The Harris matrix is a tool used to depict the temporal succession of archaeological contexts and thus the sequence of depositions and surfaces on a'dry land' archaeological site, otherwise called a'stratigraphic sequence'. The matrix reflects the relative position and stratigraphic contacts of observable stratigraphic units, or contexts; the Matrix was developed in 1973 in Winchester, England, by Dr. Edward C. Harris; the concept of creating seriation diagrams of archaeological strata based on the physical relationship between strata had had some currency in Winchester and other urban centres in England prior to Harris's formalisation. One of the results of Harris's work, was the realisation that sites had to be excavated stratigraphically, in the reverse order to that in which they were created, without the use of arbitrary measures of stratification such as spits or planums. In his Principles of archaeological stratigraphy Harris first proposed the need for each unit of stratification to have its own graphic representation in the form of a measured plan.
In articulating the laws of archaeological stratigraphy and developing a system in which to demonstrate and graphically the sequence of deposition or truncation on a site, Harris, it has been argued, has followed in the footsteps of the great stratigraphic archaeologists such as Mortimer Wheeler, without being a great excavator himself. Harris's work was a vital precursor to the development of single context planning by the Museum of London and the development of land use diagrams, all facets of a suite of archaeological recording tools and techniques developed in the UK which allow in-depth analysis of complex archaeological data sets from urban excavations. In a series of layers and interfacial features, as created, the upper units of stratification are younger and the lower are older, for each must have been deposited on, or created by the removal of, a pre-existing mass of archaeological stratification. Any archaeological layer deposited in an unconsolidated form will tend towards a horizontal disposition.
Strata which are found with tilted surfaces were so deposited, or lie in conformity with the contours of a pre-existing basin of deposition. Any archaeological deposit, as laid down, will be bounded by the edge of the basin of deposition, or will thin down to a feather edge. Therefore, if any edge of the deposit is exposed in a vertical plane view, a part of its original extent must have been removed by excavation or erosion: its continuity must be sought, or its absence explained. Any given unit of archaeological stratification takes its place in the stratigraphic sequence of a site from its position between the undermost of all units which lie above it and the uppermost of all those units which lie below it and with which it has a physical contact, all other superpositional relationships being regarded as redundant; these laws were published in 1979. A fifth law of archaeological stratigraphy has been added following papers presented at the "Interpreting Stratigraphy a Review of the Art" conferences in the UK from 1992 to 2003.
In constructing a matrix, the latest contexts sit on top of the matrix and the earliest at the bottom with the lines that link them together representing direct stratigraphic contact. The matrix thus demonstrates the temporal relationship between any two units of archaeological stratification. While excavating, it is best practice to compile the area and site stratigraphic matrices during the progress of an excavation through reference to both the drawn and written record. Regular daily checking of the record and the compilation of the matrix itself both help inform the individual archaeologist on the physical processes of site formation and highlight any areas where dubious relationships such as H relationships or loops in the recorded sequence may occur. Loops are sequences in the matrix that produce temporal anomalies so that the earliest context in a sequence of context appears to be than the latest context by virtue of errors in excavation or recording. Urban archaeological sites are complex affairs generating thousands of units of archaeological stratigraphy.
It is of more vital importance when excavating such sites to compile the matrix as the excavation progresses. Such sites by definition produce multi-linear sequences of succession and to date the best way to get a handle of these sequences is to compile the matrix by hand, based on the drawings and the context sheets; this ensures an internally consistent record and that the complexity of the site is given due regard. Computer programmes do exist which can aid the production of a matrix, though at the moment these tend towards articulating linear sequences rather than multi-linear sequences; the Harris matrix is a tool that aids the accurate and consistent excavation of a site and articulates complex sequences in a clear and understandable way. Harris matrices play an invaluable role in the articulation of sequence and provide the building blocks from which higher order units of stratigraphically related events can be constructed. Take this hypothetical section as an example of matrix formation.
