The Swedish Army is a branch of the Swedish Armed Forces whose main responsibility is land operations. See Swedish Armed Forces The peace-time organisation of the Swedish Army is divided into a number of regiments for the different branches; the number of active regiments has been reduced since the end of the Cold War. The regiment forms training organizations that train the various battalions of the army and home guard; the Swedish Armed Forces underwent a transformation from conscription-based recruitment to a professional defence organisation. This is part of a larger goal to abandon the mass army from the Cold War and develop an army better suited to modern maneuver warfare and at the same time retain a higher readiness. Since 2014, the Swedish army has had around 50,000 soldiers in either full-time or part-time duty, with eight mechanized infantry battalions available at any time and the full force of 71 battalions ready to be deployed within one week; the regular army consists of 8 mechanised maneuver battalions, 19 support battalions of different kinds including artillery battalions, anti-aircraft battalions, combat engineer battalions, logistics battalions and 4 reserve heavy armoured battalions and 40 territorial defence battalions.
The battalion is the core unit but all units are modular and can be arranged in combat teams from company to brigade level with different units depending on the task. There are a total of 6 permanent staffs under the central command capable of handling large battlegroups, 4 regional staffs and 2 brigade staffs; until 1975 the Swedish monarch was the formal head of the army. In 1937, the staff agency Chief of the Army was created to lead the army in peacetime. Following a larger reorganisation of the Swedish Armed Forces in 1994, CA ceased to exist as an independent agency. Instead, the post Chief of Army Staff was created at the newly instituted Swedish Armed Forces Headquarters. In 1998, the Swedish Armed Forces was again reorganized. Most of the duties of the Chief of Army Staff were transferred to the newly instituted post of "Inspector General of the Army"; the post is similar to that of the "Inspector General of the Swedish Navy" and the "Inspector General of the Swedish Air Force" renamed to "Inspector of the Army".
In 2014, the Chief of Army position was reinstated. Per Sylvan, 1937–1940 Ivar Holmquist, 1940–1944 Archibald Douglas, 1944–1948 Carl August Ehrenswärd, 1948–1957 Thord Bonde, 1957–1963 Curt Göransson, 1963–1969 Carl Eric Almgren, 1969–1976 Nils Sköld, 1976–1984 Erik G. Bengtsson, 1984–1990 Åke Sagrén, 1990–1994 Åke Sagrén, 1994–1996 Mertil Melin, 1996–1998 Paul Degerlund, 1998–2000 Alf Sandqvist, 2000–2003 Alf Sandqvist, 2003–2005 Sverker Göranson, 2005–2007 Berndt Grundevik, 2007–2012 Anders Brännström, 2012–2013 Anders Brännström, 2013–2016 Karl Engelbrektson, 2016–present Swedish Army regiments are tasked with training conscripts and Home Guard troops. Additionally each regiment can mobilise in times of crisis or war operational battalions for the army's rapid reaction organisation; the active regiments and their main peacetime subordinate units are: Life Guards, in Stockholm Stockholm Command Staff Armed Forces International Centre Armed Forces Dog Service Unit Armed Forces Military Music Center Dalregementsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Dalarna County Dalarna Battalion, in Falun Gävleborgsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Gävleborg County Gävleborg Battalion, in Gävle Livgardesgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Stockholm County Attundaland Battalion, in Kungsängen Stockholm Battalion, in Kungsängen Taeliehus Battalion, in Kungsängen Järva Battalion, in Kungsängen Göta Engineer Regiment, in Eksjö Engineer Battalion, trains the troops of the 21st and 22nd engineer battalions Field Works School Norra Smålandsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Jönköping County North Småland Battalion, in Eksjö Life Regiment Hussars, in Karlsborg Training companies, train the troops of the 31st light and 32nd reconnaissance battalions Armed Forces Survival School Örebro-Värmlandsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Örebro and