In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation include drizzle, sleet, snow and hail. Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor, so that the water condenses and "precipitates", thus and mist are not precipitation but suspensions, because the water vapor does not condense sufficiently to precipitate. Two processes acting together, can lead to air becoming saturated: cooling the air or adding water vapor to the air. Precipitation forms as smaller droplets coalesce via collision with other rain drops or ice crystals within a cloud. Short, intense periods of rain in scattered locations are called "showers."Moisture, lifted or otherwise forced to rise over a layer of sub-freezing air at the surface may be condensed into clouds and rain. This process is active when freezing rain occurs. A stationary front is present near the area of freezing rain and serves as the foci for forcing and rising air.
Provided necessary and sufficient atmospheric moisture content, the moisture within the rising air will condense into clouds, namely stratus and cumulonimbus. The cloud droplets will grow large enough to form raindrops and descend toward the Earth where they will freeze on contact with exposed objects. Where warm water bodies are present, for example due to water evaporation from lakes, lake-effect snowfall becomes a concern downwind of the warm lakes within the cold cyclonic flow around the backside of extratropical cyclones. Lake-effect snowfall can be locally heavy. Thundersnow is possible within lake effect precipitation bands. In mountainous areas, heavy precipitation is possible where upslope flow is maximized within windward sides of the terrain at elevation. On the leeward side of mountains, desert climates can exist due to the dry air caused by compressional heating. Most precipitation is caused by convection; the movement of the monsoon trough, or intertropical convergence zone, brings rainy seasons to savannah climes.
Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 cubic kilometres of water falls as precipitation each year. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres, but over land it is only 715 millimetres. Climate classification systems such as the Köppen climate classification system use average annual rainfall to help differentiate between differing climate regimes. Precipitation may occur on other celestial bodies, e.g. when it gets cold, Mars has precipitation which most takes the form of frost, rather than rain or snow. Precipitation is a major component of the water cycle, is responsible for depositing most of the fresh water on the planet. 505,000 km3 of water falls as precipitation each year, 398,000 km3 of it over the oceans. Given the Earth's surface area, that means the globally averaged annual precipitation is 990 millimetres. Mechanisms of producing precipitation include convective and orographic rainfall.
Convective processes involve strong vertical motions that can cause the overturning of the atmosphere in that location within an hour and cause heavy precipitation, while stratiform processes involve weaker upward motions and less intense precipitation. Precipitation can be divided into three categories, based on whether it falls as liquid water, liquid water that freezes on contact with the surface, or ice. Mixtures of different types of precipitation, including types in different categories, can fall simultaneously. Liquid forms of precipitation include drizzle. Rain or drizzle that freezes on contact within a subfreezing air mass is called "freezing rain" or "freezing drizzle". Frozen forms of precipitation include snow, ice needles, ice pellets and graupel; the dew point is the temperature to which a parcel must be cooled in order to become saturated, condenses to water. Water vapor begins to condense on condensation nuclei such as dust and salt in order to form clouds. An elevated portion of a frontal zone forces broad areas of lift, which form clouds decks such as altostratus or cirrostratus.
Stratus is a stable cloud deck which tends to form when a cool, stable air mass is trapped underneath a warm air mass. It can form due to the lifting of advection fog during breezy conditions. There are four main mechanisms for cooling the air to its dew point: adiabatic cooling, conductive cooling, radiational cooling, evaporative cooling. Adiabatic cooling occurs when air expands; the air can rise due to convection, large-scale atmospheric motions, or a physical barrier such as a mountain. Conductive cooling occurs when the air comes into contact with a colder surface by being blown from one surface to another, for example from a liquid water surface to colder land. Radiational cooling occurs due to the emission of infrared radiation, either by the air or by the surface underneath. Evaporative cooling occurs when moisture is added to the air through evaporation, which forces the air temperature to cool to its wet-bulb temperature, or until it reaches saturation; the main ways water vapor is added to the air are: wind convergence into areas of upward motion, precipitation or virga falling from above, daytime heating evaporating water from the surface of oceans, water bodies or wet lan
Ngāi Tahu, or Kāi Tahu, is the principal Māori iwi of the southern region of New Zealand. Its takiwā is the largest in New Zealand, extends from Blenheim, Mount Mahanga and Kahurangi Point in the north to Stewart Island in the south; the takiwā comprises 18 rūnanga corresponding to traditional settlements. The five primary hapū of the three tribes are Kāti Kurī, Ngāti Irakehu, Kāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tūāhuriri and Ngāi Te Ruakihikihi; some definitions of Ngāi Tahu include the Waitaha and Kāti Māmoe tribes who lived in the South Island prior to the arrival of Kāi Tāhu. Ngāi Tahu trace their traditional descent from Tahupōtiki, the younger brother of Porou Ariki, founding ancestor of Ngāti Porou, a tribe of the East Coast of the North Island, they originated on the east coast of the North Island, from where they migrated south to present-day Wellington. Late in the 17th century they began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley.
Kāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Ngāi Tahu. Ngāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1690s Ngāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827–1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Ngāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when Ngāti Toa attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Ngāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Ngāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter. After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they embarked for Kapiti with their captives. Te Maiharunui threw her overboard to save her from slavery. Ngāti Toa killed the remaining captives. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction.
In the summer of 1831–1832 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. After a three-month siege, a fire in the pā allowed Ngāti Toa to overcome it. Ngāti Toa attacked Ngāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832–33 Ngāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tuhawaiki, Taiaroa and Haereroa, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Ngāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Ngāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Ngāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Ngāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Ngāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the New Zealand Parliament passed the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act in 1998 to record an apology from the Crown and to settle claims made under the 1840 Treaty of Waitangi. One of the Act's provisions covered the use of dual names for geographical locations in the Ngāi Tahu tribal area.
The recognised tribal authority, Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu, is based in Christchurch and in Invercargill. In the nineteenth century many Ngāi Tahu in the southern reaches of Te Wai Pounamu, spoke a distinct dialect of the Māori language, sometimes referred to as Southern Māori, so different from the northern version of the language that missionary Rev. James Watkin, based at Karitane found materials prepared by North Island missions couldn't be used in Otago. However, from the 20th century until the early 21st century the dialect came close to extinction and was discouraged. Southern Māori contains all the same phonemes as other Māori dialects, along with the same diphthongs, but it lacks /ŋ/ — this sound merged with /k/ in prehistoric times: for example: Ngāi Tahu as opposed to Kāi Tahu). This change did not occur in the northern part of the Ngāi Tahu area, the possible presence of additional phonemes has been debated. Non-standard consonants are sometimes identified in the spellings of South Island place names, such as g, v, l instead of r, w or u instead of wh as reflecting dialect difference, but similar spellings and pronunciations occur in the North Island.
The apocope resulting from pronunciations like'Wacky-white' for "Waikouaiti" have been identified with Southern Māori. However, the devoicing of final vowels occurs in the speech of native speakers of the Māori language throughout New Zealand, the pronunciation of the names of North Island towns by locals omits final vowels as well, like in the pronunciation of "Paraparam" or "Waiuk". Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu is the governance entity of Ngāi Tahu, following the Treaty of Waitangi settlement between the iwi and the New Zealand Government under Ngāi Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, it is a mandated iwi organisation under the Māori Fisheries Act 2004, an iwi aquaculture organisation under the Māori Commercial Aquaculture Claims Settlement Act 2004, an iwi authority under the Resource Management Act 1991 and a Tūhono organisation. It represents Ngāi Tahu Whanui, the collective of hapū including Waitaha, Ngāti Māmoe, Ngāi Tahu, including, Ngāti Kuri, Ngāti Irakehu, Ngāti Huirapa, Ngāi Tuahuriri, Ngāi Te Ruahikihiki, under Te Rūnanga o Ngāi Tahu Act 1
Foodstuffs Ltd is jointly owned by two New Zealand grocery and liquor retailers' cooperatives, Foodstuffs North Island Limited and Foodstuffs South Island Limited. Together, the two cooperatives collectively control an estimated 53% of the New Zealand grocery market; the group owns retail franchises Four Square, New World and Pak'nSave, in-store private labels Pam's, Pam's Finest and Value, a ten percent stake in The Warehouse. Foodstuffs' only real competitor is Australian supermarket chain Woolworths NZ, so there is a duopoly in New Zealand's supermarket industry; the first Foodstuffs co-operative was formed in Auckland in 1922. On 6 July 1922, Foodstuffs founder J Heaton Barker called together members of the Auckland Master Grocers' Association to discuss plans for the formation of a co-operative buying group; the buying group expanded in 1925 with the introduction of Four Square branding on members' stores. Similar co-operatives were set up in other parts of the country, with Wellington commencing in 1922, Christchurch in 1928 and Dunedin in 1948.
