Krasnousolsky (rural locality)
Krasnousolsky is a rural locality and the administrative center of Gafuriysky District in Bashkortostan, Russia. Population: 11,991 . №ВС-22/15 24 декабря 1993 г. «Конституция Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №57-з от 4 марта 2014 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Конституцию Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Верховного Совета и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №4-22, ст.146, 1994.. Правительство Республики Башкортостан. Постановление №391 от 29 декабря 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан», в ред. Постановления №61 от 26 февраля 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориальных единиц и населённых пунктов Республики Башкортостан». Опубликован: "Ведомости Государственного Собрания – Курултая, Президента и Правительства Республики Башкортостан", №5, ст. 239, 12 марта 2007 г.. Государственное Собрание —Курултай Республики Башкортостан. Закон №162-з от 17 декабря 2004 г.
«О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан», в ред. Закона №572-з от 17 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Республики Башкортостан "О границах, статусе и административных центрах муниципальных образований в Республике Башкортостан"». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 33. Опубликован: "Республика Башкортостан", №52, 22 марта 2005 г
The Induan is, in the geologic timescale, the first age of the Early Triassic epoch or the lowest stage of the Lower Triassic series. It spans the time between 251.902 Ma and 251.2 Ma. It is followed by the Olenekian; the Induan is coeval with the regional Feixianguanian stage of China. The Induan stage was introduced into scientific literature by Russian stratigraphers in 1956, who divided the Scythian stage, used by Western stratigraphers into the Induan and Olenekian stages; the Induan stage is named for the Indus region of Pakistan/India. The Russian subdivision of the Lower Triassic slowly replaced the one used in the West; the base of the Induan stage is defined as the place in the fossil record where the conodont species Hindeodus parvus first appears, or at the end of the negative δ18O anomaly after the big extinction event at the Permian-Triassic boundary. The global reference profile of the base of the Induan is situated in China; the top of the Induan stage is at the first appearance of ammonite species Meekoceras gracilitatis.
Though the Induan is an unusually short age at this point in the geologic timescale, its million years' extent still contains five ammonite biozones in the boreal domain and four ammonite biozones in the Tethyan domain. The Induan age followed the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian period. Both global biodiversity and community-level diversity remained low through much of this stage of the Triassic. Much of the world remained lifeless, deserted and dry; the lystrosaurids and the proterosuchids were the only groups of land animals to dominate during the Induan stage. Other animals, such as the ammonites, fishes and the tetrapods remained rare and terrestrial ecosystems did not recover for some 30 million years. Both the seas and much of the freshwater during the Induan were anoxic. Lystrosaurids proterosuchids Brack, P.. Gradstein, F. M.. Kiparisova, Lubov Dmitrievna & Popov, Yurij Nikolaivitch. GeoWhen Database - Induan Lower Triassic timescale at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Lower Triassic timescale at the website of Norges Network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
The Early Triassic is the first of three epochs of the Triassic Period of the geologic timescale. It spans the time between 251.902 Ma and 247.2 Ma. Rocks from this epoch are collectively known as the Lower Triassic, a unit in chronostratigraphy; the Early Triassic is the oldest epoch of the Mesozoic Era and is divided into the Induan and Olenekian ages. The Lower Triassic series is coeval with the Scythian stage, today not included in the official timescales but can be found in older literature. In Europe, most of the Lower Triassic is composed of Buntsandstein, a lithostratigraphic unit of continental red beds; the Permian-Triassic extinction event spawned the Triassic period. The massive extinctions that ended the Permian period and Paleozoic era caused extreme hardships for the surviving species. Many types of corals, molluscs and other invertebrates had disappeared; the most common Early Triassic hard-shelled marine invertebrates were bivalves, ammonites, a few articulate brachiopods. The most common land vertebrate was the small herbivorous synapsid Lystrosaurus.
Early Triassic faunas lacked biodiversity and were homogenous throughout the epoch due to the effects of the extinction, ecological recovery on land took 30M years. The climate during the Early Triassic epoch was arid and dry and deserts were widespread; the hot climate of the Early Triassic may have been caused by widespread volcanic eruptions which accelerated the rate of global warming and caused the Permian-Triassic extinction event. Until the existence of an extinction event about 3 million years following the end-Permian extinctions was not recognised because there were few species left to go extinct. However, studies on conodonts have revealed that temperatures rose in the first 3 million years of the Triassic reaching sea surface temperatures of 40 °C in the tropics around 249 million years ago. Large and mobile species disappeared from the tropics, amongst the immobile species such as molluscs, only the ones that could cope with the heat survived. On land, the tropics were devoid of life.