Värmland counties Värmland Battalion, in Karlstad Sannahed Battalion, in Örebro Skaraborg Regiment, in Skövde Training unit, trains the troops of the 41st and 42nd mechanized battalions, 18th battle group, 1st heavy transport company, 2nd brigade reconnaissance company Skaraborgsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Västra Götaland County Kinne Battalion, in Skövde Kåkind Battalion, in Skövde Bohusdalgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Bohuslän and Dalsland Bohusläns Battalion, in Skredsvik Air Defence Regiment, in Halmstad Air Defence Battalion, trains the troops of the 61st and 62nd air defence battalions Hallandsgruppen and supports the Home Guard in Halland County Halland Battalion, in Halmstad South Scania Regiment, in Revingehed Training companies, train the troops of the 71st light mechanized and 72nd mechanized battalions Skånska Gruppen and supports the Home Guard in Skåne County South Scania Battalion, in Revingehed Malmöhus Battalion, in Malmö Scania Dragoon Battalion, in Helsingborg North Scania Battalion, in Hässleholm Artillery Regiment, in Boden Artillery
The Swedish Academy, founded in 1786 by King Gustav III, is one of the Royal Academies of Sweden. It has 18 members; the academy makes the annual decision on who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 by King Gustav III. Modelled after the Académie française, it has 18 members; the academy's motto is "Talent and Taste". The academy's primary purpose is to further the "purity and sublimity of the Swedish language". To that end the academy publishes two dictionaries; the first is a one-volume glossary called Svenska Akademiens ordlista. The second is a multi-volume dictionary, edited on principles similar to those of the Oxford English Dictionary, entitled Svenska Akademiens Ordbok; the SAOL has reached its 14th edition while the first volume of the SAOB was published in 1898 and, as of 2017, work has progressed to words beginning with the letter "V". The building now known as the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building was built for the bourgeoisie.
The bottom floor was used as a trading exchange, the upper floor was used for balls, New Year's Eve parties, etc. When the academy was founded, the ballroom was the biggest room in Stockholm that could be heated and thus used in the winter, so the King asked if he could borrow it; the academy has had its annual meeting there every year since, attended by members of the Swedish royal family. However, it was not until 1914 that the academy gained permanent use of the upper floor as their own, it is here that the academy meets and, amongst other business, announces the names of Nobel Prize laureates. This task arguably makes the academy one of the world's most influential literary bodies. Dag Hammarskjöld's former farm at Backåkra, close to Ystad in southern Sweden, was bought in 1957 as a summer residence by Hammarskjöld Secretary-General of the United Nations; the south wing of the farm is reserved as a summer retreat for the 18 members of the Swedish Academy, of which Hammarskjöld was a member.
Prior to 2018 it was not possible for members of the academy to resign. This happened twice to Gustaf Mauritz Armfelt, excluded in 1794, re-elected in 1805 and excluded again in 1811. In 1989, Werner Aspenström, Kerstin Ekman and Lars Gyllensten chose to stop participating in the meetings of the academy, over its refusal to express support for Salman Rushdie when Ayatollah Khomeini condemned him to death for The Satanic Verses, in 2005, Knut Ahnlund made the same decision, as a protest against the choice of Elfride Jelinek as Nobel laureate for 2004. On 25 November 2017, Lotta Lotass said in an interview that she had not participated in the meetings of the academy for more than two years and did not consider herself a member any more. In April 2018, three members of the academy board resigned in response to a sexual-misconduct investigation involving author Jean-Claude Arnault, husband of board member Katarina Frostenson. Arnault was accused by at least 18 women of sexual harassment; the three members resigned in protest over the lack of what they felt appropriate action against Arnault.