Here there are twelve contexts, numbered thus: A horizontal layer Masonry wall remnant Backfill of the wall construction cut A horizontal layer the same as 1 Construction cut for wall 2 A clay floor abutting wall 2 Fill of shallow cut 8 Shallow pit cut A horizontal layer A horizontal layer the same as 9 Natural sterile ground formed before human occupation of the site Trample in the base of cut 5 formed by workmen's boots constructing the structure
Material culture is the aspect of social reality grounded in the objects and architecture that surround people. It includes the usage, consumption and trade of objects as well as the behaviors and rituals that the objects create or take part in; some scholars include other intangible phenomena that include sound and events, while some consider language and media as part of it. The term is most used in archaeological and anthropological studies, to define material or artifacts as they are understood in relation to specific cultural and historic contexts and belief systems. Material cultural can be described as any object that humans use to survive, define social relationships, represent facets of identity, or benefit peoples' state of mind, social, or economic standing; the scholarly analysis of material culture, which can include both human made and natural or altered objects, is called material culture studies. It is an interdisciplinary field and methodology that tells of the relationships between people and their things: the making, history and interpretation of objects.
It draws on both theory and practice from the social sciences and humanities such as art history, anthropology, historic preservation, archival science, literary criticism and museum studies, among others. Research in several areas looked into the reasons for perceiving an object with meaning. Common reasons for valuing material lie in their sentimental value. A well-known related theory is Kahneman's endowment effect theory. According to Kahneman, people evaluate objects they own with higher value than the same object if they do not own it; the endowment effect was found to increase over time. Another way in which material can hold meaning and value is by carrying communication between people, just like other communication forms such as speech and gesture. An object can mediate messages between both between people who are not together. A work of art, for example, can transfer a message from the creator to the viewer and share an image, a feeling, or an experience. Material can contain memories and mutual experiences across time and influence thoughts and feelings.
A study found that couples who have more items that were jointly acquired and more favorite items among them had higher-quality relationships. Researchers from the fields of sociology and anthropology have been fascinated by gift-giving, a universal phenomenon that holds emotional meaning using material culture. According to Schieffelin, "gift-giving is a vehicle of social obligation and political maneuver." Mauss defines the gift as creating a special bond between the receiver. According to Mauss, the giver never leaves the gift but becomes part of the receiver's future by inserting the gift into their life. A gift leads at some point to another gift in response, which creates a special reciprocal bond between people. Material culture studies as an academic field grew along the field of anthropology and so began by studying non-Western material culture. All too it was a way of putting material culture into categories in such a way that marginalized and hierarchized the cultures from which they came.
During the "golden age" of museum-going, material cultures were used to show the supposed evolution of society from the simple objects of non-Westerners to the advanced objects of Europeans. It was a way of showing that Europeans were at the end of the evolution of society, with non-Westerners at the beginning. Scholars left the notion that culture evolved though predictable cycles, the study of material culture changed to have a more objective view of non-Western material culture; the field of material culture studies as its own distinct discipline dates to the 1990s. The Journal of Material Culture began publishing in 1996. Collecting habits date back hundreds of years. Leslie White was an American anthropologist, known for his advocacy of theories of cultural evolution, sociocultural evolution, neoevolutionism and for his role in creating the department of anthropology at the University of Michigan Ann Arbor, he was president of the American Anthropological Association. He wrote The Science of Culture in 1949 in which he outlined schema of the world as divided into cultural and physical levels of phenomenon.
White believed that the development of culture rested on technology and that the history of human technology could be understood through the study of human-produced materials. American anthropologist James Deetz, known for his work in the field of historical archaeology, wrote the book "In Small Things Forgotten" in 1977 and published a revised and expanded version in 1996, he pioneered there the ideas of using neglected substances such as trash pits and soil stains to reveal human actions. By analyzing objects in association with their location, the history of that location, the objects they were found with, not singling out the most valuable or rarest ones, archaeologists can create a more accurate picture of daily life. Deetz looks at the long view of history and investigates the impact of European culture on other cultures across the globe by an analysis of the spread of everyday objects. Ian M. G. Quimby's Material Culture and the Study of American Life, written in 1978, tried to bridge the gaps between the museum world and the university and between curator and historian.
