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Article One of the United States Constitution

Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress. Under Article One, Congress is a bicameral legislature consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate. Article One grants Congress various enumerated powers and the ability to pass laws "necessary and proper" to carry out those powers. Article One establishes the procedures for passing a bill and places various limits on the powers of Congress and the states. Article One's Vesting Clause grants all federal legislative power to Congress and establishes that Congress consists of the House of Representatives and the Senate. In combination with the Vesting Clauses of Article Two and Article Three, the Vesting Clause of Article One establishes the separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government. Section 2 of Article One addresses the House of Representatives, establishing that members of the House are elected every two years, with congressional seats apportioned to the states on the basis of population.

Section 2 includes various rules for the House of Representatives, including a provision stating that individuals qualified to vote in elections for the largest chamber of their state's legislature have the right to vote in elections for the House of Representatives. Section 3 addresses the Senate, establishing that the Senate consists of two senators from each state, with each senator serving a six-year term. Section 3 required that the state legislatures elect the members of the Senate, but the Seventeenth Amendment, ratified in 1913, provides for the direct election of senators. Section 3 lays out various other rules for the Senate, including a provision that establishes the Vice President of the United States as the president of the Senate. Section 4 of Article One grants the states the power to regulate the congressional election process but establishes that Congress can alter those regulations or make its own regulations. Section 4 requires Congress to assemble at least once per year.

Section 5 lays out various rules for both houses of Congress and grants the House of Representatives and the Senate the power to judge their own elections, determine the qualifications of their own members, punish or expel their own members. Section 6 establishes the compensation and restrictions of those holding congressional office. Section 7 lays out the procedures for passing a bill, requiring both houses of Congress to pass a bill for it to become law, subject to the veto power of the President of the United States. Under Section 7, the president can veto a bill, but Congress can override the president's veto with a two-thirds vote of both chambers. Section 8 lays out the powers of Congress, it includes several enumerated powers, including the power to lay and collect taxes and tariffs for the "general welfare" of the United States, the power to borrow money, the power to regulate interstate and international commerce, the power to set naturalization laws, the power to coin and regulate money, the power to establish federal courts inferior to the Supreme Court, the power to raise and support military forces, the power to declare war.

Section 8 provides Congress the power to establish a federal district to serve as the national capital and gives Congress the exclusive power to administer that district. In addition to various enumerated powers, Section 8 grants Congress the power to make laws necessary and proper to carry out its enumerated powers and other powers vested in it. Section 9 places various limits on the power of Congress, banning bills of attainder and other practices. Section 10 places limits on the states, prohibiting them from entering into alliances with foreign powers, impairing contracts, taxing imports or exports above the minimum level necessary for inspection, keeping armies, or engaging in war without the consent of Congress. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives. Section 1 is a vesting clause that bestows federal legislative power to Congress. Similar clauses are found in Articles II and III.

The former confers executive power upon the President alone, the latter grants judicial power to the federal judiciary. These three articles create a separation of powers among the three branches of the federal government; this separation of powers, by which each department may exercise only its own constitutional powers and no others, is fundamental to the idea of a limited government accountable to the people. The separation of powers principle is noteworthy in regard to the Congress; the Constitution declares that the Congress may exercise only those legislative powers "herein granted" within Article I. It by implied extension, prohibits Congress from delegating its legislative authority to either of the other branches of government, a rule known as the nondelegation doctrine. However, the Supreme Court has ruled that Congress does have the latitude to delegate regulatory powers to executive agencies as long as it provides an "intelligible principle" which governs the agency's exercise of the delegated regulatory authority.

That the power assigned to each branch must remain with that branch, may be expressed only by that branch, is central to the theory. The nondelegation doctrine is used now as a way of interpreting a congressional delegation of authority narrowly, in that the courts presume Congress intended only to delegate that which it could have, unless it demonstrates it intended to "test the waters" of what the courts would allow it to do. Although not mentioned in the Constitution, Congress has long asserted the power to inve

