An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only; the term is used in the entertainment business in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, restricted to contexts like criticism; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": A learned person or Master of Arts One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, alchemy, chemistry A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic One who makes their craft a fine art One who cultivates one of the fine arts – traditionally the arts presided over by the muses The Greek word "techně" translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft.
The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technical. In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation: Calliope: chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry Clio: muse of history Erato: muse of love or erotic poetry and marriage songs Euterpe: muse of music and lyric poetry Melpomene: muse of tragedy Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, lyric and rhetoric Terpsichore: muse of choral song and dance Thalia: muse of comedy and bucolic poetry Urania: muse of astronomyNo muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour; the word art derives from the Latin "ars", although defined means "skill method" or "technique" conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word artist existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling craftsman, while the word artesan was still unknown.
An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures; the first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of Leon Battista Alberti: De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura, which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills. With the Academies in Europe the gap between fine and applied arts was set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized without corruption into kitsch. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person. An artist may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium"; the word is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.
Most the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or'high culture', activities such as drawing, sculpture, dancing, filmmaking, new media and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for skilled workers in media in the applied arts or decorative arts include artisan and specialized terms such as potter, goldsmith or glassblower. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the Renaissance in raising their status similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level; the term may be used loosely or metaphorically to denote skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan", "fine art" and "applied art", or what constitutes art and what does not.
The French word artiste has been imported into the English language. Use of the word "artiste" can be a pejorative term; the English word'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word'artiste' in French. In Living with Art, Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: Create places for some human purpose. Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. Record and commemorate. Give tangible form to the unknown. Give tangible form to feelings. Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on arts school graduates as well as policies & program outcomes regarding artists, arts, & culture, Elizabeth Lingo and Steven Tepper propose the divide between "arts for art's sake" artists and commercially successful artists is not as wide as may be perceived, that "this bifurcation between th
The Dangerfields are a punk rock/heavy metal band based in Belfast, Northern Ireland, formed in 2000. Fronted by drummer and lead vocalist Andrew Griswold, the band went through many line-up changes, they released one album and four EPs, played more than 800 live gigs, including playing their 666th gig on 06/06/06. They toured with many notable bands, including The Dwarves, The Damned, The Exploited, Flogging Molly and Stiff Little Fingers. In May 2004, Bruce Dickinson of heavy metal legends Iron Maiden, invited them to perform with him at his BBC 6 Music Road Show at Belfast's Mandela Hall alongside alternative metal band Therapy?. Bands to have played their debut gigs opening for The Dangerfields include And So I Watch You from Afar and Black Spiders. Fellow Irishmen and former touring partners Gama Bomb recorded a cover version of the Dangerfields' song Maniac on their Zombi Brew EP. In January 2009 The Dangerfields released a limited edition Marky Ramone wig / skateboard combo, in partnership with Bobby Steele, Bobby became paranoid The Dangerfields were trying to oust him from the deal and threw the remaining stock out of the window of long time friend Jimmy Savile's flat where he lived at the time.
The Dangerfields played their final gig in late 2010, split up in early 2011. They returned to the stage in February and March 2014 for two'one-off' gigs in Belfast and Galway, with a line-up of Griswold, Dan Bastard and Adam'The Beast' Sims. Andrew Griswold - Drums, Drums & Vocals Punk J - Vocals Baron - Bass The Steve Jones - Guitar/Bass Gerry Nearly - Guitar Simon - Vocals Doc Party - Vocals Wasp Boy - Vocals, Bass Nicci Seven - Guitar Cormak - Vocals Rainey - Guitar Jar - Guitar Jane Strain - Bass Horny Seany - Guitar/Bass Goatboy - Guitar/Bass Trues - Guitar/Bass Adam'The Beast' Sims - Guitar Steve Riot - Bass Graeme Insect - Guitar/Bass Ben Dür - Bass Roxy Michaels - Guitar Kevy Canavan - Guitar Luke Nukem - Guitar Catface - Bass Dan Bastard - Guitar/Bass Liam Evangelist - Bass London Lee - Guitar/Bass Mully - Guitar/Bass Treeslug - Bass Saz - Bass Wee Gay Bryan - Bass Craig'Jawbreaker' Hayworth - Bass Diamond Dave - Bass Sib - Bass Mark Numskull - Bass Ciarán Tracey - Bass Jamie Delerict - Bass Jasper'Guitar' Vincent - Guitar Johny Skullknuckles - Guitar Rob Karloff - Guitar Greer - Bass Sancho Büna - Guitar Jake McCullough - Guitar Munky - Bass Robin Daryush - Bass Jude McIlwaine - Guitar Jarlath Cowan - Bass Eoghan Johnson - Bass Dirty Wee Demo Glitter Song Wasted No Respect'Til Belfast Hellride Born To Rock BBC Radio Ulster - Across The Line Gimme Gimme Rock'n' Roll on TNSrecords Vol 2: Mainstream Music Is Shit Wasted Life on Time to Be Proud EP1 Official Website
Kongsfjord Telemetry Station was a satellite ground station located nearby Ny-Ålesund in Svalbard, Norway. It was used between 1967 and 1974 as one of the four initial ground stations which were part of the European Space Tracking Network serving the European Space Research Organization's first generation of satellites; the station provided radio tracking and commanding services as well as data download. Although owned by ESRO, the facilities were constructed and operated by the Royal Norwegian Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Plans for the station's construction started in the early 1960s and negotiations between ESRO and Norwegian authorities started in 1964, despite Norway's lack of membership in ESRO. An initial disagreement of whether to locate the facility by Ny-Ålesund or Longyearbyen was overcome, an agreement was signed on 14 December 1964. However, it was followed up by numerous protests from the Soviet Union, which claimed the installation would violate the demilitarized zone clause of the Svalbard Treaty, as the station had the potential to be used for military satellites and intelligence.
