Tōji-in is a Buddhist temple of the Rinzai Tenryū sect located in Kita Ward, Kyoto and one of two funeral temples dedicated to Ashikaga Takauji, first shōgun of the Ashikaga dynasty. Its main object of worship is Shakyamuni, its honorary sangō prefix is Mannenzan. Tōji-in was founded at the foot of Mount Kinugasa in 1341 by Takauji himself in fulfillment of a vow, he did so under the guidance of famous Zen teacher, calligraphist and garden designer Musō Soseki, who created the Zen gardens and ponds of the temple. Tōji-in became the Ashikaga dynasty's funeral temple and all fifteen of the Ashikaga shōguns are buried here; the temple's name was chosen as one of Takauji's two posthumous names, Tōji-inden. Tōji-in was number one of the Kyoto Jissetsu, the temples below the Kyoto Gozan within the Five Mountain System nationwide network of Zen temples; because of its association with the Ashikaga, believed by the Emperor's supporters to be traitors because they had usurped imperial power, during the Meiji restoration the temple sustained some damage.
In recent years the temple has been restored to increase its appeal as a tourist attraction. The Main Hall was a tacchū of Myōshin-ji built in 1616 by order of samurai Fukushima Masanori; the garden, the ponds, the Seirentei tearoom were designed by Musō Soseki. Tōji-in's treasure owns a drawing of the temple, an Important Cultural Property. Tokugawa Ieyasu and all the fifteen Ashikaga shōguns are enshrined in a small building called Reikō-den; the sixteen statues, which are of limited artistic value, are lined up in two rows on the sides of the room, each sitting and carrying a shaku symbolizing their shogunal power. Their sculptors are unknown; the presence among the Ashikaga shōguns of a statue of Tokugawa Ieyasu, founder of the Tokugawa shogunate, suggests that Tokugawa wished to link himself to the Ashikaga clan and give an impression of continuity between the two dynasties. Like them, Ieyasu claimed to be a descendant of the Minamoto clan. In 1863 nine men broke into the Reikō-den and stole the heads of the first three Ashikaga shōguns, Takauji and Yoshimitsu, as a form of revenge for their role in usurping the emperor's power during the Nanbokuchō period.
The severed heads were exposed on the banks of the Kamo river together with placards listing their crimes against the nation. For an explanation of terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture, see the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism. Daijirin, 2nd edition Daijisen, 1st edition Encyclopedia Nipponica accessed on April 26, 2009 Keene, Donald. Yoshimasa and the Silver Pavilion: The Creation of the Soul of Japan. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13057-8. Kōjien 6th edition, DVD Version Mansfield, Stephen. Japan's Master Gardens. Tokyo, Singapore: Tuttle. P. 144. ISBN 978-4-8053-1128-8
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Kamakura shogunate was a Japanese feudal military government of imperial-aristocratic rule that ruled from 1185 to 1333. The heads of the government were the shōguns; the first three were members of the Minamoto clan. The next two were members of the Fujiwara clan; the last six were minor Imperial princes. These years are known as the Kamakura period; the period takes its name from the city. After 1203, the Hōjō clan held the office of shikken. In effect, the shikken governed in the name of the shōguns. Before the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate, civil power in Japan was held by the ruling emperors and their regents appointed from the ranks of the imperial court and the aristocratic clans that vied there. Military affairs were handled under the auspices of the civil government. However, after defeating the Taira clan in the Genpei War, Minamoto no Yoritomo seized powers from the aristocracy. In 1192, Yoritomo and the Minamoto clan established a military government in Kamakura. After Yoritomo's death, Hōjō Tokimasa, the clan chief of Yoritomo's widow, Hōjō Masako, former guardian of Yoritomo, claimed the title of regent to Yoritomo's son Minamoto no Yoriie making that claim hereditary to the Hōjō clan.
