Asbury Park, New Jersey

Asbury Park is a city in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States, located on the Jersey Shore and part of the New York City Metropolitan Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 16,116, reflecting a decline of 814 from the 16,930 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 131 from the 16,799 counted in the 1990 Census, it was ranked the sixth-best beach in New Jersey in the 2008 Top 10 Beaches Contest sponsored by the New Jersey Marine Sciences Consortium. Asbury Park was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 26, 1874, from portions of Ocean Township; the borough was reincorporated on February 28, 1893. Asbury Park was incorporated as a city, its current type of government, as of March 25, 1897. A seaside community, Asbury Park is located on New Jersey's central coast. Developed in 1871 as a residential resort by New York brush manufacturer James A. Bradley, the city was named for Francis Asbury, the first American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church in the United States.

The founding of Ocean Grove in 1869, a Methodist camp meeting to the south, encouraged the development of Asbury Park and led to its being a "dry town." Bradley was active in the development of much of the city's infrastructure, despite his preference for gas light, he allowed the Atlantic Coast Electric Company to offer electric service. Along the waterfront Bradley installed the Asbury Park Boardwalk, an orchestra pavilion, public changing rooms and a pier at the south end of that boardwalk; such success attracted other businessmen. In 1888, Ernest Schnitzler built the Palace Merry-Go-Round on the southwest corner of Lake Avenue and Kingsley Street, the cornerstone of what would become the Palace Amusements complex. During these early decades in Asbury Park, a number of grand hotels were built, including the Plaza Hotel. Uriah White, an Asbury Park pioneer, installed the first artesian well water system; as many as 600,000 people a year vacationed in Asbury Park during the summer season in the early years, riding the New York and Long Branch Railroad from New York City and Philadelphia to enjoy the mile-and-a-quarter stretch of oceanfront Asbury Park.

By 1912, The New York Times estimated that the summer population could reach 200,000. The country by the sea destination experienced several key periods of popularity; the first notable era was the 1890s, marked by a housing growth, examples of which can still be found today in a full range of Victorian architecture. Coinciding with the nationwide trend in retail shopping, Asbury Park's downtown flourished during this period and well into the 20th century; the 1920s saw a dramatic change in the boardwalk with the construction of the Paramount Theatre and Convention Hall complex, the Casino Arena and Carousel House, two handsome red-brick pavilions. Beaux Arts architect Warren Whitney of New York was the designer, he had been hired to design the imposing Berkeley-Carteret Hotel positioned diagonally across from the theater and hall. At the same time, Asbury Park launched a first-class education and athletic program with the construction of a state-of-the-art high school overlooking Deal Lake. On September 8, 1934, the wreck of the ocean liner SS Morro Castle, which caught fire and burned, beached itself near the city just yards away from the Asbury Park Convention Hall.

In 1935, the newly founded Securities and Exchange Commission called Asbury Park's Mayor Clarence F. Hetrick to testify about $6 million in "beach improvement bonds" that had gone into default. At the same time, the SEC inquired about rental rates on the beach front and why the mayor reduced the lease of a bathhouse from $85,000 to $40,000, among many other discrepancies that could have offset debt; the interests of Asbury Park's bond investors led Senator Frank Durand to add a last-minute "Beach Commission" amendment to a municipal debt bill in the New Jersey legislature. When the bill became law, it ceded control of the Asbury Park beach to Governor Harold Hoffman and a governor's commission; the city of Asbury Park sued to restore control of the beach to the municipal council, but the New Jersey Court of Errors and Appeals upheld the validity of the law in 1937. When Durand pressed New Jersey's legislature to extend the state's control of Asbury Park's beach in 1938, the lower house staged a walk out and the Senate soon adjourned, a disruption that prevented a vote for funding New Jersey's participation in the 1939 New York World's Fair.

In December 1938, the court returned control of the beach to the municipal council under the proviso that a bond repayment agreement was created. In 1943, the New York Yankees held their spring training in Asbury Park instead of Florida; this was because rail transport had to be conserved during the war, Major League Baseball's Spring Training was limited to an area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. With the opening of the Garden State Parkway in 1947, Asbury Park saw the travel market change as fewer vacationers took trains to the seashore. While the Asbury Park exit on the Parkway opened in 1956 and provided a means for drivers to reach Asbury Park more additional exits further south allowed drivers access to new alternative vacation destinations on Long Beach Island. In the decades that followed the war, surrounding farm communities gave way to tracts of suburban houses, encouraging the city's middle-class blacks as well as whites to move into newer houses with spacious yards.


R. Clint Cole

Raymond Clinton Cole was a U. S. Representative from Ohio, brother of Ralph Dayton Cole. Born in Biglick Township, near Findlay, Cole attended the common schools and Findlay College, Ohio, he taught school nine years. He was graduated from the law department of Ohio Northern University at Ada in 1900, he was admitted to the bar of Ohio the same year and commenced practice in Findlay, Ohio, in 1901. He served as member of the Ohio National Guard 1903-1913, he served as city solicitor 1912-1916. Cole was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-sixth, Sixty-seventh, Sixty-eighth Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Elections No. 1. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1924 to the Sixty-ninth Congress, he resumed the practice of law. He died in Findlay, Ohio, on February 8, 1957, he was interred in Bright Cemetery. Media related to R. Clint Cole at Wikimedia Commons United States Congress. "R. Clint Cole". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; this article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

Oven temperatures

Common oven temperatures are set to control the effects of baking in an oven, for various lengths of time. The various standard phrases, to describe oven temperatures, include words such as "cool" to "hot" or "very slow" to "fast". For example, a cool oven has temperature set to 200 °F, a slow oven has a temperature range from 300-325 °F. A moderate oven has a range of 350-375 °F, a hot oven has temperature set to 400-450 °F. A fast oven has a range of 450-500 °F for the typical temperature. Before ovens had thermometers or thermostats, these standard words were used by cooks and cookbooks to describe how hot an oven should be to cook various items. Custards require a slow oven for example, bread a moderate oven, pastries a hot oven. Cooks estimated the temperature of an oven by counting the number of minutes it took to turn a piece of white paper golden brown, or counting the number of seconds one could hold one's hand in the oven. Another method was to put a layer of flour or a piece of white tissue paper on a pan in the oven for five minutes.

The resulting colors range from delicate brown in a slow oven through golden brown in a moderate oven to dark brown in a hot oven. Conversion of units Gas Mark SI Units