SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Aryabhata

Aryabhata or Aryabhata I was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His works include the Arya-siddhanta. For his explicit mention of the relativity of motion, he qualifies as a major early physicist. While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the "bhatta" suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells his name thus, including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a hundred places by name". Furthermore, in most instances "Aryabhatta" would not fit the metre either. Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that he was 23 years old 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, but this is not to mean that the text was composed at that time; this mentioned year corresponds to 499 CE, implies that he was born in 476. Aryabhata called himself a native of Pataliputra. Bhāskara I describes Aryabhata as āśmakīya, "one belonging to the Aśmaka country."

During the Buddha's time, a branch of the Aśmaka people settled in the region between the Narmada and Godavari rivers in central India. It has been claimed that the aśmaka where Aryabhata originated may be the present day Kodungallur, the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala; this is based on the belief. The fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala has been used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity. K. Chandra Hari has argued for the Kerala hypothesis on the basis of astronomical evidence. Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya, but his "Lanka" is an abstraction, standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini, it is certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time. Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhāskara I, identify Kusumapura as Pāṭaliputra, modern Patna. A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution at Kusumapura, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well.

Aryabhata is reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar. Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on astronomy, some of which are lost, his major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic, plane trigonometry, spherical trigonometry, it contains continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums-of-power series, a table of sines. The Arya-siddhanta, a lost work on astronomical computations, is known through the writings of Aryabhata's contemporary and mathematicians and commentators, including Brahmagupta and Bhaskara I; this work appears to be based on the older Surya Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhatiya. It contained a description of several astronomical instruments: the gnomon, a shadow instrument angle-measuring devices and circular, a cylindrical stick yasti-yantra, an umbrella-shaped device called the chhatra-yantra, water clocks of at least two types, bow-shaped and cylindrical.

A third text, which may have survived in the Arabic translation, is Al-nanf. It claims that it is a translation by Aryabhata. Dating from the 9th century, it is mentioned by the Persian scholar and chronicler of India, Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī. Direct details of Aryabhata's work are known only from the Aryabhatiya; the name "Aryabhatiya" is due to commentators. Aryabhata himself may not have given it a name, his disciple Bhaskara I calls it Ashmakatantra. It is occasionally referred to as Arya-shatas-aShTa, because there are 108 verses in the text, it is written in the terse style typical of sutra literature, in which each line is an aid to memory for a complex system. Thus, the explication of meaning is due to commentators; the text consists of the 108 verses and 13 introductory verses, is divided into four pādas or chapters: Gitikapada:: large units of time—kalpa and yuga—which present a cosmology different from earlier texts such as Lagadha's Vedanga Jyotisha. There is a table of sines, given in a single verse.

The duration of the planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4.32 million years. Ganitapada: covering mensuration and geometric progressions, gnomon / shadows, quadratic and indeterminate equations. Kalakriyapada: different units of time and a method for determining the positions of planets for a given day, calculations concerning the intercalary month, kShaya-tithis, a seven-day week with names for the days of week. Golapada: Geometric/trigonometric aspects of the celestial sphere, features of

Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting

The Tokyo International Music Competition is a music competition held in Tokyo, Japan. It has been organized by Min-On Concert Association. Competitions have been held in the three areas of conducting and chamber music, competitions in conducting are being held on a triennial basis; the Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting has become an official member of the World Federation of International Music Competitions in 2014. Established in 1966 with the aim of discovering and supporting outstanding musical talents, the Tokyo International Music Competition vigorously promotes the growth of young musicians who display a broad range of promise in an international forum, it serves to promote cultural exchanges between representatives of different countries and to contribute to the further development of musical culture. The first competition for singing was held in 1966, followed by the first competition for conducting in 1967; the competition for chamber music was established in 1974.

The Tokyo International Music Competition for Conducting has been renamed in 1988 from Min-On Competition. 1st Competition in 1967 1st Prize: Yukinori Tezuka, Japan 2nd Prize: Shigenobu Yamaoka, Japan 3rd Prize: Hiroshi Koizumi, Japan Finalists: Kotaro Sato, Japan.

Badiul Alam Majumdar

Badiul Alam Majumdar is a Bangladeshi economist, development worker, political analyst, local government and election expert. He is the Vice President & country Director of the US-based charity The Hunger Project, he is the founder-Secretary of a civil society organization named Citizens for Good Governance. Majumdar was born in February 1946 at Polaiya village at Laksham Upazila in Cumilla of the British India, he completed his Higher Secondary School Certificate in 1962 from and graduated from Dhaka University in 1967. He earned his post graduate degree from the same University in 1968, he completed a graduate fellowship at Claremont Graduate University from 1970 to 1971. He obtained his PhD degree in Economics from Case Western Reserve University