"Aryan" has its roots as a term used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people. The term was used by the Indo-Aryan people of the Vedic period in Ancient India as a religious label for themselves and as well as the geographic region known as Āryāvarta, where Indo-Aryan culture is based; the Iranian people used the term as an ethnic label for themselves in the Avesta scriptures, the word forms the etymological source of the country name Iran. It was believed in the 19th century that Aryan was a self-designation used by all Proto-Indo-Europeans, a theory that has now been abandoned. Scholars point out that in ancient times, the idea of being an "Aryan" was religious and linguistic, not racial. Drawing on misinterpreted references in the Rig Veda by Western scholars in the 19th century, the term "Aryan" was adopted as a racial category through the works of Arthur de Gobineau, whose ideology of race was based on an idea of blonde northern European "Aryans" who had migrated across the world and founded all major civilizations, before being diluted through racial mixing with local populations.

Through the works of Houston Stewart Chamberlain, Gobineau's ideas influenced the Nazi racial ideology which saw "Aryan peoples" as innately superior to other putative racial groups. The atrocities committed in the name of this racial ideology have led academics to avoid the term "Aryan", replaced in some cases by "Indo-Iranian"; the English word "Aryan" was borrowed from the Sanskrit word ā́rya, आर्य, in the 18th century and thought to be the self-designation used by all Indo-Iranian people. Philologist J. P. Mallory argues that "As an ethnic designation, the word is most properly limited to the Indo-Iranians, most justly to the latter where it still gives its name to the country Iran. In early Vedic literature, the term Āryāvarta was the name given to northern India, where the Indo-Aryan culture was based; the Manusmṛti gives the name Āryāvarta to "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges, from the Eastern to the Western Sea". The term was used as a national name to designate those who worshipped the Vedic deities and followed Vedic culture.

The Sanskrit term comes from proto-Indo-Iranian *arya- or *aryo-, the name used by the Indo-Iranians to designate themselves. The Zend airya'venerable' and Old Persian ariya are derivates of *aryo-, are self-designations. In Iranian languages, the original self-identifier lives on in ethnic names like "Alans" and "Iron"; the name of Iran is the Persian word for land/place of the Aryans. The Proto-Indo-Iranian term is hypothesized to have proto-Indo-European origins, It has been postulated the Proto-Indo-European root word is *haerós with the meanings "members of one's own group, freeman" as well as the Indo-Iranian meaning of Aryan. Derived from it were words like the Hittite prefix arā- meaning member of one's own group, peer and friend; the word *haerós itself is believed to have come from the root *haer- meaning "put together". The original meaning in Proto-Indo-European had a clear emphasis on the "in-group status" as distinguished from that of outsiders those captured and incorporated into the group as slaves.

While in Anatolia, the base word has come to emphasize personal relationship, in Indo-Iranian the word has taken a more ethnic meaning. A review of numerous other ideas, the various problems with each is given by Oswald Szemerényi. According to Szemerényi it is a Near-Eastern loanword from the Ugaritic ary, kinsmen. Proto-Indo-Europeans: during the 19th century, it was proposed that "Aryan" was the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Europeans, a hypothesis, abandoned. "Aryan language family": the Indo-Aryan languages, Iranian languages and Nuristani languages, During the 19th century it was proposed that "Aryan" was the self-designation of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Based on speculations that the Proto-Indo-European homeland was located in northern Europe, a 19th-century hypothesis, now abandoned, the word developed a racialist meaning; the Nazis used the word "Aryan" to describe people in a racial sense. The Nazi official Alfred Rosenberg believed that the Nordic race was descended from Proto-Aryans, who he believed had prehistorically dwelt on the North German Plain and who had originated from the lost continent of Atlantis.

According to Nazi racial theory, the term "Aryan" described the Germanic peoples. However, a satisfactory definition of "Aryan" remained problematic during Nazi Germany; the Nazis considered the purest Aryans to be those that belonged to the "Nordic race" physical ideal, known as the "master race" during Nazi Germany. Although the physical ideal of the Nazi racial theorists was the tall, fair-haired and light-eyed Nordic individual, such theorists accepted the fact that a considerable variety of hair and eye colour existed within the racial categories they recognised. For example, Adolf Hitler and many Nazi officials had dark hair and were still considered members of the Aryan race under Nazi racial doctrine, because the determination of an individual's racial type depended on a preponderance of many characteristics in an individual rather than on just one defining feature. I


