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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution. It was approved, after much debate, by the Second Continental Congress on November 15, 1777, sent to the states for ratification; the Articles of Confederation came into force on March 1, 1781, after being ratified by all 13 states. A guiding principle of the Articles was to preserve the sovereignty of the states; the weak central government established by the Articles received only those powers which the former colonies had recognized as belonging to king and parliament. The document provided written rules for how the states' "league of friendship" would be organized. During the ratification process, the Congress looked to the Articles for guidance as it conducted business, directing the war effort, conducting diplomacy with foreign nations, addressing territorial issues and dealing with Native American relations. Little changed politically once the Articles of Confederation went into effect, as ratification did little more than legalize what the Continental Congress had been doing.

That body was renamed the Congress of the Confederation. As the Confederation Congress attempted to govern the continually growing American states, delegates discovered that the limitations placed upon the central government rendered it ineffective at doing so; as the government's weaknesses became apparent after Shays' Rebellion, some prominent political thinkers in the fledgling nation began asking for changes to the Articles. Their hope was to create a stronger national government; some states met to deal with their trade and economic problems. However, as more states became interested in meeting to change the Articles, a meeting was set in Philadelphia on May 25, 1787; this became the Constitutional Convention. It was agreed that changes would not work, instead the entire Articles needed to be replaced. On March 4, 1789, the government under the Articles was replaced with the federal government under the Constitution; the new Constitution provided for a much stronger federal government by establishing a chief executive and taxing powers.

The political push to increase cooperation among the then-loyal colonies began with the Albany Congress in 1754 and Benjamin Franklin's proposed Albany Plan, an inter-colonial collaboration to help solve mutual local problems. Over the next two decades, some of the basic concepts it addressed would strengthen. Civil disobedience resulted in coercive and quelling measures, such as the passage of what the colonials referred to as the Intolerable Acts in the English Parliament, armed skirmishes which resulted in dissidents being proclaimed rebels; these actions eroded the number of Crown Loyalists among the colonials and, together with the effective propaganda campaign of the Patriot leaders, caused an increasing number of colonists to begin agitating for independence from the mother country. In 1775, with events outpacing communications, the Second Continental Congress began acting as the provisional government, it was an era of constitution writing—most states were busy at the task—and leaders felt the new nation must have a written constitution.

During the war, Congress exercised an unprecedented level of political, diplomatic and economic authority. It adopted trade restrictions and maintained an army, issued fiat money, created a military code and negotiated with foreign governments. To transform themselves from outlaws into a legitimate nation, the colonists needed international recognition for their cause and foreign allies to support it. In early 1776, Thomas Paine argued in the closing pages of the first edition of Common Sense that the "custom of nations" demanded a formal declaration of American independence if any European power were to mediate a peace between the Americans and Great Britain; the monarchies of France and Spain in particular could not be expected to aid those they considered rebels against another legitimate monarch. Foreign courts needed to have American grievances laid before them persuasively in a "manifesto" which could reassure them that the Americans would be reliable trading partners. Without such a declaration, Paine concluded, "he custom of all courts is against us, will be so, until, by an independence, we take rank with other nations."Beyond improving their existing association, the records of the Second Continental Congress show that the need for a declaration of independence was intimately linked with the demands of international relations.

On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee introduced a resolution before the Continental Congress declaring the colonies independent. Congress created three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a model treaty, the Articles of Confederation; the Declaration announced the states' entry into the international system. On June 12, 1776, a day after appointing a committee to prepare a draft of th

Chadderton F.C.

Chadderton Football Club is a football club in based in Chadderton, Greater Manchester. They are members of the North West Counties League Division One North and play at Andrew Street; the club was established in 1946 as Burnley Lane Estate Juniors and played in the Middleton Youth League. The following year the club moved to Mill Brow, started an adult team and were renamed Millbrow Football Club. After moving again the club was renamed North Chadderton Amateurs. At the time, the club played in the Oldham Amateur League, winning its Challenge Cup in 1954–55, they moved up to the Manchester Amateur League, winning the North division in 1955–56 and adopting their current name in 1957. At the end of the 1958–59 season, Chadderton were promoted to Division One, they were Division One champions in 1962–63, started playing in Division Two of the Manchester League. They were runners-up in Division Two in both 1962–63 and 1963–64, before winning the division in 1964–65. However, they were not promoted.

The division was renamed Division One in 1966 and Chadderton were champions again in 1966–67, after which they were promoted to the Premier Division. In 1980 the club moved up to the Lancashire Combination; when the league merged with the Cheshire County League in 1982 to form the North West Counties League, Chadderton were founder members of Division Two. A third-place finish in 1988–89 saw them promoted to Division One. However, they finished bottom of Division One the following season and were relegated back to Division Two. Despite only finishing eleventh in 1991–92, the club were promoted to Division One again, they played in Division One until being demoted at the end of the 1997–98 season due to failing ground grading requirements. Division Two was renamed Division One in 2008. A sixth-place finish in 2014–15 season saw them qualify for the promotion play-offs. However, they lost 2–1 to AFC Darwen in the semi-finals; the club played at Parkway when they were known as Burnley Lane Estate Juniors, before moving to Mill Brow the following year.

In Mill Brow they played on a pitch next to the canal in Mills Hill. The nearby Rose of Lancaster pub was used as a changing room, they moved to a ground on the Broadway road. Manchester League Division One champions 1966–67 Division Two champions 1964–65 Murray Shield Winners 1964–65 Gilgryst Cup winners 1969–70 Manchester Amateur League Division One champions 1962–63 North division champions 1955–56 Oldham Amateur League Challenge Cup winners 1954–55 Manchester Challenge Trophy Winners 1971–72 Best FA Cup performance: Second qualifying round, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1992–93, 1994–95 Best FA Vase performance: Fourth round, 2014–15 Record attendance: 2,352 vs FC United of Manchester, 2006 Chadderton F. C. players Official website

Stevan Luković

Stevan Luković is a Serbian football midfielder who plays for SV Lafnitz in Austria. After 3 season playing as a loaned player in Football club Sopot, reserve team of Red Star Belgrade when Vladan Lukić was a president, he returned in first team. But, he was 3rd, or 4th player on the same position, he was loaned again, first to Kolubara and than to Grbalj. After return from Grbalj, he didn't play. In 2014, contract was broken and he left the club as a free agent, he signed with Napredak Kruševac on 10 February 2014. He made his Jelen SuperLiga debut for Napredak Kruševac on 30 March 2014 against Spartak Subotica on Mladost Stadium. At the beginning of 2016, Luković joined Mladost Lučani. Stevan Luković at Soccerway Stevan Luković stats at utakmica.rs Stevan Luković at FootballDatabase.eu