The buying groups traded under different names but in 1935, the name Foodstuffs was applied to all the original co-operatives. There have been various mergers between the small regional co-operatives, until there were three co-operative companies: Foodstuffs Ltd; each operated independently and autonomously with its own board of directors, chief executive officer and management structure. There were no common shareholders; the organisation has continued to evolve, adopting supermarkets early in their evolution with the formation of the New World group in 1963. The Pak'nSave group began and the first store was opened in Kaitaia in 1985. On 7 February 2013 Foodstuffs Ltd and Foodstuffs Co-operative Society Ltd announced that a merger was being planned to bring the two companies together under the name Foodstuffs North Island Ltd; the merged Foodstuffs North Island started trading on 1 September 2013. Four Square is a trans-Tasman chain of small scale grocery stores – ranging from small dairies to small supermarkets.
During the 1950s the Foodstuffs advertising department designed the famous "Mr 4 Square" who appeared only in newspaper advertising and posters, but was developed to become part of the Four Square identity, appearing in every Four Square store and becoming a nationally recognised symbol in New Zealand, remaining famous to this day. The image is closely associated with the art of New Zealand artist Dick Frizzell, who has used the iconic character in many of his works; the current Four Square brand was designed by Auckland design studio Sanders Design. New World is a full-service supermarket chain. Founded in 1963, New World was the first American-style full-service supermarket brand of Foodstuffs, the second in New Zealand. There is a total of 140 New World supermarkets across the South Islands of New Zealand. New World stores tend to be more upscale than their competitors. Prices tend to be higher in most stores, due to the cost of upscale presentation, large employee numbers, a lack of competition in smaller towns.
New World has been a member of the Fly Buys programme since the programme started in September 1996. The New World brand was designed by Auckland branding studio Sanders Design. Pak'nSave is a New Zealand discount supermarket chain owned by the Foodstuffs cooperative. Founded in 1985, Pak'nSave is the most recent of the three current major New Zealand supermarkets to be founded. There are 57 Pak'nSave stores operating across the North and South Islands of New Zealand as of September 2017. Stores are large and have a no-frills environment with unlined interiors and concrete floors. Customers are left to pack their own bags or boxes, charged for plastic bags in most stores. Pak'nSave was developed following a trip by a group of Foodstuffs executives to the United States in 1985. On that visit they saw Cub Foods, operated by SuperValu, Pak'n Save operated by Safeway, other box warehouse supermarkets. Foodstuffs copied this format in New Zealand; the original Pak'nSave format was an identical copy of Safeway's Pak'n Save chain in Northern California.
The PAK ` nSAVE brand was designed by Auckland branding studio Sanders Design. The stores are supplied daily from their co-operative distributor Foodstuffs. Pak'nSave stores buys stock in bulk; this process means that stores don't offer a wide variety of products as full-service supermarkets – a 2009 Consumer magazine survey noticed this in the pet food and toilet paper categories. On September 13 2017, Levin's Write Price supermarket was rebranded as Pak'nSave Mini. Pak'nSave Mini is a small format store that stocks around 2,500 products. In comparison, standard Pak'nSave stores stock 8,000 SKUs. On the Spot is a chain of over one hundred convenience stores in the South Island. Liquorland Northland Liquorland Auckland Liquorland Waikato Liquorland Southland Henry's Beer, Wine & Spirits Gilmours. Trents Foodstuffs Foodstuffs South Island Henry's Beer and Spirits Gilmours Trents
A cooperative is "an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically-controlled enterprise". Cooperatives may include: businesses owned and managed by the people who use their services organizations managed by the people who work there multi-stakeholder or hybrid cooperatives that share ownership between different stakeholder groups. For example, care cooperatives where ownership is shared between both care-givers and receivers. Stakeholders might include non-profits or investors. Second- and third-tier cooperatives whose members are other cooperatives platform cooperatives that use a cooperatively owned and governed website, mobile app or a protocol to facilitate the sale of goods and services. Research published by the Worldwatch Institute found that in 2012 one billion people in 96 countries had become members of at least one cooperative; the turnover of the largest three hundred cooperatives in the world reached $2.2 trillion.
Cooperative businesses are more economically resilient than many other forms of enterprise, with twice the number of co-operatives surviving their first five years compared with other business ownership models. Cooperatives have social goals which they aim to accomplish by investing a proportion of trading profits back into their communities; as an example of this, in 2013, retail co-operatives in the UK invested 6.9% of their pre-tax profits in the communities in which they trade as compared with 2.4% for other rival supermarkets. Since 2002 cooperatives and credit unions could be distinguished on the Internet by use of a.coop domain. Since 2014, following International Cooperative Alliance's introduction of the Cooperative Marque, ICA cooperatives and WOCCU credit unions can be identified by a coop ethical consumerism label. Cooperation dates back as far. Tribes were organized as cooperative structures, allocating jobs and resources among each other, only trading with the external communities.