Two former permanent secretaries, Sture Allén and Horace Engdahl, called the current leader, Sara Danius, a weak leader. On 10 April, Danius resigned from her position with the academy, bringing the number of empty seats to four. Frostenson voluntarily agreed to withdraw from participating in the academy, bringing the total of withdrawals to five; because two other seats were still vacant after the Rushdie affair, this left only 11 active members. The scandal was seen as damaging to the credibility of the Nobel prize in Literature and the authority of the academy. "With this scandal you cannot say that this group of people has any kind of solid judgment," noted Swedish journalist Björn Wiman. On 27 April 2018, the Swedish Economic Crime Authority opened a preliminary investigation regarding financial crime linked to an association run by Arnault and Frostenson, which had received funding from the academy. On 2 May 2018, the Swedish King amended the rules of the academy and made it possible for members to resign.
The new rules state that a member, inactive in the work of the academy for more than two years can be asked to resign. Following the new rules, the first members to formally be granted permission to leave the academy and vacate their chairs were Kerstin Ekman, Klas Östergren, Sara Stridsberg and Lotta Lotass. On 4 May 2018, the Swedish Academy announced that following the preceding internal struggles the Nobel laureate for literature selected in 2018 will be postponed until 2019, when two laureates will be selected. Since 1901, the Swedish Academy has annually decided who will be the laureate for the Nobel Prize in Literature, awarded in memory of the donor Alfred Nobel; the Swedish Academy annually awards nearly 50 different prizes and scholarships, most of them for domestic Swedish authors. Common to all is that they are awarded without application; the Dobloug Prize, the largest of these at $40,000, is a literature prize awarded for Swedish and Norwegian fiction. Swedish: Stora Priset the Big Prize, was instituted by King Gustav III.
The prize, which consists of a single gold medal, is the most prestigious award that can be awarded by the Swedish Academy. It has been awarded to, among others, Selma Lagerlöf, Herbert Tingsten, Astrid Lindgren, Evert Taube and Tove Jansson; the academy awards around 50 p
BIBSYS is an administrative agency set up and organized by the Ministry of Education and Research in Norway. They are a service provider, focusing on the exchange and retrieval of data pertaining to research and learning – metadata related to library resources. BIBSYS are collaborating with all Norwegian universities and university colleges as well as research institutions and the National Library of Norway. Bibsys is formally organized as a unit at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, located in Trondheim, Norway; the board of directors is appointed by Norwegian Ministry of Research. BIBSYS offer researchers and others an easy access to library resources by providing the unified search service Oria.no and other library services. They deliver integrated products for the internal operation for research and special libraries as well as open educational resources; as a DataCite member BIBSYS act as a national DataCite representative in Norway and thereby allow all of Norway's higher education and research institutions to use DOI on their research data.
All their products and services are developed in cooperation with their member institutions. BIBSYS began in 1972 as a collaborative project between the Royal Norwegian Society of Sciences and Letters Library, the Norwegian Institute of Technology Library and the Computer Centre at the Norwegian Institute of Technology; the purpose of the project was to automate internal library routines. Since 1972 Bibsys has evolved from a library system supplier for two libraries in Trondheim, to developing and operating a national library system for Norwegian research and special libraries; the target group has expanded to include the customers of research and special libraries, by providing them easy access to library resources. BIBSYS is a public administrative agency answerable to the Ministry of Education and Research, administratively organised as a unit at NTNU. In addition to BIBSYS Library System, the product portfolio consists of BISBYS Ask, BIBSYS Brage, BIBSYS Galleri and BIBSYS Tyr. All operation of applications and databases is performed centrally by BIBSYS.
BIBSYS offer a range of services, both in connection with their products and separate services independent of the products they supply. Open access in Norway Om Bibsys
Svenska Akademiens ordlista
Svenska Akademiens ordlista, abbreviated SAOL, is a glossary published every few years by the Swedish Academy. It is a single volume, considered the final arbiter of Swedish spelling. Traditionally it carries the motto of Snille och Smak, on its blue cloth cover. Whenever a new edition comes out lively discussions about new and changed entries erupt around the country. In some instances the Academy has been ahead of its times and has had to change entries back to older spellings. Jos – juice is the most well-known instance. In 2015, the fourteenth edition was published; the history of SAOL is the history of orthography of the Swedish language. While Swedish spelling was an personal business in the Catholic Middle Ages, its gradual standardization started in 1526 with the translation of the New testament of the Bible, as part of the Lutheran reformation; the edition was revised in 1703, known as the Swedish Bible of Carolus XII. The Swedish Academy was founded in 1786 with the task of caring for Swedish literature and language, including the publication of a grand dictionary.
