Artisanal and Small Scale Mining is emerging as an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations. An artisanal miner or small-scale miner is, in effect, a subsistence miner and they are not officially employed by a mining company, but rather work independently, mining or panning for gold using their own resources. Small-scale mining includes enterprises or individuals that employ workers for mining, Artisanal miners often undertake the activity of mining seasonally – for example crops are planted in the rainy season, and mining is pursued in the dry season. However, they travel to mining areas and work year round. An estimated 13-20 million men and children from over 50 developing countries are engaged in the artisanal mining sector. Artisanal mining can include activities as simple as panning for gold in rivers, to as complex as development of underground workings, in any of these circumstances, issues can stem from difficulties in achieving regulatory oversight of a large number of small operations.
As a result, child labour and a number of fatal accidents have been reported in artisanal mines. Globally, artisanal mining contributes up to 12% or 330 tonnes of gold production. This gold input is equally a significant contribution to both the gold industry and the economy for a given community. A steady rise in the price of gold from US$274. 45/oz at the start of 2002 to US$1229. 88/oz in May 2010 appears to be reflected as a number of miners undertaking this occupation. Due to the inherent digging of soil and sluicing involved in mining, water siltation, erosion. Rivers are commonly diverted as a way to access mineral rich riverbeds, the digging of mines can dig up and spread harmful materials, such as lead, that are located within the soil. The conservation of forests is a concern as many artisanal mining operations take place in. One assessment indicates that almost three-quarters of active mining and exploratory sites overlap with areas of conservation value. It has reported that some mining operations work within environmental protected areas.
Mercury and other chemicals, such as cyanide, are commonly used in artisanal gold mining. Mercury is used during the process as a cheap way to collect small gold particles from sediment. Once mercury and gold are combined to create amalgam, the amalgam is typically burned with a blowtorch or over a flame to separate the mercury from the gold
Salta is a province of Argentina, located in the northwest of the country. Neighboring provinces are from the east clockwise Formosa, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, to the north it borders Bolivia and Paraguay and to the west lies Chile. The Atacamas lived in the Puna, and the Wichís, in the Chaco region, the first conquistador to venture into the area was Diego de Almagro in 1535, he was followed by Diego de Rojas. Hernando de Lerma founded San Felipe de Lerma in 1582, following orders of the viceroy Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, by 1650, the city had around five hundred inhabitants. An intendency of Salta del Tucumán was created within the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, in 1774, San Ramón de La Nueva Orán was founded between Salta and Tarija. In 1783, in recognition of the importance of the city. The battle of Salta in 1813 freed the territory from Spain, gervasio de Posadas created the Province of Salta in 1814, containing the current provinces of Salta and parts of southern Bolivia and northern Chile.
Exploiting internal Argentine conflicts that arose after the Argentine Declaration of Independence, in 1834, Jujuy withdrew from Salta and became a separate province. The borders of Salta were further reduced in 1900, with the loss of Yacuiba to Bolivia. The National Government of Los Andes, constituted from the province in 1902 with a capital at San Antonio de los Cobres, was returned to Salta Province in 1943 as the Department of Los Andes. Antonio Alices painting, La muerte de Güemes, which received a Gold Medal at the Centenary Exposition, is on display at the offices of the Salta Provincial Government. The province is located in the zone and has a warm climate in general. The orientation of the Andes influences the distribution of precipitation within the province, the easternmost parts of the province have a semi-arid climate with a dry winter season. The mean annual temperature and precipitation are 20 °C and 500 millimetres, temperatures can reach up to 47 °C during summers, while they can fall down to −5 °C during winters.
The first slopes of the Andes force the moist, easterly winds to rise, provoking very high condensation leading to the formation of clouds that generate copious amounts of rain. The eastern slopes of the mountains receive between 1,000 to 1,500 mm of precipitation a year, although some places receive up to 2,500 mm of precipitation annually owing to orographic precipitation. Most of the precipitation is concentrated in the summer, with winters being dry, the high rainfall on these first slopes creates a thick jungle that extends in a narrow strip along these ranges, creating an area of great species diversity. At higher altitudes on these slopes, the climate is cooler and more humid, with the vegetation consisting of deciduous, between the high altitudes to the east and the low plains to the west lie the valleys
Manual labour or manual work is physical work done by people, most especially in contrast to that done by machines, and to that done by working animals. It is most literally work done with the hands, and, by figurative extension, for most of human prehistory and history, manual labour and its close cousin, animal labour, have been the primary ways that physical work has been accomplished. To be implemented, they require that sufficient technology exist and that its capital costs be justified by the amount of wages that they will obviate. Thus there is a partial but significant correlation between manual labour and unskilled or semiskilled workers, throughout human existence the latter has involved a spectrum of variants, from slavery, to caste or caste-like systems, to subtler forms of inequality. Economic competition often results in trying to buy labour at the lowest possible cost or to obviate it entirely. It has always been the case for humans that many workers begin their working lives lacking any special level of skill or experience and these conditions have assured the correlations strength and persistence.