Quimby posits that objects in museums are understood through an intellectual framework that uses non-traditional sources. He describes the benefits of work on exhibit design as a vehicle for education. Thomas Schlereth, Professor Emeritus of American Studies at the Universi
A votive offering or votive deposit is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes. Such items are a feature of modern and ancient societies and are made in order to gain favor with supernatural forces; some offerings have been made in anticipation of the achievement of a particular wish, but in Western cultures from which documentary evidence survives it has been more typical to wait until the wish has been fulfilled before making the offering, for which the more specific term ex-voto may be used. Other offerings were likely regarded just as gifts to the deity, not linked to any particular need. In Buddhism, votive offering such as construction of stupas was a prevalent and holy practice in Ancient India, an example of which can be observed in the ruins of the ancient Vikramshila University and other contemporary structures. Votive offerings have been described in historical Roman era and Greek sources, although similar acts continue into the present day, for example in traditional Catholic culture and, arguably, in the modern-day practice of tossing coins into a wishing well or fountain.
The modern construction practice called topping out can be considered as an example of a votive practice that has ancient roots. In archaeology, votive deposits differ from hoards in that although they may contain similar items, votive deposits were not intended for recovery. In Europe, votive deposits are known from as early as the Neolithic, with polished axe hoards, reaching a peak in the late Bronze Age. High status artifacts such as armor and weaponry and cult symbols, various treasures and animals were common offerings in antiquity; the votive offerings were sacrificed and buried or more cast into bodies of water or peat bogs, whence they could not have been recovered. In certain cases entire ships have been sacrificed, as in the Danish bog Nydam Mose. All the objects in a ritual hoard are broken, possibly'killing' the objects to put them further beyond utilitarian use before deposition; the purposeful discarding of valuable items such as swords and spearheads is thought to have had ritual overtones.
The items have since been discovered in rivers and present or former wetlands by construction workers, peat diggers, metal-detectorists, members of the public and archaeologists. A saying by Diogenes of Sinope as quoted by Diogenes Laërtius, indicates the high level of votive offering in Ancient Greece: The Treasuries at Olympia and Delphi were buildings by the various Greek city-states to hold their own votive offerings in money and precious metal. Votive offerings were used as atonement for sins committed against a god or goddess; the offerings were in certain cases created by a separate person due to the gifter having an injury or other circumstances, allowed. Some Greek offerings, such as bronze tripods at Delphi, were displayed for a period and buried in groups. At Olympia many small figurines of animals, were thrown onto the huge pile of ashes from animal sacrifices at the altar outside the Temple of Zeus. Much of our knowledge of ancient Greek art in base metal comes from these and other excavated deposits of offerings.
Arms and armour helmets, were given after a victory. In Mesoamerica, votive deposits have been recovered from the Olmec site of El Manati and the Maya Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza. Archaeologists have recovered some votive offerings in ancient Sparta from the 5th century BC; these votive offerings give evidence to the presence of literacy in Spartan culture. Placing greater emphasis on inscriptions which seem to have been made by the individual making the offering, archaeologists can interpret that, of the early dedicators, there were few in number and that most, if not all, were from the upper classes. One piece of pottery was found; this would indicate an everyday literacy among the Spartans. Scholars have not recovered any other piece of pottery with a similar inscription to support that single find; the 13 Ancient Votive Stones of Pesaro were unearthed in 1737 on a local Pesaro farm in the Province of Pesaro e Urbino and date to pre-Estrucan times. They are inscribed with the names of various Roman gods such as APOLLO, MAT-MATVTA, SALVS, FIDE, IVNONII.
