Lamb" – 1:34 "Evisc" – 1:59 "Release" – 1:20 "Satanic Blood" – 2:18 "Veadtuck" – 3:11 "Chalice of Blood" – 4:12 "Goat Christ" – 1:42 "Vennt" – 2:11 "Dissection Inhuman" – 2:27 "Von" – 2:58 Goat – vocals, cover art Kill – bass Snake – drums