In alpine environments, trade could only be maintained in organized cooperatives to achieve a useful condition of artificial roads such as Viamala in 1472. Pre-industrial Europe is home to the first cooperatives from an industrial context; the roots of the cooperative movement can extend worldwide. In the English-speaking world, post-feudal forms of cooperation between workers and owners that are expressed today as "profit-sharing" and "surplus sharing" arrangements, existed as far back as 1795; the key ideological influence on the Anglosphere branch of the cooperative movement, was a rejection of the charity principles that underpinned welfare reforms when the British government radically revised its Poor Laws in 1834. As both state and church institutions began to distinguish between the'deserving' and'undeserving' poor, a movement of friendly societies grew throughout the British Empire based on the principle of mutuality, committed to self-help in the welfare of working people. In 1761, the Fenwick Weavers' Society was formed in Fenwick, East Ayrshire, Scotland to sell discounted oatmeal to local workers.
Its services expanded to include assistance with savings and loans and education. In 1810, Welsh social reformer Robert Owen, from Newtown in mid-Wales, his partners purchased New Lanark mill from Owen's father-in-law David Dale and proceeded to introduce better labour standards including discounted retail shops where profits were passed on to his employees. Owen left New Lanark to pursue other forms of cooperative organization and develop coop ideas through writing and lecture. Cooperative communities were set up in Glasgow and Hampshire, although unsuccessful. In 1828, William King set up a newspaper, The Cooperator, to promote Owen's thinking, having set up a cooperative store in Brighton; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers, founded in 1844, is considered the first successful cooperative enterprise, used as a model for modern coops, following the'Rochdale Principles'. A group of 28 weavers and other artisans in Rochdale, England set up the society to open their own store selling food items they could not otherwise afford.
Within ten years there were over a thousand cooperative societies in the United Kingdom. Other events such as the founding of a friendly society by the Tolpuddle Martyrs in 1832 were key occasions in the creation of organized labor and consumer movements. Friendly Societies established forums through which one member, one vote was practiced in organisation decision-making; the principles challenged the idea that a person should be an owner of property before being granted a political voice. Throughout the second half of the nineteenth century there was a surge in the number of cooperative organisations, both in commercial practice and civil society, operating to advance democracy and universal suffrage as a political principle. Friendly Societies and consumer cooperatives became the dominant form of organization amongst working people in Anglosphere industrial societies prior to the rise of trade unions and industrial factories. Weinbren reports that by the end of the 19th century, over 80% of British working age men and 90% of Australian working age men were members of one or more Friendly Society.
From the mid-nineteenth century, mutual organisations embraced these ideas in economic enterprises, firstly amongst tradespeople, in cooperative stores, educational institutes, financial institutions and industrial enterprises. The common thread (enacte
Canterbury, New Zealand
Canterbury is a region of New Zealand, located in the central-eastern South Island. The region covers an area of 44,508 square kilometres, is home to a population of 624,000; the region in its current form was established in 1989 during nationwide local government reforms. The Kaikoura District joined the region in 1992 following the abolition of the Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council. Christchurch, the South Island's largest city and the country's third-largest urban area, is the seat of the region and home to 65 percent of the region's population. Other major towns and cities include Timaru, Ashburton and Rolleston. In 1848, Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a Briton, John Robert Godley, an Anglo-Irish aristocrat, founded the Canterbury Association to establish an Anglican colony in the South Island; the colony was based upon theories developed by Wakefield while in prison for eloping with a woman not-of-age. Due to ties to the University of Oxford, the Canterbury Association succeeded in raising sufficient funds and recruiting middle-class and upper-class settlers.
In April 1850, a preliminary group led by Godley landed at Port Cooper—modern-day Lyttelton Harbour—and established a port and shops in preparation for the main body of settlers. In December 1850, the first wave of 750 settlers arrived at Lyttelton in a fleet of four ships. Following 1850, the province's economy developed with the introduction of sheep farming; the Canterbury region's tussock plains in particular were suitable for extensive sheep farming. Since they were valued by settlers for their meat and wool, there were over half a million sheep in the region by the early 1850s. By the 1860s, this figure had risen to three million. During this period, the architect Benjamin Mountfort designed many civic and ecclesiastical buildings in the Gothic Revival style; the Canterbury Province was formed in 1853 following the passing of the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852. It was formed from part of New Munster Province and covered the middle part of the South Island, stretching from the east coast to the west coast.