A curse tablet or defixio is a small sheet of tin or lead on which a message wishing misfortune upon someone else was inscribed. Found rolled up and deliberately deposited, there are five main reasons for dedicating a curse tablet:1 – Litigation, 2 – Competition, 3 – Trade, 4 – Erotic Ambition, 5 – Theft Of those in Britain the vast majority are of type 5; the two largest concentrations are from the sacred springs at Aquae Sulis, where 130 examples are recorded, at Uley, where over 140 examples are visible. The use of the curse-tablet in seeking restoration of stolen property is strong evidence of invoking divine power through a non-traditional religious ceremony involving some form of water-deposition; the usual form of divine invocation was through prayer and altar dedication so access to this information provides useful insights into Roman provincial culture. Many unrecovered ancient votive offerings are threatened in today's world those submerged in wetlands or other bodies of water. We
An out-of-place artifact is an artifact of historical, archaeological, or paleontological interest found in an unusual context, that challenges conventional historical chronology by being "too advanced" for the level of civilization that existed at the time, or showing "human presence" before humans were known to exist. Other examples suggest contact between different cultures that are hard to account for with conventional historical understanding; the term is used by cryptozoologists, proponents of ancient astronaut theories, young Earth creationists, paranormal enthusiasts. It can describe a wide variety of objects, from anomalies studied by mainstream science and pseudoarchaeology far outside the mainstream to objects that have been shown to be hoaxes or to have mundane explanations. Critics argue that most purported OOPArts which are not hoaxes are the result of mistaken interpretation, wishful thinking, or a mistaken belief that a particular culture could not have created an artifact or technology due to a lack of knowledge or materials.
In some cases, the uncertainty results from inaccurate descriptions. For example: the Wolfsegg Iron was said to be a perfect cube, but in fact it is not. Supporters regard OOPArts as evidence that mainstream science is overlooking huge areas of knowledge, either willfully or through ignorance. Many writers or researchers who question conventional views of human history have used purported OOPArts in attempts to bolster their arguments. Creation science relies on anomalous finds in the archaeological record to challenge scientific chronologies and models of human evolution. Claimed OOPArts have been used to support religious descriptions of pre-history, ancient astronaut theories, the notion of vanished civilizations that possessed knowledge or technology more advanced than that of modern times; the following are examples of objects that have been argued by various fringe authors to have been OOPArts: A minority of alleged OOPARTs are at least debatably unusual within the scientific mainstream, although not impossible for their time period.
Antikythera mechanism: Its clockwork-like appearance, dating to about 1,000 years before clocks were invented, has been claimed by fringe sources to be evidence of alien visitation, authors such as Zecharia Sitchin argue that this artifact is a product "not of Man, but of the gods". However, mainstream scientists consider the Antikythera mechanism to be a form of mechanical computer created around 150–100 BCE based on the theories of astronomy and mathematics developed by the ancient Greeks, its design and workmanship reflect a unknown, but not implausible, degree of sophistication. Maine penny: Some authors argue the 11th-century Norwegian coin found in a Native American shell midden in Maine, United States is evidence of direct contact between Vikings and Native Americans in Maine. Mainstream belief is that it was brought to Maine from Labrador or Newfoundland via an extensive northern native trade network. Over 20,000 objects were found over a 15-year period at the Goddard Site in Maine.
The sole non-Native artifact was the coin. Baghdad Battery: Vase and rods made in Parthian or Sassanid Persia. May have been used as a galvanic cell for electroplating, though no electroplated artifacts from this era have been found. Dorchester Pot: A metal pot claimed to have been blasted out of solid rock in 1852. Kingoodie artifact: An object resembling a corroded nail, said to have been encased in solid rock. Lake Winnipesaukee mystery stone: Originally thought to be a record of a treaty between tribes, subsequent analysis has called its authenticity into question. Sivatherium of Kish: An ornamental war chariot piece discovered in the Sumerian ruins of Kish, now in central Iraq, in 1928; the figurine, dated to the Early Dynastic I period in 2800-2750 BC, depicts a quadrupedal mammal with branched horns, a nose ring and a rope tied to the ring. Because of the shape of the horns, Edwin Colbert identified it as a depiction of a late surviving domesticated Sivatherium, a vaguely moose-like relative of the giraffe that lived in North Africa and India during the Pleistocene but was believed extinct early in the Holocene extinction event.
