Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Wakamatsu-ku is a ward of Kitakyūshū, Japan. It has an area of 67.86 km2 and a population of about 88,594. Important facilities include Green Park, Ecotown recycling area, Gakuen Toshi academic area, Hibiki container terminal. An underwater tunnel was being constructed in 2005–2006 between Tobata and Wakamatsu wards to link the Hibiki container terminal with Kokura. Green Park is a large green area which includes a tropical house with rare plants and birds, it is not well known outside Kitakyushu. Sometimes indoor and open-air concerts are staged. There is an observation tower. There is a wind farm on harnessing wind power for electricity. There is no particular controversy about the sightliness or otherwise of this wind farm, as in some other countries, it is on windy reclaimed land. The beaches are pleasant. A larger one is beyond the city limits. Swimming is limited to the summer months; the writer Hino Ashihei was born in Wakamatsu and his birthhouse can be visited. Media related to Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyūshū at Wikimedia Commons Wakamatsu ward office Green Park- Official Page Kyushu Institute of Technology Wakamatsu campus is in the Gakuen Toshi Academic zone.
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the national library of Japan and among the largest libraries in the world. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy; the library is similar in scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two main facilities in Tōkyō and Kyōtō, several other branch libraries throughout Japan; the National Diet Library is the successor of three separate libraries: the library of the House of Peers, the library of the House of Representatives, both of which were established at the creation of Japan's Imperial Diet in 1890. The Diet's power in prewar Japan was limited, its need for information was "correspondingly small"; the original Diet libraries "never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity". Until Japan's defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information.
The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II. In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee. Hani Gorō, a Marxist historian, imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as "both a'citadel of popular sovereignty'", the means of realizing a "peaceful revolution"; the Occupation officers responsible for overseeing library reforms reported that, although the Occupation was a catalyst for change, local initiative pre-existed the Occupation, the successful reforms were due to dedicated Japanese like Hani. The National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes; the first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori.
The philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL became the only national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained an additional million volumes housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, adjacent to the National Diet. In 1986, the NDL's Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals; the Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items. In May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Children's Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno; this branch contains some 400,000 items of children's literature from around the world. Though the NDL's original mandate was to be a research library for the National Diet, the general public is the largest consumer of the library's services. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries.
As Japan's national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. Moreover, because the NDL serves as a research library for Diet members, their staffs, the general public, it maintains an extensive collection of materials published in foreign languages on a wide range of topics; the NDL has eight major specialized collections: Modern Political and Constitutional History. The Modern Political and Constitutional History Collection comprises some 300,000 items related to Japan's political and legal modernization in the 19th century, including the original document archives of important Japanese statesmen from the latter half of the 19th century and the early 20th century like Itō Hirobumi, Iwakura Tomomi, Sanjō Sanetomi, Mutsu Munemitsu, Terauchi Masatake, other influential figures from the Meiji and Taishō periods; the NDL has an extensive microform collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the United States Strategic Bombing Survey Team.
The Laws and Preliminary Records Collection consists of some 170,000 Japanese and 200,000 foreign-language documents concerning proceedings of the National Diet and the legislatures of some 70 foreign countries, the official gazettes, judicial opinions, international treaties pertaining to some 150 foreign countries. The NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences; these materials include, among other things, foreign doctoral dissertations in the sciences, the proceedings and reports of academic societies, catalogues of technical standards, etc. The NDL has a collection of 440,000 maps of Japan and other countries, including the topographica
A war novel is a novel in which the primary action takes place on a battlefield, or in a civilian setting, where the characters are either preoccupied with the preparations for, suffering the effects of, or recovering from war. Many war novels are historical novels; the war novel's origins are in the epic poetry of the classical and medieval periods Homer's The Iliad, Virgil's The Aeneid, sagas like the Old English Beowulf, Arthurian literature. All of these epics were concerned with preserving the history or mythology of conflicts between different societies, while providing an accessible narrative that could reinforce the collective memory of a people. Other important influences on the war novel included the tragedies of dramatists such as Euripides, Seneca the Younger, Christopher Marlowe, Shakespeare. Euripedes' The Trojan Women is a powerfully disturbing play on the theme of war's horrors critical of Athenian imperialism. Shakespeare's Henry V, which focuses on events before and after the Battle of Agincourt during the Hundred Years' War, provides a model for how the history and ethics of war could be combined in an fictional framework.
Romances and satires in Early Modern Europe, like Edmund Spenser's epic poem The Faerie Queene and Miguel de Cervantes's novel Don Quixote, to name but two contain elements that influenced the development of war novels. In terms of imagery and symbolism, many modern war novels are influenced by Dante's depiction of Hell in the Inferno, John Milton's account of the war in Heaven in Paradise Lost, the Apocalypse as depicted in the biblical Book of Revelation. A Notable non-western example of war novel is Luo Guanzhong's Romance of the Three Kingdoms; as the realistic form of the novel rose to prominence in the seventeenth century, the war novel began to develop its modern form, although most novels featuring war were picaresque satires rather than realistic portraits of war. An example of one such work is Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen's Simplicius Simplicissimus, a semi-autobiographical account of the Thirty Years' War; the war novel came of age during the nineteenth century, with works like Stendhal's The Charterhouse of Parma, which features the Battle of Waterloo, Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace, about the Napoleonic Wars in Russia, Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage, which deals with the American Civil War.
All of these works feature realistic depictions of major battles, scenes of wartime horror and atrocities, significant insights into the nature of heroism and cowardice, as well as the exploration of moral questions. World War I produced an unprecedented number of war novels, by writers from countries on all sides of the conflict. One of the first and most influential of these was the 1916 novel Le Feu by the French novelist and soldier Henri Barbusse. Barbusse's novel, with its open criticism of nationalist dogma and military incompetence, initiated the anti-war movement in literature that flourished after the war. Of equal significance is the autobiographical work of Ernst Jünger, In Stahlgewittern. Distinctly different from novels like Barbusse's and Erich Maria Remarque's Im Westen nichts Neues, Jünger instead writes of the war as a valiant hero who embraced combat and brotherhood in spite of the horror; the work not only provides for an under-represented perspective of the War, but it gives insight into the German sentiment that they were never defeated in the First World War.
The post-1918 period produced a vast range of war novels, including such "home front" novels as Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier, about a shell shocked soldier's difficult re-integration into British society. In the post–World War I period, the subject of war tis dealt with in an increasing number of modernist novels, many of which were not "war novels" in the conventional sense, but which featured characters whose psychological trauma and alienation from society stemmed directly from wartime experiences. One example of this type of novel is Virginia Woolf's Mrs. Dalloway', in which a key subplot concerns the tortuous descent of a young veteran, Septimus Warren Smith, toward insanity and suicide. In 1924, Laurence Stallings published Plumes; the 1920s saw the so-called "war book boom," during which many men who had fought during the war were ready to write and critically about their war experiences. In 1929, Erich Maria Remarque's Im Westen nichts Neues was a massive, worldwide bestseller, not least for its brutally realistic account of the horrors of trench warfare from the perspective of a German infantryman.
Less well known but shocking in its account of the horrors of trench warfare is the earlier Stratis Myrivilis' Greek novel Life in the Tomb, first published in serialised form in the weekly newspaper Kambana, in revised and much expanded form in 1930. Significant were Ernest Hemingway's A Farewell to Arms, Richard Aldington's Death of a Hero, Arnold Zweig's Der Streit un den Sergeanten Grischa, Charles Yale Harrison's Generals Die in Bed. and William March's Company K. Novels about World War I appeared less in the 1930s, though during this decade historical novels about earlier wars becam