British Antarctic Survey
The British Antarctic Survey is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation. It is part of the Natural Environment Research Council. With over 400 staff, BAS takes an active role in Antarctic affairs, operating five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in both polar regions, as well as addressing key global and regional issues; this involves joint research projects with over 40 UK universities and more than 120 national and international collaborations. Having taken shape from activities during World War II, it was known as the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey until 1962. Operation Tabarin was a small British expedition in 1943 to establish permanently occupied bases in the Antarctic, it was a joint undertaking by the Colonial Office. At the end of the war it was renamed the Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and full control passed to the Colonial Office. At this time there were three occupied and one unoccupied. By the time FIDS was renamed the British Antarctic Survey in 1962, 19 stations and three refuges had been established.
In 2012 the parent body, NERC, proposed merging the BAS with another NERC institute, National Oceanography Centre in Southampton. This proved controversial, after the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee opposed the move the plan was dropped. 1945 – 1948: Edward W. Bingham 1958 – 1973: Vivian Fuchs 1973 – May 1987: Richard Laws 1987 – 1994: David Drewry 1994 – 1997: Barry Heywood 1998 – 2007: Chris Rapley 2007 – May 2012: Nick Owens November 2012 – September 2013: Alan Rodger October 2013: Jane Francis The BAS operates five permanent research stations in the British Antarctic Territory: Rothera Research Station on Adelaide Island Halley Research Station on the Brunt Ice Shelf Signy Research Station on Signy Island Fossil Bluff logistics facility on Alexander Island Sky Blu logistics facility in Ellsworth LandOf these Research Stations, only Rothera and Halley are manned throughout the year. Halley VI was closed for the March 2017 winter after relocation due to safety concerns when a inactive crack, "Chasm 1", in the Brunt Ice shelf began to expand in the direction of the base.
The base was closed again in March 2018 with similar concerns. The remaining bases are manned only during the Antarctic summer; the BAS operates two permanent bases on South Georgia: King Edward Point Research Station at King Edward Point Bird Island Research Station on Bird IslandBoth South Georgia bases are manned throughout the year. The headquarters of the BAS are on Madingley Road; this facility provides offices and workshops to support the scientific and logistic activities in the Antarctic. The BAS operates the Ny-Ålesund Research Station on behalf of the NERC; this is an Arctic research base located at Ny-Ålesund on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen. BAS operates two ships in support of its Antarctic research programme. Whilst both vessels have research and supply capabilities, the RRS James Clark Ross is an oceanographic research ship, whilst RRS Ernest Shackleton is a logistics ship used for the resupply of scientific stations. James Clark Ross replaced RRS John Biscoe in 1991 and Ernest Shackleton was the successor to RRS Bransfield in 1999.
Both vessels depart from the United Kingdom in September or October of each year, return to the United Kingdom in the following May or June. Both vessels undergo refit and drydock during the Antarctic winter, but are used elsewhere during this period. James Clark Ross undertakes scientific research on behalf of other organisations in the Arctic, whilst Ernest Shackleton is chartered into commercial survey work; the two civilian ships operated by the BAS are complemented by the capabilities of the Royal Navy's ice patrol vessel that operates in the same waters. Until 2008 this was a Class 1A1 icebreaker. Endurance's two Lynx helicopters enabled BAS staff to get to remote field sites that BAS aircraft could not access. However, a catastrophic flooding accident left Endurance badly damaged, with a replacement only being procured in 2011; this ship, HMS Protector, first deployed to the Antarctic in November 2011. In April 2014 the government authorised the procurement by BAS of a new large Antarctic research vessel at an estimated cost of £200 million, expected to be in service in 2019.
BAS operates five aircraft in support of its research programme in Antarctica. The aircraft used are all made by de Havilland Canada and comprise four Twin Otters and one Dash 7; the planes are maintained by Rocky Mountain Aircraft in Springbank, Canada. During the Antarctic summer the aircraft are based at the Rothera base, which has a 900-metre gravel runway. During the Antarctic winter, conditions preclude the aircraft return to Canada; the larger Dash 7 undertakes regular shuttle flights between either Port Stanley Airport on the Falkland Islands, or Punta Arenas in Chile, Rothera. It operates to and from the ice runway at the Sky Blu base; the smaller Twin Otters are equipped with skis for landing on snow and ice in remote areas, operate out of the bases at Rothera, Fossil Bluff and Sky Blu. In January 2008, a team of British Antarctic Survey scientists, led by Hugh Corr and David Vaughan, reported that 2,200 years ago, a volcano erupted under Antarctica's ice sheet; the biggest eruption in the last 10,000 years, the volcanic ash was found deposited on the ice surface under the Hudson Mountains, close to Pine Island Glacier.