The province was abolished, along with other provinces of New Zealand, when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 Nov 1876. The modern Canterbury Region has different boundaries in the north, where it includes some districts from the old Nelson Province; the area administered by the Canterbury Regional Council consists of all the river catchments on the east coast of the South Island from that of the Clarence River, north of Kaikoura, to that of the Waitaki River, in South Canterbury. It is New Zealand's largest region by area, with an area of 45,346 km2. Canterbury was traditionally bounded in the north by the Conway River, to the west by the Southern Alps, to the south by the Waitaki River; the area is divided into North Canterbury, Mid Canterbury, South Canterbury and Christchurch City. Canterbury is home to 624,000 people according to Statistics New Zealand's June 2018, 13 percent of New Zealand's population, it the second most populous region in New Zealand. The median age of Canterbury's population is two years above the New Zealand median.
Around 15.5 percent of the population is aged 65 or over while 18.7 percent is aged under 15. There are 97.5 males for every hundred females in Canterbury. At the 2013 Census of Population and Dwellings, 86.9 percent of Cantabrians identified as of European ethnicity, 8.1 percent as Māori, 6.9 percent as Asian, 2.5 percent as Pacific Peoples, 0.8 percent as Middle Eastern/Latin American/African, 2.0 percent as another ethnicity. Just under 20 percent of Canterbury's population was born overseas, compared to 25 percent for New Zealand as a whole; the British Isles remains the largest region of origin, accounting for 36.5 percent of the overseas-born population in Canterbury. Around a quarter of Canterbury's overseas-born population at the 2013 Census had been living in New Zealand for less than five years, 11 percent had been living in New Zealand for less than two years. Around 49.7 percent of Cantabrians affiliate with Christianity and 3.3 percent affiliate with non-Christian religions, while 44.5 percent are irreligious.
Anglicanism is the largest Christian denomination in Canterbury with 14.8 percent affiliating, while Catholicism is the second-largest with 12.7 percent affiliating. The Canterbury region's economy is diversified into agriculture, fishing, forestry and energy resources such as coal and hydroelectricity, its agriculture sector is diversified into dairy farming, sheep farming and horticulture viticulture. The strength of the region's agricultural economy is displayed every November at the Canterbury A&P Show; the show coincides with Cup Week. During the interwar period, agricultural productivity was boosted by the introduction of mechanization and the improvement of seed stocks. Canterbury is New Zealand's main producer of cereal crops such as wheat and oats; as of 2002, the region produced 60.7% of the nation's supply of wheat, 51.1% of its barley stocks and 43.7% of its supply of oats. The region's viticulture industry was established by French settlers in Akaroa. Since wine-growing is concentrated into two regions: Waipara and Burnham.
There have been vintages from plantings from Kurow further to the south. White wine has predominated in Canterbury from Riesling, Sauvignon blanc, Gewürztraminer
New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
The Rakaia River is in the Canterbury Plains in New Zealand's South Island. The Rakaia River is one of the largest braided rivers in New Zealand; the Rakaia River has a mean flow of 203 cubic metres per second and a mean annual seven-day low flow of 87 m3/s. In the 1850s, European settlers named it the Cholmondeley River, it rises in the Southern Alps, travelling 150 kilometres in a easterly or southeasterly direction before entering the Pacific Ocean 50 kilometres south of Christchurch. It forms a hapua. For much of its journey, the river is braided. Close to Mount Hutt, however, it is confined to a narrow canyon known as the Rakaia Gorge; the Rakaia River is bridged in two places. The busiest crossing is at the small town of Rakaia, 20 kilometres from the river mouth, where State Highway 1 and the South Island Main Trunk Railway cross the river using separate bridges; these two bridges are New Zealand's longest road and rail bridges approximately 1.75 kilometres long. A second bridge, much shorter and less used, spans the Rakaia Gorge.
The Central Plains Water Trust is proposing to take up to 40 m3/s of water from the Rakaia River as part of the Central Plains Water enhancement scheme. The Rakaia River is a celebrated Chinook salmon fishery, it has been identified as an Important Bird Area by BirdLife International because it supports breeding colonies of the endangered black-billed gull. The river is known for its large wrybill population which represents 73 percent of the total population. Other important bird species using the riverbed are black-fronted tern and banded dotterel. Selwyn District Council page for the Rakaia River Te Ara website page for the Rakaia River Salmon fishing on the Rakaia River