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Ashfield, New South Wales

Ashfield is a suburb in the Inner West of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Ashfield is about 8 kilometres south-west of the Sydney central business district. Ashfield's population is multicultural, its urban density is high for Australia, with the majority of the area's dwellings being a mixture of post-war low-rise flats and Federation-era detached houses. Amongst these are a number of grand Victorian buildings that offer a hint of Ashfield's rich cultural heritage. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the area now known as Ashfield was inhabited by the Wangal people. Wangal country was believed to be centred on modern-day Concord and stretched east to the swampland of Long Cove Creek; the land was wooded at the time with tall eucalypts covering the higher ground and a variety of swampy trees along Iron Cove Creek. The people hunted by killing native animals and fish; the arrival of the First Fleet in 1788 had a devastating effect on the local people from the introduction of smallpox, to which the indigenous people had little resistance.

By 1790, a rough track had been built between the colony's two settlements at Sydney Cove and Parramatta. This route became the main artery of the expanding Greater Sydney and, as the northern boundary of what is now Ashfield, dictated early British settlement in the area; the first land grant in the area was made to Rev Richard Johnson in 1793 and all of it had been granted by 1810. By the 1820s, all the grants had been amalgamated into two large estates: Ashfield Park and Canterbury Estate. Ashfield Park was named by Robert Campbell. In 1838, Elizabeth Underwood owner of Ashfield Park, subdivided part of her land to form the village of Ashfield between Liverpool Road and Alt Street. Part of the subdivision was the building of St John's Church in Alt Street in 1841; this is the oldest surviving building in Ashfield. By 1855, the village had 200 residents. However, the opening of the Sydney-Parramatta railway line that year, with Ashfield as one of its six original stations, led to a population explosion.

In 1872, there were enough residents for the area to be granted a municipal council. By 1890, the population had grown to 11,000. During this time, Ashfield was seen as a desirable location compared to the city, which had become crowded and pestilent. Many grand Victorian houses were built in the latter part of the 19th century, but by the time of World War I, the suburb had fallen out of favour and the rich residents had headed for the North Shore. Many of the grand homes were knocked down in the 1920s and 1930s and replaced with small art deco blocks of flats or semi-detached houses. A few remain and are listed in the Landmarks section. By the 1950s, the population of Ashfield had begun to fall, as it had in many surrounding suburbs, as people moved to newer houses on larger blocks of land on the urban fringe; the Council's response was to start approving large blocks of flats, many of which were built during the 1960s and 1970s but which continue to be built today. There is, recognition of the area's heritage with many buildings in the suburb protected by heritage orders.

While never a noted industrial suburb, Ashfield has had a couple of significant industries. On Parramatta Road near Frederick Street was the Australian Six motor car factory which opened in 1920; the site became an AWA factory producing radio valves and other components. The site has since been turned into a residential development. On the other side of Frederick Street was the Peek Freans biscuit factory, the tower of, a familiar site to passing motorists on Parramatta Road. However, this factory is no longer industrial, serving today as a large Bunnings Warehouse; the main shopping precinct is located along Liverpool Road south of Ashfield railway station. Along this strip, there are a few medium-sized office blocks, many street-level shops and Ashfield Mall, a shopping centre containing supermarkets, a discount department store and specialty shops; this commercial area extends into Charlotte Street and Elizabeth Street on the northern side of the station. A second commercial precinct is located along Parramatta Road consisting of automotive-related retail and light industry.

According to the 2006 census, the most common way of getting to work from Ashfield was by car followed by train. Ten per cent of people used buses for all or part of their journey while six percent walked and one percent rode a bike; the total patronage of public transport is more than double the rate for Sydney overall. Ashfield is located at the intersection of two major roads. Parramatta Road runs from Sydney city to Parramatta and continues on as the Great Western Highway through Penrith and the Blue Mountains to Bathurst. Liverpool Road runs from Parramatta Road at Ashfield to Liverpool and continues on as the Hume Highway to Melbourne via Goulburn and Albury. While completion of the Sydney Orbital Network has bypassed these two roads somewhat, they remain busy and well connected to all parts of Sydney. Another major road is Frederick/Milton Street which connects the City West Link Road at Haberfield with Georges River Road at Croydon Park. There is a proposal to build a tunnel connecting the City West Link Road with the start of the M4 Western Motorway at North Strathfield.