The British Antarctic Survey were responsible for the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. The discovery was made
Nathan Liam Buck is an English cricketer. He is a right-handed batsman and right-arm medium-fast bowler, he was born in Leicester, started playing for Gracedieu Cricket Club in Thringstone. Buck made his cricketing debut in the Under-13 County Cup for Leicestershire and Rutland in 2004, played for a single season in the Under-17 County Championship in 2007. In January 2009, Buck made five Under-19 One Day International appearances for England in a tour of South Africa. Buck made his first-class debut for Leicestershire against Loughborough UCCE in April 2009 taking a wicket, he signed a three-year contract with Leicestershire taking him into June 2012. After taking 49 County Championship wickets in his first full season, Buck was called up to the England Lions cricket team in January 2011 for their tour of the Caribbean, he was selected for the ECB Fast Bowling programme in India coached by former Australian legend Dennis Lillee. After the 2011 season in which he took 25 County Championship wickets, Buck was selected for the winter England Performance Programme.
In April 2012, Buck signed a two-year contract. Most of the 2012 season was marred by injury. Buck was one of several high-profile players to leave Leicestershire after a dismal season in 2014 when he joined Lancashire. In September 2016, Buck joined Northamptonshire on a three-year contract ahead of the 2017 season; as of 28 September 2013 Nathan Buck at CricketArchive Nathan Buck at ESPNcricinfo
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Joseph Hall (bishop)
Joseph Hall was an English bishop and moralist. His contemporaries knew him as a devotional writer, a high-profile controversialist of the early 1640s. In church politics, he tended in fact to a middle way. Thomas Fuller wrote: He was called our English Seneca, for the purenesse and fulnesse of his style. Not unhappy at Controversies, more happy at Comments good in his Characters, better in his Sermons, best of all in his Meditations, his relationship to the stoicism of the classical age, exemplified by Seneca the Younger, is still debated, with the importance of neo-stoicism and the influence of Justus Lipsius to his work being contested, in contrast to Christian morality. Hall was born at Bristow Park, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 1 July 1574, his father, John Hall, was employed under Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, president of the north, was his deputy at Ashby. His mother was a strict puritan, whom her son compared to St Monica; the first part of his education was received at Ashby Grammar School.
When he was of the age of fifteen Mr. Pelset, lecturer at Leicester, a divine of puritan views, offered to take him "under indentures" and educate him for the ministry. Just before this arrangement was completed, it came to the knowledge of Nathaniel Gilby, son of Anthony Gilby and a fellow of Emmanuel College, a friend of the family. Gilby induced Hall's father to send his son to Emmanuel College in 1589; the expense of his education at the university was borne by his uncle, Edmund Sleigh. He was elected scholar and afterwards fellow of Emmanuel College, graduating B. A. in 1592 and M. A. in 1596. Fuller, nearly a contemporary, says that Hall "passed all his degrees with great applause", he obtained a high reputation in the university for scholarship, read the public rhetoric lecture in the schools for two years with much credit. Having taken holy orders, Hall was offered the mastership of Blundell's School, but he refused it in favour of the living of Hawstead, Suffolk, to which he was presented by Sir Robert Drury.
The appointment was not wholly satisfactory: in his parish Hall had an opponent in a Mr Lilly, whom he describes as a "witty and bold atheist", he had to find money to make his house habitable, he felt that his patron Sir Robert underpaid him. In 1603, he married Elizabeth Wynniff of Brettenham, Suffolk. In 1605, Hall travelled abroad for the first time when he accompanied Sir Edmund Bacon on an embassy to Spa, with the special aim, he says, of acquainting himself with the state and practice of the Roman Catholic Church. At Brussels, he disputed at the Jesuit college on the authenticity of modern miracles, until his patron at length asked him to stop. Hall's devotional writings had attracted the notice of Henry, Prince of Wales, who made him one of his chaplains. Hall preached on the tenth anniversary of King James's accession in 1613, with an assessment in An Holy Panegyrick of the Church of England flattering to the king. In 1612, Edward Denny gave Hall the curacy of Waltham-Holy-Cross, and, in the same year, he received the degree of D.