A ferrule is any of a number of types of objects used for fastening, sealing or reinforcement. They are narrow circular rings made from metal, or less plastic. Ferrules are often referred to as eyelets or grommets within the manufacturing industry. Most ferrules consist of a circular clamp used to hold together and attach fibers, wires, or posts by crimping, swaging, or otherwise deforming the ferrule to permanently tighten it onto the parts that it holds; the plastic sleeve preventing the ends of shoelaces from unraveling The metal sleeve, crimped to hold the eraser in place on pencils The metal band that binds the bristles or hair of a brush to its handle The metal ring which holds a chisel blade's tang to the handle In fiber optic terminations, glass or plastic fibers are bonded to precision ferrule connectors described as fiber channel connectors, polished for splitting or connecting two fibers together The metal spike at the end of the shaft of an ice axe The margin of a cast crown that stabilizes root-canal-treated teeth in restorative dentistry A ferrule, in respect to dentistry, is a band that encircles the external dimension of residual tooth structure, not unlike the metal bands that exist around a barrel.

This is known as the Ferrule Effect. The bottom end of a flagstick on a golf course, which fits snugly into a hole in the cup The plastic sleeve that adorns the bottom of most steel and graphite golf club shafts just above the club head hosel. Designed to protect the shaft from damaging vibrations, it is now used for aesthetic purposes The metal band used to prevent the ends of wooden instruments and tools from splitting The semi-circular metal band that holds the fibers in place on the frogs of bows for violin family instruments Compression fittings for attaching tubing have ferrules in them. A swaged termination type for wire rope The cap at the end of a cane or umbrella as well as the ring crimped, sometimes pinned, that prevents an umbrella's canopy from sliding off the end when open; the portion of a cue in pool and snooker that tops the shaft and to which the tip is bonded. A metal or plastic ring used in plumbing as part of a compression fitting along with a slip-on nut for making a liquid-tight connection when joining pipe or tubing.

Some of the reasons people use ferrules include: To shield parts or cables from electromagnetic pulses, environmental damage, the elements, thermal factors, more. To cover parts, adding wear resistance, damage protection, or packaging; as a connector, to connect wires, structural devices, systems To bind parts together, including bundles of wires, or cloth threads to the end of the mop, as an example. To act as conveyance for fluids like oil and water, or for gasses like air

José María López Lledín

José María López Lledín was an elegant vagabond known as El Caballero de París who wandered the streets of Havana and was a well-known cult figure in the Cuban Capital. El Caballero de París is portrayed in a bronze statue by José Villa Soberón. José María, the fourth of eleven children, was born at 11 a.m. on 30 December, 1899. Travelling in the German passenger ship S. S. Chemnitz, he arrived in Havana at twelve years of age on 12 December, 1913, his mother was Josefa Lledín Mendes and his father was Manuel Lopez Rodriguez. He was baptized in the Parish of Salvador de Negueira. According to his sister Inocencia, he worked in a bookshop, he worked as a waiter in the hotels Inglaterra, Sevilla, Royal Palm and Saratoga. There are many stories as to why he lost his mental sanity but all of them converge on the fact that he was imprisoned in the Castillo del Príncipe in 1920 for a crime he did not commit. Anybody that lived in Havana in the 1950s remembers El Caballero de París. Arquitecto Cheo Malanga writes about the one time that he saw el Caballero de París: "El Caballero de París was a cult figure in Havana in the 40s and 50s.

He was of disheveled hair with some gray hair and a beard. He always wore black, with a long coat of the same color during the summer, he used to carry a folder full of papers. He was a gentle and educated man who roamed the streets and traveled by bus all over the city, greeting people and discussing philosophy and politics, he never asked for alms or said bad words, he only accepted money from people he liked. I remember an occasion during my childhood, while I was traveling in a car with my parents on Infanta street, that my mother shouted..... "Look, look there is El Caballero de París!" When I turned my eyes I could only see a fleeting figure with long white hair and a black cloak that slouched away at a slow pace. That was my only encounter with the Parisian aristocracy of our homeland." He was late in life diagnosed as suffering from paraphrenia, a late-onset mental disorder featuring such symptoms as delusions and hallucinations. He was a patient of the Psychiatric Hospital of Havana. Luis Calzadilla Fierro.

Yo soy el Caballero de París. Badajoz, España: Editorial Departamento de Publicaciones de la Diputación de Badajoz. A more detailed account and pictures from his appearance on TV Images and video footage on YouTube Gerardo Alfonso singing "El Ilustrado Caballero de Paris" on YouTube Barbarito Diez El Caballero de Paris Astrological Chart Facebook Page