Big, active animals only returned to the tropics, plants recolonised on land when temperatures returned to normal around 247 million years ago. Geologic time scale GeoWhen Database - Early Triassic Palaeos scotese
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.9 million years ago, to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya. It is the last period of the Paleozoic era; the concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the city of Perm. The Permian witnessed the diversification of the early amniotes into the ancestral groups of the mammals, turtles and archosaurs; the world at the time was dominated by two continents known as Pangaea and Siberia, surrounded by a global ocean called Panthalassa. The Carboniferous rainforest collapse left behind vast regions of desert within the continental interior. Amniotes, who could better cope with these drier conditions, rose to dominance in place of their amphibian ancestors; the Permian ended with the Permian–Triassic extinction event, the largest mass extinction in Earth's history, in which nearly 96% of marine species and 70% of terrestrial species died out.
It would take well into the Triassic for life to recover from this catastrophe. Recovery from the Permian–Triassic extinction event was protracted; the term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir R. I. Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, who identified typical strata in extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Édouard de Verneuil; the region now lies in the Perm Krai of Russia. Official ICS 2017 subdivisions of the Permian System from most recent to most ancient rock layers are: Lopingian epoch Changhsingian Wuchiapingian Others: Waiitian Makabewan Ochoan Guadalupian epoch Capitanian stage Wordian stage Roadian stage Others: Kazanian or Maokovian Braxtonian stage Cisuralian epoch Kungurian stage Artinskian stage Sakmarian stage Asselian stage Others: Telfordian Mangapirian Sea levels in the Permian remained low, near-shore environments were reduced as all major landmasses collected into a single continent—Pangaea; this could have in part caused the widespread extinctions of marine species at the end of the period by reducing shallow coastal areas preferred by many marine organisms.
During the Permian, all the Earth's major landmasses were collected into a single supercontinent known as Pangaea. Pangaea straddled the equator and extended toward the poles, with a corresponding effect on ocean currents in the single great ocean, the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, a large ocean that existed between Asia and Gondwana; the Cimmeria continent rifted away from Gondwana and drifted north to Laurasia, causing the Paleo-Tethys Ocean to shrink. A new ocean was growing on its southern end, the Tethys Ocean, an ocean that would dominate much of the Mesozoic era. Large continental landmass interiors experience climates with extreme variations of heat and cold and monsoon conditions with seasonal rainfall patterns. Deserts seem to have been widespread on Pangaea; such dry conditions favored gymnosperms, plants with seeds enclosed in a protective cover, over plants such as ferns that disperse spores in a wetter environment. The first modern trees appeared in the Permian. Three general areas are noted for their extensive Permian deposits—the Ural Mountains and the southwest of North America, including the Texas red beds.
The Permian Basin in the U. S. states of Texas and New Mexico is so named because it has one of the thickest deposits of Permian rocks in the world. The climate in the Permian was quite varied. At the start of the Permian, the Earth was still in an ice age. Glaciers receded around the mid-Permian period as the climate warmed, drying the continent's interiors. In the late Permian period, the drying continued although the temperature cycled between warm and cool cycles. Permian marine deposits are rich in fossil mollusks and brachiopods. Fossilized shells of two kinds of invertebrates are used to identify Permian strata and correlate them between sites: fusulinids, a kind of shelled amoeba-like protist, one of the foraminiferans, ammonoids, shelled cephalopods that are distant relatives of the modern nautilus. By the close of the Permian, trilobites and a host of other marine groups became extinct. Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi and various types of tetrapods; the period saw a massive desert covering the interior of Pangaea.
The warm zone spread in the northern hemisphere. The rocks formed at that time were stained red by iron oxides, the result of intense heating by the sun of a surface devoid of vegetation cover. A number of older types of plants and animals became marginal elements; the Permian began with the Carboniferous flora still flourishing. About the middle of the Permian a major transition in vegetation began; the swamp-loving
Discosauriscus was a small reptiliomorph, It lived in what is now Central and Western Europe in the Early Permian Period. Its best fossils have been found in the Czech Republic. Discosauriscus belongs to the order Seymouriamorpha, is the type genus of the family Discosauriscidae. Recognised are two valid species - Discosauriscus austriacus and Discosauriscus pulcherrimus. Letoverpeton is a junior synonym of Discosauriscus. Discosauriscids were long thought to be known from larval or neotenic forms, three ontogenetic stages had been distinguished. However, more recent studies concluded that some subadult terrestrial specimens were known, so the case for neoteny in this taxon is not as well-supported as once thought. Discosauriscus had wide jaws with sharp teeth, short limbs and long tail; the phalangeal formula was 2-3-4-5-3 for both hind- and forelimbs. The body was covered with rounded scales with concentric rings, a well-preserved lateral-line system has been described. Discosauriscus may have had electroreceptive organs
Diadectes is an extinct genus of large reptile-like amphibians that lived during the early Permian period. Diadectes was one of the first herbivorous tetrapods, one of the first terrestrial animals to attain large size. Diadectes was a built animal, 1.5 to 3 metres long, with a thick-boned skull, heavy vertebrae and ribs, massive limb girdles and short, robust limbs. The nature of the limbs and vertebrae indicate a terrestrial animal, it was assumed that the rib cage was barrel shaped, but new fossils show the ribs were sticking out to the sides. It possesses some characteristics of reptilians and amphibians, combining a reptile-like skeleton with a more primitive, seymouriamorph-like skull. Diadectes has been classified as belonging to the sister group of the amniotes. Among its primitive features, Diadectes has a large otic notch with an ossified tympanum. At the same time its teeth show advanced specialisations for an herbivorous diet that are not found in any other type of early Permian animal.
