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Artificial intelligence

In computer science, artificial intelligence, sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is used to describe machines that mimic "cognitive" functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as "learning" and "problem solving"; as machines become capable, tasks considered to require "intelligence" are removed from the definition of AI, a phenomenon known as the AI effect. A quip in Tesler's Theorem says "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is excluded from things considered to be AI, having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities classified as AI include understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems, autonomously operating cars, intelligent routing in content delivery networks, military simulations.

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding, followed by new approaches and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that fail to communicate with each other; these sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals, the use of particular tools, or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have been based on social factors; the traditional problems of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, learning, natural language processing and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, methods based on statistics and economics.

The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, psychology, linguistics and many other fields. The field was founded on the assumption that human intelligence "can be so described that a machine can be made to simulate it"; this raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence. These issues have been explored by myth and philosophy since antiquity; some people consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment. In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, theoretical understanding. Thought-capable artificial beings appeared as storytelling devices in antiquity, have been common in fiction, as in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein or Karel Čapek's R. U. R.. These characters and their fates raised many of the same issues now discussed in the ethics of artificial intelligence.

The study of mechanical or "formal" reasoning began with philosophers and mathematicians in antiquity. The study of mathematical logic led directly to Alan Turing's theory of computation, which suggested that a machine, by shuffling symbols as simple as "0" and "1", could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction; this insight, that digital computers can simulate any process of formal reasoning, is known as the Church–Turing thesis. Along with concurrent discoveries in neurobiology, information theory and cybernetics, this led researchers to consider the possibility of building an electronic brain. Turing proposed changing the question from whether a machine was intelligent, to "whether or not it is possible for machinery to show intelligent behaviour"; the first work, now recognized as AI was McCullouch and Pitts' 1943 formal design for Turing-complete "artificial neurons". The field of AI research was born at a workshop at Dartmouth College in 1956, where the term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined by John McCarthy to distinguish the field from cybernetics and escape the influence of the cyberneticist Norbert Wiener.

Attendees Allen Newell, Herbert Simon, John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky and Arthur Samuel became the founders and leaders of AI research. They and their students produced programs that the press described as "astonishing": computers were learning checkers strategies, solving word problems in algebra, proving logical theorems and speaking English. By the middle of the 1960s, research in the U. S. was funded by the Department of Defense and laboratories had been established around the world. AI's founders were optimistic about the future: Herbert Simon predicted, "machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work a man can do". Marvin Minsky agreed, writing, "within a generation... the problem of creating'artificial intelligence' will substantial

W. A. Young and Sons Foundry and Machine Shop

The W. A. Young and Sons Foundry and Machine Shop is a historic industrial facility at 116 Water Street in Rices Landing, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 and operating until 1965, it is one of the best-preserved examples of an early 20th-century small industrial machine shop in the nation, it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 2016. The Young Foundry and Machine Shop is located in the village of Rices Landing, on the south side of the Monongahela River in rural southwestern Pennsylvania, it is set on the south side of Water Street. The shop is a complex of three interconnected wood-frame structures, which are utilitarian and vernacular in appearance, with a gabled roof and clapboarded exterior; the Front Shop, the largest building, houses the main machine shop on the ground floor and the Pattern Shop on the second floor. Attached to the rear of this building are two smaller ones, housing the Foundry and the "Back Shop". Tools and equipment are arranged by function. In the late 19th century, Rice's Landing was a prosperous shipment point for the region.

In 1900 William A. Young built the machine shop purchased that year, he established a small metal machine shop on the premises. The foundry operated until the 1930s, when Young closed it, unable to compete with larger and more efficient operations; the shop remained in operation until 1965. The building and its entire suite of tools and records, was acquired by the Greene County Historical Society in 1985, it sold the property in 2009 to the Steel Industry Heritage Corporation, which has undertaken preservation of the site. List of National Historic Landmarks in Pennsylvania National Register of Historic Places listings in Greene County, Pennsylvania

Introducing Pete Rugolo

Introducing Pete Rugolo is an album by bandleader, composer and conductor Pete Rugolo featuring performances recorded in 1954 and released on the Columbia label as a 10-inch LP with an additional four tracks as a 12-inch LP in 1955. The Allmusic review by Scott Yanow noted: "This particular album finds him utilizing a big band filled with top studio and West Coast jazz players". All compositions by Pete Rugolo except. "That Old Black Magic" - 2:53 "Early Stan" - 2:44 "Bazaar" - 2:49 "California Melodies" - 2:44 "You Stepped Out of a Dream" - 2:16 "360 Special" - 3:02 "Laura" - 2:44 "Come Back Little Rocket" - 2:30 "In the Shade of the Old Apple Tree" - 2:24 Bonus track on 12 inch LP "Sidewalks of New York Mambo" - 3:01 Bonus track on 12 inch LP "Theme from the Lombardo Ending" - 2:42 Bonus track on 12 inch LP "Mañana" - 2:26 Bonus track on 12 inch LPRecorded in Los Angeles, CA on February 8, 1954, February 24, 1954, April 28, 1954, April 29, 1954 and July 8, 1954. Pete Rugolo - arranger, conductor Pete Candoli, Buddy Childers, Maynard Ferguson, Conrad Gozzo, Mickey Mangano, Shorty Rogers - trumpet Milt Bernhart, Harry Betts, Bob Fitzpatrick, John Haliburton, Herbie Harper - trombone Vincent DeRosa, Joe Eager, Fred Fox, John Graas, Bill Hinshaw, Sinclair Lott - French horn Paul Sarmento - tuba Harry Klee, Ethmer Roten, Bud Shank - flute, alto saxophone Bob Cooper - tenor saxophone, oboe Jimmy Giuffre - tenor saxophone, baritone saxophone Bob Gordon - baritone saxophone Claude Williamson - piano Howard Roberts - guitar Harry Babasin - bass Shelly Manne - drums Bernie Mattison - timpani, percussion