Spelling evolved in the 18th century and was based on etymology: for instance, because of its historic relationship to English heart and German Herz, hjärta was spelled hjerta in Swedish though it's pronounced. In 1801 the Academy published an official orthography. A shorter version for schools was published by Carl Jonas Love Almqvist, Svensk Rättstafnings-Lära in 1829. In the 1750s, voices had been raised to adopt spelling to pronunciation, but this didn't resonate with the conservatively minded Academy. Public schools were made mandatory in Sweden by law in 1842 and the influence of school teachers increased, as did the pressure to reform Swedish spelling; the most radical reformists wanted to do away with all silent letters and change the remaining ones to a smaller subset of the alphabet. A similar reform movement for Danish, which at this time was the written language in Norway, was led by Rasmus Rask and his follower Niels Matthias Petersen. In 1869 a pan-Scandinavian orthography congress gathered in Stockholm.
Secretary for the Swedish section was Artur Hazelius, who in 1871 published the proceedings of the conference. The Academy was not pleased, as a countermeasure Johan Erik Rydqvist published the first edition of SAOL in 1874, based on the orthography in Leopold's work of 1801. A second edition followed in the same year and new ones in 1875, 1880 and the 5th edition in 1883, without much change. To further reform, a Swedish orthographic society was formed on November 28, 1885, chaired by linguist Adolf Noreen, published a journal Nystavaren. Tidskrift för rättskrivningsfrågor. There was continued opposition, not least from Academy member Esaias Tegnér Jr.. However, many of the proposed changes, albeit far from all, were introduced in the 6th edition of SAOL in 1889. Many words spelled with E were changed to Ä, under Q it was stated that Q may at will be replaced with K. By a government resolution on November 16, 1889, the spelling used in this edition of SAOL was to be used for teaching in Swedish high schools and teacher colleges.
This was a direct blow against the society's own dictionary published in 1886, reform movement lost much of its momentum. In the 7th edition of SAOL in 1900, many of the old optional forms with Q were dropped. In 1898, school teachers started to sign mass petitions for further reform. In 1903, the association of Swedish public school teachers requested a government ruling that it "would no longer be considered wrong" to write TT instead of DT and V instead of F, FV and HV. More associations joined this petition in 1905. A government proposal to this effect was signed on April 7, 1906, by education minister Fridtjuv Berg, put before the parliament of 1907. A protest against the reform signed by 40,000 concerned citizens was handed to the government in 1908, but had no effect; the liberal Fridtjuv Berg was a former school teacher and one of the founding members of the orthographic society. The reform of 1906 was the most radical in the history of Swedish orthography. Spelling with dt, fv and hv is now known as "old spelling".
The new spelling was adopted in schools starting in 1907. It was used from the first edition of Selma Lagerlöf's geography textbook Nils Holgerssons underbara resa genom Sverige; the proceedings of the Swedish parliament adopted the new spelling from the year 1913. After endless discussions through the 19th century, a new Swedish Bible translation was adopted in 1917, using the new spelling. Sweden's largest printed encyclopedia of all times, the 2nd edition of Nordisk familjebok was started in 1904 and used the old spelling through all 38 volumes until 1926; the Academy introduced the new spelling in the 8th edition of SAOL in 1923. The 9th edition appeared in 1950. In the 10th edition in 1973, the Academy tried to launch new alternative spellings such as jos, without attracting any significant number of followers; the 11th edition of SAOL ap
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end