The phrase hard labour has become a legal euphemism for penal labour. Throughout human existence, but most especially since the Age of Enlightenment, humans have not yet succeeded in instantiating any such utopia, but some social systems have been designed that go far enough toward the goal that hope yet remains for further improvement. Concepts such as the Three-fifths compromise and the Untermensch defined slaves as less than human, one interesting historical trend that is true of all of the systems above is that they began crumbling in the 20th century and have continued crumbling since. Todays forms of them are mostly greatly weakened compared to past generations versions, at the lowest extreme, such distortion produces subtler forms of racism and de facto inequality of opportunity. The more plausible the deniability, the easier the rationalisation and perpetuation, at such areas of the spectrum, it becomes ever harder to justify efforts that use de jure methods to fight de facto imbalances, because valid instances can be highlighted by all sides. A willingness to recognise that manual labour can involve skill and intelligence can take a variety of forms, in its healthier forms, it recognises the dignity and intelligence of blue-collar workers, and it recognises their civil equality with white-collar workers.
Yet it simultaneously leaves room in society for meritocracy, allowing both upward and downward social mobility. In its more pathological forms, it may admit that there can be a science of manual labour. Some people would have only the first, only the second, players usually should not be their own coaches. Whether Taylor was capable of predicting and preventing that problem is unclear, an example of the second pathology are 20th-century variants of communism, such as Leninism and Stalinism. Mechanisation and automation strive to reduce the amount of labour required for production. Automation helps to bring mechanisation to more complicated tasks that require dexterity, decision making based on visual input
Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules, and fewer than a dozen workers have been called glorified workshops, most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse-like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production. Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail, factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals and paper, or refined oil products. Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors, discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may be supplied parts from elsewhere or make them from raw materials, continuous production industries typically use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products.
The term mill originally referred to the milling of grain, which usually used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, and paper manufacturing were originally powered by water, according to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. A source of 1983, states the largest factory production in ancient times was of 120 slaves within 4th century BC Athens, although The Cambridge Online Dictionary definition of factory states, a building or set of buildings where large amounts of goods are made using machines elsewhere. The wheel was invented circa 3000 BC, the spoked wheel c.2000 BC, the Iron Age began approximately 1200-1000 BC. However, other sources define machinery as a means of production, according to one text the water-mill was first made in 555 A. D. by Belisarius, although according to another they were known to Pliny the Elder and Vitruvius in the first century B. C.
By the time of the 4th century A. D. mills with a capacity to grind 3 tonnes of cereal an hour, the Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in 1104 in Venice, Republic of Venice, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, the Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16,000 people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombes water-powered silk mill at Derby, by 1746, an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, wire, housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, the factory system began widespread use somewhat when cotton spinning was mechanized. Richard Arkwright is the credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in 1769, he established Cromford Mill, in Derbyshire, the factory system was a new way of organizing labour made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a workers cottage.
Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities
A mechanical watch is a watch that uses a mechanism to measure the passage of time, as opposed to modern quartz watches which function electronically. It is driven by a spring which must be wound periodically and its force is transmitted through a series of gears to power the balance wheel, a weighted wheel which oscillates back and forth at a constant rate. A device called an escapement releases the watchs wheels to move forward a small amount with each swing of the balance wheel and this makes the ticking sound characteristic of all mechanical watches. Mechanical watches evolved in Europe in the 17th century from spring powered clocks, mechanical watches are typically not as accurate as modern electronic quartz watches, and they require periodic cleaning by a skilled watchmaker. The internal mechanism of a watch, excluding the face and hands, is called the movement, all mechanical watches have these five parts, A mainspring, which stores mechanical energy to power the watch. A separate part of the train, called the keyless work, allows the user to wind the mainspring. A balance wheel, which oscillates back and forth, each swing of the balance wheel takes precisely the same amount of time.
This is the element in the watch. The periodic stopping of the train by the escapement makes the ticking sound of the mechanical watch. An indicating dial, usually a clock face with rotating hands. Additional functions on a watch besides the basic timekeeping ones are called complications. Calendar—displays the date, and often the weekday, month, an annual calendar does not make the leap year adjustment, and treats February as a 30-day month, so the date must be reset on March 1 every year when it incorrectly says February 29 or 30. Alarm—a bell or buzzer that can be set to go off at a given time, chronograph—a watch with additional stopwatch functions. Buttons on the start and stop the second hand and reset it to zero. Hacking feature—found on military watches, a mechanism that stops the hand while the watch is being set. This enables watches to be synchronized to the precise second and this is now a very common feature on many watches. Moon phase dial—shows the phase of the moon with a face on a rotating disk.