The protests were rejected by Norwegian authorities, construction started in May 1965. The Soviet Union attempted several inspections. Operations commenced in 1967, but the facility was closed in 1974 as the facility was not suitable for new satellites with higher orbits; the first official inquiries into establishing ionosphere research in Svalbard was taken by Leiv Harang head of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, in October 1950. Two similar facilities, a completed one at Kjeller and one under construction in Tromsø, had been initiated; the proposal, regarded by Harang as a military project, was issued to the United States. It was considered by US Joint Chiefs of Staff, who saw it as a possible excuse to populate Spitsbergen as a counter-measure to the Soviet mining communities. However, nothing came of the plans before the International Geophysical Year in 1957–58, when an ionosphere research station was established as Isfjord Radio and moved to Ny-Ålesund in 1963. Although unrelated to the telemetry station, this was the initiation of technology services in Ny-Ålesund.
In 1960, Norway entered a cooperation with the United States, which resulted in the construction of the Norwegian Space Centre at Andøya. In 1964, ESRO was established as a Western European reaction to the developing Soviet and American space programs. Norway chose to only join as an observer because of the close cooperation with the US and because of the cost. However, Norwegian space research scientists participated in ESRO programs. Preliminary work in the planning of ESRO operations concluded that the ESTRACK network would consist of four radio tracking and telemetry stations and three optical tracking stations. In addition to Svalbard and telemetry stations were built on the Falkland Islands, in Fairbanks, Alaska and in Redu, Belgium. France opposed the Svalbard location, as Norway was not a member of ESRO; the ESRO secretariat wanted to quicken the location decision, as it was necessary to have all four in operation before the launch of the ESRO-1 and ESRO-2 satellites. The initial proposal had called for locating the station in Ny-Ålesund due to its topographical advantage.
In January 1964, ESRO started informal discussions with the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who stated that they had no initial objections. By supported by Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompani, ESRO instead proposed situating the station at Longyearbyen because it was less remote and would incur lower costs; this was opposed by Norwegian authorities. An official request was made by ESRO in February, in May, official political support for the project was awarded; the main motivation was to establish a permanent space technology center in Norway that could stimulate further scientific growth. The Svalbard Treaty establishes Svalbard as both a free economic zone and a demilitarized zone, allowing a Soviet presence but hindering Norway from installing military fortifications; the Soviet Union objected to the creation of the telemetry program and threatened to establish a counter-station. The basis was that the ground station was seen as having a military potential, that most ESRO members were members of North Atlantic Treaty Organization and that Norway lacked sufficient competence to control whether or not military activities would take place at the station.
Norwegian authorities responded that the installation was to be used for scientific and peaceful activities under Norwegian control. Further, because of treaty only prohibited fortifications and not military activity as such, Norway held the right to conduct military scientific research and operate intelligence operations on the archipelago. To minimize Soviet opposition, Norway attempted to move the debate from the political to the specialist scene, while at the same time establishing a protocol for Norwegian control and operation of the facility. To achieve this, Norwegian authorities worked towards establishing an inspection procedure to insure that the facilities remained used for'peaceful activities'; this would focus on the regular inspection of auxiliary equipment. To depoliticize the issue further, the government appointed the semi-independent NTNF as the operator of the facility; the first oral consultations between the Soviet embassy and the Norwegian government took place in November 1964.
In the Norwegian Government's internal evaluation, FFI stated that as long as