The eight front teeth are spatulate and peg-like, served as incisors that were used to nip off mouthfuls of vegetation. The broad, blunt cheek teeth show extensive wear associated with occlusion, would have functioned as molars, grinding up the food, it had a partial secondary palate, which meant it could chew its food and breathe at the same time, something many more advanced reptiles were unable to do. These traits are adaptations related to the animals' high-fiber herbivorous diet, evolved independently of similar traits seen in some reptilian groups. Many of the reptile-like details of the post-cranial skeleton are related to carrying the substantial trunk, these may be independently derived traits on Diadectes and their relatives. Though similar, they would be analogous rather than homologous to those of early amniotes like pelycosaurs and pareiasaurs, as the first reptiles evolved from small, swamp dwelling animals like Casineria and Westlothiana; the phenomenon of nonrelated animals evolving is known as convergent evolution.
Diadectes was first named and described by the American paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope in 1878, based on part of a lower jaw from the Permian of Texas. Cope noted: "Teeth with short and much compressed crowns, whose long axis is transverse to that of the jaws," the feature expressed in the generic name Diadectes "crosswise biter", he described the animal as "in all probability, herbivorous." Cope's Neo-Latin type species name sideropelicus "of iron clay" alluded to the Wichita beds in Texas, where the fossil was found. Diadectes fossil remains are known from a number of locations across North America the Texas Red Beds. Numerous species have been assigned to Diadectes, though most of those have proven to be synonyms of one another. Many supposed separate genera of diadectids have been shown to be junior synonyms of Diadectes. One of these, was published by Othniel Charles Marsh five days before the name Diadectes was published by his rival Edward Drinker Cope. Despite this fact, in 1912 Case synonymized the two names and treated Diadectes as the senior synonym, followed by other paleontologists since, despite the fact that it violates the rules of biological nomenclature.
A phylogenetic analysis of Diadectes and related diadectids was presented in an unpublished Ph. D. thesis by Richard Kissel in 2010. Previous phylogenetic analyses of diadectids had found D. absitus to be more basal than other species of Diadectes, outside the derived clade composed of these species. In these analyses, Diasparactus zenos was more related to the other species of Diadectes than was D. absitus, making Diadectes paraphyletic. Kissel recovered this paraphyly in his analysis and proposed the new genus name "Silvadectes" for D. absitus. Below is the cladogram from Kissel's thesis: However, according to the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a name presented in an unpublished thesis such as Kissel's is not valid; because the name "Silvadectes" has not yet been formally erected in a published paper, it is not considered valid. Parker, Steve. Dinosaurus: the complete guide to dinosaurs. Firefly Books Inc, 2003. Pg. 83 Benton, M. J. Vertebrate Paleontology, 2nd ed. Blackwell Science Ltd Carroll, R. L. Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution, WH Freeman & Co.
Colbert, E. H. Evolution of the Vertebrates, John Wiley & Sons Inc Reisz, Biology 356 - Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution - Anthracosaurs and Diadectomorphs
Southern Ural - the south, the widest part of the Ural Mountains, stretches from the river Ufa to the Ural River. From the west and east of the Southern Ural is limited to the East European, West Siberian Plain and the steppes near Aral Sea and Caspian sea; the highest peak - Mount Yamantau - 1640 m. Due to the wide abutting the foothills of the Southern Ural extends up to 250 km with an average width of the Ural Mountains from 40 to 150 km; the length of the Southern Ural - 550 km. The relief of the Southern Ural is more complex, with numerous valleys and parallel ridges directed south-west and meridionally; the range includes the Ilmensky Mountains separated from the main ridges by the Miass River. The maximum height is 1,640 m and the width reaches 250 km. Other notable peaks lie along the Iremel mountain ridge; the Southern Urals extend some 550 km up to the sharp westward bend of the Ural River and terminate in the wide Mughalzhar Hills