Wind indicator or power reserve indicator—mostly found on watches, a subdial that shows how much power is left in the mainspring
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired in the Middle Ages.
In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period.
Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date.
English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
A watchmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs watches. Since a majority of watches are now made, most modern watchmakers only repair watches. However, originally they were craftsmen who built watches, including all their parts. The term clockmaker refers to an equivalent occupation specializing in clocks, most practising professional watchmakers service current or recent production watches. Instead they obtain and fit factory spare parts applicable to the brand being serviced. The majority of modern watchmakers, particularly in Switzerland and Europe, work directly for the Watchmaking Industry and they receive in-house brand training at the factory or service center where they are employed. However, some factory service centers have an approach allows them to use non-watchmakers who perform only one aspect of the repair process. If genuine watchmakers are employed in environments, they are usually employed to service the watch movement. One major Swiss watch brand now pre-qualifies independent watchmakers before they provide them with spare parts, the Omega brand has the same approach.
However, the vast majority of modern, Swiss brands do not sell parts to independent watchmakers, irrespective of the watchmakers expertise, training or credentials. In modern times watchmakers undergo training courses such as the ones offered by the BHI, in Denmark the apprenticeship lasts 4 years, with 6 terms at the Danish School of Watchmaking in Ringsted. The education covers both clocks and watches, as a watchmaker in Denmark is a clockmaker. In France, one can find 3 diplomas, the lowest is the fr, Certificat daptitude professionnelle en fr, the fr, and optionally, the fr, Diplôme des métiers dart/ DMA Horlogerie. William Paley and others used the watchmaker in his famous analogy to imply the existence of God, richard Dawkins applied this analogy in his book The Blind Watchmaker, arguing that evolution is blind in that it cannot look forward. Alan Moore in his graphic novel Watchmen, uses the metaphor of the watchmaker as a part of the backstory of his heroic character Dr. Manhattan. In the NBC television series Heroes, the villain Sylar is a watchmaker by trade and his ability to know how watches work corresponds to his ability to gain new superpowers by examining the brains of people he has murdered.
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Tokonoma, or simply toko, is a built-in recessed space in a Japanese style reception room, in which items for artistic appreciation are displayed. In English, tokonoma is usually called alcove, Tokonoma first appeared in the late Muromachi period. The items usually displayed in a tokonoma are calligraphic or pictorial scrolls and okimono are sometimes displayed there, although traditionally, bonsai were considered to be too dirty for such a highly respected place. The tokonoma and its contents are essential elements of traditional Japanese interior decoration, the word toko literally means floor or bed, ma means space or room. When seating guests in a Japanese-style room, the etiquette is to seat the most important guest with his or her back facing the tokonoma. This is because of modesty, the host should not be seen to show off the contents of the tokonoma to the guest, stepping within it is strictly forbidden, except to change the display, when a strict etiquette must be followed. The pillar on one side of the tokonoma is usually made of wood and it can range from a seemingly raw trunk with bark still attached, to a square piece of heart wood with very straight grain.
The choice of toko-bashira determines the level of formality for the tokonoma, american architect Frank Lloyd Wright was influenced by Japanese architecture. He translated the meaning of the tokonoma into its western counterpart and this gesture became more of a ceremonial core in his architecture. Higashiyama Bunka in Muromachi period Theorizing about the Origins of the Tokonoma, media related to Tokonoma at Wikimedia Commons
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction. Beauty is studied as part of aesthetics, social psychology and sociology, an ideal beauty is an entity which is admired, or possesses features widely attributed to beauty in a particular culture, for perfection. The experience of beauty often involves an interpretation of some entity as being in balance and harmony with nature, because this can be a subjective experience, it is often said that beauty is in the eye of the beholder. The classical Greek noun that best translates to the English beauty or beautiful was κάλλος, however, kalos may and is translated as ″good″ or ″of fine quality″ and thus has a broader meaning than only beautiful. Similarly, kallos was used differently from the English word beauty in that it first and foremost applied to humans, the Koine Greek word for beautiful was ὡραῖος, hōraios, an adjective etymologically coming from the word ὥρα, hōra, meaning hour.