Henry Field and Berthold Laufer instead argued that it represented a captive Persian fallow deer and that the antlers had broken over the years. The missing antlers were found in the Field Museum's storeroom in 1977. Tecaxic-Calixtlahuaca head: A terracotta offering head of Roman appearance, found beneath three intact floors of a Pre-Columbian burial site in Mexico, dated between 1476 and 1510. However, the artifact has been determined to be older and ancient Roman provenance has not been excluded. Abydos helicopter: A pareidolia based on palimpsest carving in an ancient Egyptian temple. Baalbek megaliths: impossible to move with Bronze Age technology. Dendera made in Ptolemaic Egypt. Iron Man: An old iron pillar, said to be a unique oddity in Central Europe; the Hidden character stone, a Chinese petroglyph. Iron pillar of Delhi: Rust-proof Iron pillar demonstrates more advanced metallurgy than was available in India, pre 1000 AD. Igneous rock statues and buildings: demonstrates ability to carve basalt, Diorite, etc. in the Bronze age.
The "London Hammer" known as the "London Artifact", hammer made of iron and wood, found in London, Texas in 1936. Part of the hammer is embedded in a limy rock concretion. Nazca Lines: Supposedly impossible to design without the aid of an aerial view; the Newark Holy Stones, used as extreme
American and British English spelling differences
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed. For instance, some spellings seen as "American" today were once used in Britain and some spellings seen as "British" were once used in the United States. A "British standard" began to emerge following the 1755 publication of Samuel Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, an "American standard" started following the work of Noah Webster and in particular his An American Dictionary of the English Language, first published in 1828. Webster's efforts at spelling reform were somewhat effective in his native country, resulting in certain well-known patterns of spelling differences between the American and British varieties of English. However, English-language spelling reform has been adopted otherwise, so modern English orthography varies somewhat between countries and is far from phonemic in any country. In the early 18th century, English spelling was inconsistent.
These differences became noticeable after the publishing of influential dictionaries. Today's British English spellings follow Johnson's A Dictionary of the English Language, while many American English spellings follow Webster's An American Dictionary of the English Language. Webster was a proponent of English spelling reform for reasons both nationalistic. In A Companion to the American Revolution, John Algeo notes: "it is assumed that characteristically American spellings were invented by Noah Webster, he was influential in popularizing certain spellings in America, but he did not originate them. Rather he chose existing options such as center and check for the simplicity, analogy or etymology". William Shakespeare's first folios, for example, used spellings like center and color as much as centre and colour. Webster did attempt to introduce some reformed spellings, as did the Simplified Spelling Board in the early 20th century, but most were not adopted. In Britain, the influence of those who preferred the Norman spellings of words proved to be decisive.
Spelling adjustments in the United Kingdom had little effect on today's American spellings and vice versa. For the most part, the spelling systems of most Commonwealth countries and Ireland resemble the British system. In Canada, the spelling system can be said to follow both British and American forms, Canadians are somewhat more tolerant of foreign spellings when compared with other English-speaking nationalities. Australian spelling has strayed from British spelling, with some American spellings incorporated as standard. New Zealand spelling is identical to British spelling, except in the word fiord. There is an increasing use of macrons in words that originated in Māori and an unambiguous preference for -ise endings. Most words ending in an unstressed -our in British English end in -or in American English. Wherever the vowel is unreduced in pronunciation, e.g. contour, velour and troubadour the spelling is consistent everywhere. Most words of this kind came from Latin, they were first adopted into English from early Old French, the ending was spelled -or or -ur.
After the Norman conquest of England, the ending became -our to match the Old French spelling. The -our ending was not only used in new English borrowings, but was applied to the earlier borrowings that had used -or. However, -or was still sometimes found, the first three folios of Shakespeare's plays used both spellings before they were standardised to -our in the Fourth Folio of 1685. After the Renaissance, new borrowings from Latin were taken up with their original -or ending and many words once ending in -our went back to -or. Many words of the -our/or group do not have a Latin counterpart; some 16th- and early 17th-century British scholars indeed insisted that -or be used for words from Latin and -our for French loans. Webster's 1828 dictionary had only -or and is given much of the credit for the adoption of this form in the United States. By contrast, Johnson's 1755 dictionary used -our for all words still so spelled in Britain, but for words where the u has since been dropped: ambassadour, governour, inferiour, superiour.