D.. He received the prebend of Willenhall in St Peter's, the collegiate church of Wolverhampton, and, in 1616, he accompanied James Hay, Lord Doncaster to France, where he was sent to congratulate Louis XIII on his marriage, but Hall was compelled by illness to return. In his absence, the king nominated him Dean of Worcester, and, in 1617, he accompanied James to Scotland, where he defended the Five Articles of Perth, five points of ceremonial which the king desired to impose upon the Scots. In the next year Hall was chosen as one of the English deputies at the Synod of Dort; however he fell ill, was replaced by Thomas Goad. At the time when Marco Antonio de Dominis announced his intention to return to Rome, after a stay in England, Hall wrote to try to dissuade him, without success. In a long-unpublished reply De Dominis justified himself in a comprehensive statement of his mission against schism and its limited results, hampered by Dort and a lack of freedom under James I. In a sermon Columba Noæ of February 1624 to Convocation, he gave a list or personal panorama of leading theologians of the Church of England.
In the same year he refused the see of Gloucester: at the time English delegates to Dort were receiving preferment, since King James approved of the outcome. Hall was involved as a mediator, taking an active part in the Arminian and Calvinist controversy in the English church, trying to get other clergy to accept Dort. In 1627, he became Bishop of Exeter. In spite of his Calvinistic opinions, he maintained that to acknowledge the errors which had arisen in the Catholic Church did not imply disbelief in her catholicity, that the Church of England having repudiated these errors should not deny the claims of the Roman Catholic Church on that account; this view commended itself to his episcopal advisers. At the same time, Archbishop Laud sent spies into Hall's diocese to report on the Calvinistic tendencies of the bishop and his lenience to the Puritan and low church clergy. Hall took up an anti-Laudian, but anti-Presbyterian position, while remaining a Protestant eirenicist in co-operation with John Dury and concerned with continental Europe.
In 1641 Hall was translated to the See of Norwich, in the same year sat on the Lords' Committee on religion. On 30 December, he was
Leslie Hale, Baron Hale
Charles Leslie Hale, Baron Hale was a British Liberal Party Labour Party politician. Hale was the son of a managing director, he trained to be a solicitor in Leicester. Thereafter Hale practised first in his hometown Coalville in Nuneaton and in London. Hale joined Leicestershire County Council in 1925, aged twenty-three. Four years he contested Nottingham South unsuccessfully for the Liberal Party. Hale entered the British House of Commons as a Labour member in 1945, having been elected as one of the MPs in of the two-member constituency of Oldham, he represented this constituency until 1950, when it was split into two divisions. Hale was subsequently returned to Parliament for Oldham West, a seat he held for eighteen years until 1968, when he resigned for health reasons. On 24 April 1972, he was created a life peer with the title Baron Hale of Oldham. Hale acted as the solicitor for the Spiritualists National Union, spoke in Parliament for the repeal of the Witchcraft Act 1735 in favour of the Fraudulent Mediums Act.
In 1926 Hale married Dorothy Ann Latham. He died in 1985. Thirty Who Were Tried. London: Adam & Charles Black Ltd. 1963. Charles Roger Dod and Robert Philip Dod. J. Berwick Smith, ed. Dod's Parliamentary Companion 1984. London: Dod's Parliamentary Companion Ltd. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter Kelly's Handbook to the Titled and Official Classes for 1969. London: Kelly's Directories Ltd. 1969. Vacher's Parliamentary Companion 1985. London: A. S. Kerswill. 1985. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Leslie Hale
John Winfield Bonser
Sir John Winfield Bonser, was a British colonial judge. He served as the 17th Chief Justice of Ceylon for 10 years. Bonser was the son of Reverend John Bonser, he was born in Walsham, Norfolk, in 1847. Bonser was educated at Ashby Grammar School, Loughborough Grammar School, Heath Grammar School admitted October 1863, Christ's College and Lincoln's Inn, he was Attorney General of the Straits Settlements between 1883 and 1893. He was appointed Chief Justice of the Straits Settlements, in 1893, on the untimely death from cholera of the incumbent Chief Justice, Elliot Bovill, he soon transferred to Ceylon where he served as Chief Justice of Ceylon from 1893 to 1902. He was knighted in 1894, he was appointed to the Privy Council on 11 June 1902, sat as a Member of Judicial Committee of the Privy Council from 1902 onwards. Bonser married Mary Catherine Colville, daughter of Colonel Hon. Sir William James Colville and Georgiana Mary Montagu Baillie, on 19 April 1899. Bonser died in London, England in December 1914.
"BONSER, Rt Hon. Sir John Winfield". Who Was Who. A & C Black. 1920–2008. Retrieved 14 December 2011