Asbestos is a term used to refer to six occurring silicate minerals. All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fiber being composed of many microscopic'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is heat-resistant, so for many years it was used as a building material. However, it is a well-known health and safety hazard, today, the use of asbestos as a building material is now illegal in many countries. Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer. Archaeological studies have found evidence of asbestos being used as far back as the Stone Age to strengthen ceramic pots, but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties. Asbestos was used during the 20th century until the 1970s, when public recognition of the health hazards of asbestos dust led to its prohibition in mainstream construction and fireproofing in most countries.
Despite this, in part because the consequences of exposure can take decades to arise, at least 100,000 people per year are thought to die from diseases related to asbestos exposure. Despite the severity of asbestos-related diseases, the material has been used all around the world, most pre-1980s buildings are thought to contain asbestos. Many developing countries still support the use of asbestos as a building material, mining of asbestos is ongoing, with top producer Russia having produced about one million tonnes in 2015; the word "asbestos", first used in the 1600s derives from the Ancient Greek ἄσβεστος, meaning "unquenchable" or "inextinguishable". The name reflects use of the substance for wicks, it was adopted via the Old French abestos, which in turn got the word from Greek via Latin, but in the original Greek, it referred to quicklime. It is said by the Oxford English Dictionary to have been wrongly used by Pliny for asbestos, who popularized the misnomer. Asbestos was referred to in Greek as amiantos, meaning "undefiled", because it was not marked when thrown into a fire.
This is the source for the word for asbestos such as the Portuguese amianto. It had been called "amiant" in English in the early 15th century, but this usage was superseded by "asbestos"; the word is pronounced or. People have used asbestos for thousands of years to create flexible objects, such as napkins, that resist fire. In the modern era, companies began producing asbestos consumer goods on an industrial scale. Now people recognize the health hazard that asbestos dust poses, it is banned or regulated around the world. Asbestos use dates back at least 4,500 years, when the inhabitants of the Lake Juojärvi region in East Finland strengthened earthenware pots and cooking utensils with the asbestos mineral anthophyllite. One of the first descriptions of a material that may have been asbestos is in Theophrastus, On Stones, from around 300 BC, although this identification has been questioned. In both modern and ancient Greek, the usual name for the material known in English as "asbestos" is amiantos, adapted into the French as amiante and into Spanish and Portuguese as amianto.
In modern Greek, the word ἀσβεστος or ασβέστης stands and for lime. The term asbestos is traceable to Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder's manuscript Natural History and his use of the term asbestinon, meaning "unquenchable". While Pliny or his nephew Pliny the Younger is popularly credited with recognising the detrimental effects of asbestos on human beings, examination of the primary sources reveals no support for either claim. Wealthy Persians amazed guests by cleaning a cloth by exposing it to fire. For example, according to Tabari, one of the curious items belonging to Khosrow II Parviz, the great Sassanian king, was a napkin that he cleaned by throwing it into fire; such cloth is believed to have been made of asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush. According to Biruni in his book Gems, any cloths made of asbestos were called shostakeh; some Persians believed the fiber was the fur of an animal called the samandar, which lived in fire and died when exposed to water. Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, is said to have had a tablecloth made of asbestos.
Marco Polo recounts having been shown, in a place he calls Ghinghin talas, "a good vein from which the cloth which we call of salamander, which cannot be burnt if it is thrown into the fire, is made..."Some archaeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings to preserve only their ashes and to prevent the ashes being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials used in funeral pyres. Others assert that the ancients used asbestos to make perpetual wicks for other lamps. A famous example is the golden lamp asbestos lychnis, which the sculptor Callimachus made for the Erechtheion. In more recent centuries, asbestos was indeed used for this purpose. Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact, ancient literature indicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, for the itch, it is possible that the term asbestos was used for soapstone, because the two terms have been confused throughout history. The large-scale asbestos industry began in the mid-19th century.
Early attempts at producing asbestos paper and cloth in Italy began in the 1850s, but were unsuccessful in c
The O-Jolle was an event on the 2018 Vintage Yachting Games program at Copenhagen, Denmark. Six out of the eight scheduled races were completed. Seven sailors, on seven boats, from two nations entered. Both of the course areas on the Øresund in front of Hellerup were available for the O-Jolle event. In all cases the Alpha course area was used; the Øresund in front of the Hellerup Sejlklub was during the 2018 Vintage Yachting Games one of the targets of the remains of the Hurricane Florence. This resulted in South-Westerly winds that varied between 12–38 knots over the period of the Vintage. Course area Alpha was more in the open sea. With the South-Westerly winds this meant more waves; the wind was more stable and predictable closer to shore. In the O-Jolle six out of the planned eight races were completed; the O-Jolle class brought several European Champions to the Vintage. The first three races were dominated by Thies Bosch; when Thies encountered some material breakage the races were open again.
Dnc = did not compete dnf = did not finish Crossed out results did not count for the total result. Information about the Vintage Yachting Classes can be verified by: IOC World Sailing Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum Amsterdam Vintage Yachting Games OrganizationInformation about the organization, conditions and results can be verified by: Manage 2 Sail Twaalf Voets Jollen Club Admiralty 12' Dinghy International Olympiajol Union International Soling Association
Infundibulicybe gibba is a species of gilled mushroom, common in European woods. In English it is sometimes known as the common funnel; this species was described by the mycologist Christiaan Hendrik Persoon in 1801 as Agaricus gibbus, at a time when gilled mushrooms were all assigned to genus Agaricus. In 1871 in his guide to mycology, Paul Kummer allocated the species to the genus Clitocybe, which had only been a tribe within genus Agaricus. In 2003 Harri Harmaja created the new genus Infundibulicybe for some of the larger members of the former Clitocybe and he included Infundibulicybe gibba as the type species. A couple of authorities still keep it in genus Clitocybe, however; the older name Clitocybe infundibuliformis is identified as a synonym of I. gibba, but according to Species Fungorum that use was incorrect and the original C. infundibuliformis was a different mushroom. The epithet gibba comes from the Latin adjective "gibbus", meaning "humped" or "gibbous"; the name infundibuliformis derives from the Latin "infundibulum", a funnel, with the suffix "-formis" - so it means "funnel-shaped".
This section uses the given references throughout. The matt felted cap grows from about 3 cm to 8 cm, is beige to ochraceous sometimes with a pink tinge, it soon becomes funnel-shaped but has a small bulge in the centre. There is other veil remnant; the stem up to about 6 cm long and 1 cm in diameter. The white gills are crowded and decurrent, it has a faint "cyanic" smell, like new-mown hay, the taste is mild. However there is a central European variety "adstringens" which has an unpleasant taste; the tear-shaped spores are around 5.5-8 µm by 4-5 µm. This gregarious saprobic mushroom grows on soil in deciduous or coniferous woods and may be found from summer to autumn, it sometimes forms fairy rings. It is common throughout Europe, occurs in North America and Japan, it is edible when young, but said to be of mediocre quality. It can be used in risottos or soups etc.. The stems may be discarded. An extract of I. gibba exhibits inhibitory activity on thrombin. Infundibulicybe gibba in Index Fungorum "Infundibulicybe gibba".