In Koine Greek, beauty was associated with being of ones hour. Thus, a ripe fruit was considered beautiful, whereas a woman trying to appear older or an older woman trying to appear younger would not be considered beautiful. In Attic Greek, hōraios had many meanings, including youthful, the earliest Western theory of beauty can be found in the works of early Greek philosophers from the pre-Socratic period, such as Pythagoras. The Pythagorean school saw a connection between mathematics and beauty. In particular, they noted that objects proportioned according to the golden ratio seemed more attractive, ancient Greek architecture is based on this view of symmetry and proportion. Plato considered beauty to be the Idea above all other Ideas, aristotle saw a relationship between the beautiful and virtue, arguing that Virtue aims at the beautiful. During the Gothic era, the classical canon of beauty was rejected as sinful. Later and Humanist thinkers rejected this view, and considered beauty to be the product of rational order, Renaissance artists and architects criticised the Gothic period as irrational and barbarian.
This point of view of Gothic art lasted until Romanticism, in the 19th century, the Age of Reason saw a rise in an interest in beauty as a philosophical subject. For example, Scottish philosopher Francis Hutcheson argued that beauty is unity in variety and variety in unity. The Romantic poets, became concerned with the nature of beauty, with John Keats arguing in Ode on a Grecian Urn that Beauty is truth, truth beauty. Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know, in the Romantic period, Edmund Burke postulated a difference between beauty in its classical meaning and the sublime. The concept of the sublime, as explicated by Burke and Kant, suggested viewing Gothic art and architecture, though not in accordance with the standard of beauty
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic, is a federal republic in the southern half of South America. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the second largest in Latin America, and the largest Spanish-speaking one. The country is subdivided into provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires. The provinces and the capital have their own constitutions, but exist under a federal system, Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The earliest recorded presence in the area of modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century, Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural.
The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest developed nation in the world by the early 20th century, Argentina retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs, and is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America and is a member of the G-15 and it is the country with the second highest Human Development Index in Latin America with a rating of very high. Because of its stability, market size and growing high-tech sector, the description of the country by the word Argentina has to be found on a Venice map in 1536. In English the name Argentina probably comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, Argentina means in Italian of silver, silver coloured, probably borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine of silver > silver coloured already mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the form of argentin and derives of argent silver with the suffix -in.
The Italian naming Argentina for the country implies Argentina Terra land of silver or Argentina costa coast of silver, in Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is often used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said lArgentina. The name Argentina was probably first given by the Venitian and Genoese navigators, in Spanish and Portuguese, the words for silver are respectively plata and prata and of silver is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin. The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region, the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name Argentine Republic in legal documents. The name Argentine Confederation was used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the name as Argentine Republic
Bali is an island and province of Indonesia. The province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and it is located at the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. Its capital, Denpasar, is located in the part of the island. With a population of 3,890,757 in the 2010 census, and 4,225,000 as of January 2014, the island is home to most of Indonesias Hindu minority. According to the 2010 Census,83. 5% of Balis population adhered to Balinese Hinduism, followed by 13. 4% Muslim, Christianity at 2. 5%, Bali is a popular tourist destination, which has seen a significant rise in tourists since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy and it is renowned for its highly developed arts, including traditional and modern dance, painting, leather and music. The Indonesian International Film Festival is held every year in Bali, in March 2017, Tripadvisor named the island the worlds top destination in its Travelers choice award.
Bali is part of the Coral Triangle, the area with the highest biodiversity of marine species, in this area alone over 500 reef building coral species can be found. For comparison, this is about 7 times as many as in the entire Caribbean, most recently, Bali was the host of the 2011 ASEAN Summit,2013 APEC and Miss World 2013. Bali is the home of the Subak Irrigation System, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bali was inhabited around 2000 BC by Austronesian people who migrated originally from Southeast Asia and Oceania through Maritime Southeast Asia. Culturally and linguistically, the Balinese are closely related to the people of the Indonesian archipelago, stone tools dating from this time have been found near the village of Cekik in the islands west. In ancient Bali, nine Hindu sects existed, namely Pasupata, Siwa Shidanta, Bodha, Resi, each sect revered a specific deity as its personal Godhead. Inscriptions from 896 and 911 dont mention a king, until 914 and they reveal an independent Bali, with a distinct dialect, where Buddhism and Sivaism were practiced simultaneously.
Mpu Sindoks great-granddaughter, married the Bali king Udayana Warmadewa around 989 and this marriage brought more Hinduism and Javanese culture to Bali. Suradhipa reigned from 1115 to 1119, and Jayasakti from 1146 until 1150, jayapangus appears on inscriptions between 1178 and 1181, while Adikuntiketana and his son Paramesvara in 1204. Balinese culture was influenced by Indian and particularly Hindu culture. The name Bali dwipa has been discovered from inscriptions, including the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD. It was during this time that the people developed their complex irrigation system subak to grow rice in wet-field cultivation, some religious and cultural traditions still practiced today can be traced to this period