Johnson, unlike Webster, was not an advocate of spelling reform, but chose the spelling best derived, as he saw it, from among the variations in his sources. He preferred French over Latin spellings because, as he put it, "the French supplied us". English speakers who moved to America took these preferences with them, H. L. Mencken notes that "honor appears in the 1776 Declaration of Independence, but it seems to have got there rather by accident than by design. In Jefferson's original draft it is spelled "honour". In Britain, examples of color, behavior and neighbor appear in Old Bailey court records from the 17th and 18th centuries, whereas there are thousands of examples of their -our counterparts. One notable exception is honor. Honor and honour were frequent in Br
Syria the Syrian Arab Republic, is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon to the southwest, the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, Israel to the southwest. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Armenians, Kurds, Circassians and Turks. Religious groups include Sunnis, Alawites, Isma'ilis, Shiites, Salafis and Jews. Sunni make up the largest religious group in Syria. Syria is a unitary republic consisting of 14 governorates and is the only country that politically espouses Ba'athism, it is a member of one international organization other than the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. In English, the name "Syria" was synonymous with the Levant, while the modern state encompasses the sites of several ancient kingdoms and empires, including the Eblan civilization of the 3rd millennium BC. Aleppo and the capital city Damascus are among the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
In the Islamic era, Damascus was the seat of the Umayyad Caliphate and a provincial capital of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt. The modern Syrian state was established in mid-20th century after centuries of Ottoman and a brief period French mandate, represented the largest Arab state to emerge from the Ottoman-ruled Syrian provinces, it gained de-jure independence as a parliamentary republic on 24 October 1945, when Republic of Syria became a founding member of the United Nations, an act which ended the former French Mandate – although French troops did not leave the country until April 1946. The post-independence period was tumultuous, a large number of military coups and coup attempts shook the country in the period 1949–71. In 1958, Syria entered a brief union with Egypt called the United Arab Republic, terminated by the 1961 Syrian coup d'état; the republic was renamed into the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after December 1 constitutional referendum, was unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power.
Syria was under Emergency Law from 1963 to 2011 suspending most constitutional protections for citizens. Bashar al-Assad has been president since 2000 and was preceded by his father Hafez al-Assad, in office from 1971 to 2000. Since March 2011, Syria has been embroiled in an armed conflict, with a number of countries in the region and beyond involved militarily or otherwise; as a result, a number of self-proclaimed political entities have emerged on Syrian territory, including the Syrian opposition, Tahrir al-Sham and Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Syria is ranked last on the Global Peace Index, making it the most violent country in the world due to the war, although life continues for most of its citizens as of December 2017; the war caused more than 470,000 deaths, 7.6 million internally displaced people and over 5 million refugees, making population assessment difficult in recent years. Several sources indicate that the name Syria is derived from the 8th century BC Luwian term "Sura/i", the derivative ancient Greek name: Σύριοι, Sýrioi, or Σύροι, Sýroi, both of which derived from Aššūrāyu in northern Mesopotamia.
However, from the Seleucid Empire, this term was applied to The Levant, from this point the Greeks applied the term without distinction between the Assyrians of Mesopotamia and Arameans of the Levant. Mainstream modern academic opinion favours the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria derived from the Akkadian Aššur; the Greek name appears to correspond to Phoenician ʾšr "Assur", ʾšrym "Assyrians", recorded in the 8th century BC Çineköy inscription. The area designated by the word has changed over time. Classically, Syria lies at the eastern end of the Mediterranean, between Arabia to the south and Asia Minor to the north, stretching inland to include parts of Iraq, having an uncertain border to the northeast that Pliny the Elder describes as including, from west to east, Commagene and Adiabene. By Pliny's time, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire: Judaea renamed Palaestina in AD 135 in the extreme southwest.
Since 10,000 BC, Syria was one of the centers of Neolithic culture where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. The following Neolithic period is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. At the time of the pre-pottery Neolithic, people used vessels made of stone and burnt lime. Finds of obsidian tools from Anatolia are evidences of early trade relations. Cities of Hamoukar and Emar played an important role during Bronze Age. Archaeologists have demonstrated that civilization in Syria was one of the most ancient on earth preceded by only those of Mesopotamia; the earliest recorded in