Loaded with Zoul

Loaded With Zoul is the debut album by the Estonian duo Malcolm Lincoln, released 20 May 2010 on Universal Music. The release date coincides with frontman Robin Juhkental's birthday; the album was produced by Vaiko Eplik and Robin Juhkental, mixed by Siim Mäesalu, mastered at Finnvox Studios. The record was physically released in the Baltic States and Scandinavia, but is available as a digital download internationally. Two singles were released from the album: "Siren" and "Loaded With Zoul". Robin Juhkental has described the album as "electronic music, but in the style of the 1960s and 70s". All songs written by Robin Juhkental, except track 4, written by Reigo Vilbiks and Robin Juhkental

Sam Mangwana

Sam Mangwana, is a Congolese musician, born to a Zimbabwean migrant father and an Angolan mother. He is the frontman of African All Stars. Mangwana was a member of François Luambo Makiadi's seminal band TPOK Jazz, Tabu Ley Rochereau's bands African Fiesta, African Fiesta National and Afrisa International, he was born on 21 February 1945 in Leopoldville, now Kinshasa, the capital of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the largest city in that country. His father was a native of Zimbabwe and Sam's mother was a native of neighboring Angola. Mangwana's professional debut occurred in 1963 with the Congo-Kinshasa rumba band, African Fiesta and led by Tabu Ley Rochereau. Mangwana moved across the Congo River to Brazzaville where he formed a short-lived group called Los Batchichas, he worked with the more established Negro Band and Orchestre Tembo. He crossed back to Kinshasa where he joined Tabu Ley, whose band was now known as African Fiesta National. In 1967, Mangwana again left to form Festival des Maquisards.

The band included notable recording artists. Two years Sam Mangwana was on the move again, he recorded duos with a guitarist called Jean Paul "Guvano" Vangu, until 1972. In 1972 he joined TPOK Jazz, led by the legendary Franco. Mangwana played lead singer on compositions by OK Jazz guitarist Simaro Lutumba, his popularity increased tremendously during this time. The collaboration with Simaro yielded three extraordinary hits: "Ebale ya Zaire", "Cedou" and "Mabele", he left OK Jazz and to re-joined Tabu Ley's band, now called Afrisa. He left again, this time moving to Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire, in West Africa. In 1978 he formed, along with the band African All Stars; when the All Stars broke up in 1979, he became a solo artist. He toured with varying combinations of musicians. "Maria Tebbo" with remnants of the All Stars, "Coopération" with Franco, "Canta Moçambique" with Mandjeku, albums with saxophonist Empompo Loway under the names "Tiers Monde Coopération" and "Tiers Monde Révolution" were highlights of his career in the 1980s.

Due to his frequent goings and comings, he won the nickname "pigeon voyageur". In the 2000s, Sam Mangwana spends most of his time in Angola, emerging periodically to perform concerts in Europe. African Fiesta, 1962 Festival des Maquisards, 1968 TPOK Jazz, 1972 African Fiesta National Afrisa International African All Stars, 1978 African All Stars: LES CHAMPIONS, 1977 Sam Mangwana et l'African All Stars: Georgette Eckins, 1978 Théo-Blaise Kounkou et l'African All Stars: ZENABA Sam Mangwana et l'African All Stars: INTERNATIONAL SAM MANGWANA Waka Waka, 1978 Maria Tebbo, 1979 Georgette Eckins, 1979 Matinda, 1979 Affaire Disco, 1981 Est-ce Que Tu Moyens?, 1981 Cooperation, 1982 Affaire Video, 1982 N'Simba Eli, 1982 Bonne Annee, 1983 In Nairobi, 1984 Aladji, 1987 For Ever, 1989 Lukolo, 1989 Capita General, 1990 Megamix, July 1990 Rumba Music, 1993 No Me Digas No, 1995 Galo Negro, 1998 Sam Mangwana Sings Dino Vangu, 2000 Volume 1 Bilinga Linga 1968/1969, June 2000 Volume 2 Eyebana 1980/1984, June 2000 Very Best of 2001, March 2001 Cantos de Esperanca, April 2003 With TPOK JazzLufua Lua Nkadi - Sung by Sam Mangwana, Michel Boyibanda, Josky Kiambukuta and Lola Checain in 1972.

Luka Mobali Moko -Sung by Sam Mangwana, Josky Kiambukuta, Michèl Boyibanda and Lola Chécain, in 1974. Contributing artistThe Rough Guide to Congo Gold Ndome Opetum Josky Kiambukua Lola Checain Michel Boyibanda Yolou Mabiala Wuta Mayi Bopol Mansiamina Unofficial Biographical Site