However, the proposal has drawn substantial local opposition and the plan is under review. Ashfield railway station is on the Inner Leppington Line of the Sydney Trains network. Ashfield was

Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010

The Foreign Contribution Act, 2010 is an act of the Parliament of India, by the 42nd Act of 2010. It is a consolidating act whose scope is to regulate the acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality by certain individuals or associations or companies and to prohibit acceptance and utilisation of foreign contribution or foreign hospitality for any activities detrimental to the national interest and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto, it is designed to correct shortfalls in the predecessor act of 1976. It received presidential assent on 26 September 2010. A number of NGOs receiving foreign funding are seen by the India's central government as involved in anti-development activism and hence posing a negative impact on the economic growth by two to three per cent. An Intelligence Bureau report titled'Impact of NGOs on Development,’ claims the NGOs and their international donors are planning to target many fresh economic development projects. Home ministry has cancelled some more registrations including top 8 national educational institutions such as –Jawaharlal Nehru University, IIT-Kanpur and Jamia Milia Islamia saying that these institutes are not maintaining proper FCRA account.

So, unless their registrations are restored, these institutions cannot receive contributions from abroad. The FCRA status of Jamia Milia Islamia was restored in September 2012 following the submission of its report to the government; the Ministry of Home Affairs has since clarified that Jamia is exempt from all provisions of the FCRA and therefore there is no bar on Jamia to receive/spend foreign contributions. The Union Home Ministry has cancelled renewal of Foreign Contribution Regulation Act licences of Greenpeace India and two NGOs run by activist Teesta Setalvad, an Indian civil rights activist and journalist. Greenpeace has been charged with obstructing development activities in India by the Government of India in 2013 after intelligence Bureau inputs. Greenpeace India is charged with undertaking protests against thermal power, nuclear power and aluminium mining across the India. GreenPeace has been charged with promoting Solar energy equipment of US based Zemlin Surface Optical Corporation in Bihar.

Greenpeace India admitted to anchoring local protests against coal mines and participating in seminars where foreign funding is sought for protests but clarified that the source of funding does not lessen the seriousness of harm to the environment. According to IB report, Greenpeace poses threat to national economic security, growing exponentially in reach, impact and media influence. Teesta Setalvad is the secretary of Citizens for Justice and Peace, an organisation which lays its agenda as fighting for justice for the victims of communal violence in the state of Gujarat in 2002. CJP is a co-petitioner seeking a criminal trial of Narendra Modi, the Chief Minister of Gujarat and the current Prime minister of India, sixty-two other politicians and government officials for complicity in the Gujarat violence of 2002 and whose names did not figure in any of the FIRs /charge sheets that formed the subject matter of the various Session Trials regarding the riots at that point of time. However, the actions against Greenpeace were initiated in 2013 based on a report issued by IB during UPA rule led by Congress party, an arch political rival of Narendra Modi.

In September 2015, Ministry of Home Affairs cancelled the FCRA registration of Greenpeace India, making impossible any foreign donation to Greenpeace India. The measure was said to have been executed on the grounds of "prejudicially affecting the public interest and economic interest of the state". Another NGO Compassion International had to shut down India operations after the government refused permission to accept foreign funding. Earlier, Compassion International was put on the "watch list" by the Home Ministry amid reports by security agencies that it was funding unregistered Indian NGOs which were accused of encouraging religious conversions; the Obama administration as well as the Trump administration pursued the case in the highest level amid the risk of a diplomatic tussle. At the 2017 "peer review" by the UN Human Rights Council held at Geneva, Indian government faced tough questioning by fellow nations; the attack on the FCRA act came from nearly a dozen countries from Europe. The charge was led by the U.

S. and Germany, who called the Act and the government's actions "arbitrary". FCRA 2013 The Foreign Contribution Act, 2010. Universal Law Publishing. Commercial's Law Relating to Foreign Contributions in India: Based on New the Foreign Contribution Act, 2010. Commercial Law Publishers. 2011. Full text of the Act

Winter Garden Atrium

The Winter Garden Atrium is a 10-story glass-vaulted pavilion on Vesey Street in New York City's Brookfield Place office complex. Designed by Diana Balmori, the Atrium was constructed in 1988, rebuilt in 2002, after it was damaged by the collapse of the World Trade Center during the September 11 attacks; the Atrium houses various plants and flowers, shops. The rear of the building opens onto the World Financial Center Plaza and the North Cove Yacht Harbor on the Hudson River; the Winter Garden Atrium, along with the rest of the World Financial Center, was designed by architect César Pelli in 1985. Completed in 1988 at a cost of $60 million, the Atrium was connected to the World Trade Center via a 400 ft pedestrian bridge that spanned West Street; the Atrium was damaged in the September 11, 2001 attacks as all the glass panes were blown out by the dust clouds and debris caused by the collapse of the World Trade Center, but was rebuilt during the first year of the Financial Center's recovery. Reconstruction of the Winter Garden required 2,000 panes of glass, 60,000 square feet of marble flooring and stairs, sixteen 40 ft Washingtonia robusta palm trees at a cost of $50 million.

Reopened on September 17, 2002, the Winter Garden was the first major structure to be restored following the attacks. President George W. Bush was present at the reopening ceremony; the pedestrian bridge was destroyed in the same attacks and was replaced by windows facing the former site of the World Trade Center. Since its construction, the Winter Garden Atrium has hosted concerts and symphonies as part of the World Financial Center Series. Upon its reopening in 2002, the atrium held ballets, concerts, a performance by the Big Apple Circus, a production of The Downtown Messiah, a modern interpretation of Handel's classical oratorio, directed by Richard Barone. In the spring of 2003, an exhibit documenting the recovery process of the World Trade Center was installed by the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation in the Winter Garden; the exhibit included early designs of Libeskind's Freedom Tower. That year, the eight finalists in the competition for the new buildings had their designs unveiled and displayed in the atrium.

The Winter Garden continues to serve as a venue for art exhibits and shows, as well as hosting movie screenings during the TriBeCa Film Festival. Media related to Winter Garden Atrium at Wikimedia Commons Calendar of Events

Someday Man

Someday Man is the debut studio album by Paul Williams, released in 1970. Notable songs from the album include "Someday Man", "Trust" and "To Put Up with You"; the song "Someday Man", written by Paul Williams and Roger Nichols, was first released by The Monkees on their 1969 single "Listen to the Band / Someday Man". Chuck Kaye was credited for direction. In 2018 the album was re-issued on vinyl by Ship To Shore Phono Co; the deluxe package included two bonus tracks plus new liner notes by Williams, Roger Nichols, Richard Barone. All tracks composed by Roger Nichols. "Someday Man" "So Many People" "She's Too Good to Me" "Mornin' I'll Be Movin' On" "Time" "Trust" "To Put Up with You" "Do You Really Have a Heart?" "I Know You" "Roan Pony"

Museo de Historia de Madrid

The Museum of History of Madrid is a history museum located on Calle de Fuencarral in downtown Madrid, Spain that chronicles the history of the city. It was opened as the Museo Municipal in 1929, was renamed as the Museo de Historia de Madrid in 2007; the museum's building was the Royal Hospice of San Fernando, built in 1673. The building was designed by Spanish architect Pedro de Ribera; the museum opened in 1929 as the Museo Municipal. It was closed in 1955 the museum for building reforms, was not reopened to the public until 1978. In 2007 it was renamed as the Museo de Historia de Madrid; the museum's permanent collection demonstrates the history of Madrid from 1561 when Madrid became the capital of Spain to the beginning of the twentieth century. The collection is divided into three sections: Madrid, Corte y capital de dos mundos: covers the 16th to 18th century and the first two centuries of Madrid as the Spanish capital Madrid, Centro ilustrado del poder: covers all of the 18th century up until the War of Independence, including the Borbon dynasty and the changes in government Madrid, El sueño de una ciudad nueva: covers the 19th century up until the First World War

Visa policy of Monaco

Monaco does not have a visa policy of its own and the Schengen Visa policy applies. Although Monaco is not part of the European Union, or the Schengen Agreement, its territory is part of the Schengen Area by virtue of its customs Union with France as a result of the "Convention on Good Neighbourly Relations of 18 May 1963 on the entry and establishment of foreigners in Monaco" between France and Monaco; the 1963 convention was adapted to allow Monaco to be administered within the Schengen Area as if it were part of France. The entry and stay of foreigners in Monaco is defined by the Ordinance n. 3.153 of 19 March 1964 concerning the conditions of entry and residence of foreigners in the Principality. Both French and Monégasque authorities carry out checks at Monaco's heliport. Visa policy for holders of diplomatic and service passports in the Schengen area is not unified; the visa policy of Monaco for holders of diplomatic and service passports is identical to the visa policy of France, but differs from other Schengen countries.

In addition to nations whose all citizens are visa exempt, holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Algeria, Bahrain, Cabo Verde, Dominican Republic, Gabon, Kuwait, Oman, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United States and only diplomatic passports of Armenia, Belize, China, India, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia, Senegal and Vietnam do not require a visa. Foreigners that desire to stay for a period longer than 3 months in Monaco require a resident permit; when visiting Monaco, there is passport control except. Visitors may get souvenir passport stamps at a state tourism office. Visa requirements for Monégasque citizens Visa policy of the Schengen Area List of diplomatic missions of Monaco Foreign relations of Monaco