Tokimasa deposed Yoriie, backed up his younger brother, Minamoto no Sanetomo, as a new shōgun, assumed the post of shikken. The Minamoto clan remained the titular shōguns, with the Hōjō holding the real power. In 1219, Sanetomo was assassinated by his nephew Kugyō. Since Sanetomo died childless, the line of shōguns from the Minamoto clan ended with him. With the Regency, what was an unusual situation became more anomalous when the Hōjō usurped power from those who had usurped it from the Emperor, descending from Emperor Kōkō, who usurped it from the children of Emperor Seiwa; the new regime nonetheless proved to be stable enough to last a total of 135 years, 9 shōguns and 16 regents. With Sanetomo's death in 1219, his mother Hōjō Masako became the shogunate's real center of power; as long as she lived, regents and shōguns would go, while she stayed at the helm. Since the Hōjō family did not have the rank to nominate a shōgun from among its members, Masako had to find a convenient puppet; the problem was solved choosing Kujo Yoritsune, a distant relation of the Minamoto, who would be the fourth shōgun and figurehead, while Hōjō Yoshitoki would take care of day-to-day business.
However powerless, future shōguns would always be chosen from either Fujiwara or imperial lineage to keep the bloodline pure and give legitimacy to the rule. This succession proceeded for more than a century. In 1221 Emperor Go-Toba tried to regain power in what would be called the Jōkyū War, but the attempt failed; the power of the Hōjō remained unchallenged until 1324, when Emperor Go-Daigo orchestrated a plot to overthrow them, but the plot was discovered immediately and foiled. The Mongols under Kublai Khan attempted sea-borne invasions in 1274 and 1281. Fifty years before, the shogunate had agreed to Korean demands that the Wokou be dealt with to stop their raids, this bit of good diplomacy had created a cooperative relationship between the two states, such that the Koreans, helpless with a Mongol occupation army garrisoning their country, had sent much intelligence information to Japan, so that along with messages from Japanese spies in the Korean peninsula, the shogunate had a good picture of the situation of the pending Mongol invasion.
The shogunate had rejected Kublai's demands to submit with contempt. The Mongol landings of 1274 met with some success, but the Japanese had given the Mongols more casualties in an eight-hour engagement than they had had in fighting in China or Korea, there was no rout of the Japanese defenders, who in any case outnumbered the 40,000 combined invasion force of Mongols and Korean conscripts. Noting an impending storm, the Korean admirals advised the Mongols to re-embark so that the fleet could be protected away from shore. After the surviving forces returned to Mongol territory, Kublai was not dissuaded from his intentions on bringing Japan under Mongol control, once again sent a message demanding submission, which infuriated the Hōjō leadership, who had the messengers executed, they responded with decisive action for defense—a wall was built to protect the hinterland of Hakata Bay, defensive posts were established, garrison lists were drawn up, regular manning of the home provinces was redirected to the western defenses, ships were constructed to harass the invaders' fleet when they appeared.
The Mongols returned in 1281 with a force of some 50,000 Mongol-Korean-Chinese along with some 100,000 conscripts from the defeated Song empire in south China. This force embarked and fought the Japanese for some seven weeks at several locations in Kyushu, but the defenders held, the Mongols made no strategic headway. Again, a typhoon approached, the Koreans and Chinese re-embarked the combined Mongol invasion forces in an attempt to deal with the storm in the open sea. At least one-third of the Mongol force was destroyed, half of the conscripted Song forces to the south over a two-day period of August 15–16. Thousands of invading troops were slaughtered by the samurai; such losses in men and the exhaustion of the Korean state in provisioning the two invasions put an end to the Mongol's attempts to conquer Japan. The "divine wind," or kamikaze, was credited for saving Japan from foreign invasion. For two further decades the Kamakura shogunate maintained a watch in case the Mongols attempted another invasion.
However, the s
Ashikaga Yoshiakira was the 2nd shōgun of the Ashikaga shogunate who reigned from 1358 to 1367 during the Muromachi period of Japan. Yoshiakira was first shōgun of the Muromachi shogunate, Ashikaga Takauji, his mother was Akahashi Tōshi known as Hōjō Nariko. His childhood name was Senjuō, he spent his childhood in Kamakura as a hostage of the Hōjō clan. His father Takauji joined forces with the banished Emperor Go-Daigo; the Kamakura shogunate was overthrown, Go-Daigo began the process which came to be known as the Kenmu Restoration. Yoshiakira assisted Nitta Yoshisada in his attack on the Kamakura shogunate. In 1349, an internal disturbance of the government caused Yoshiakira to be called back to Kyoto, where he found himself named as Takauji's heir. On 5 April 1352, Loyalist forces led by Kitabatake Akiyoshi, Kusunoki Masanori and Chigusa Akitsune occupied Kyoto for twenty days before Yoshiakira was able to retake the city. Loyalist forces led by Masanori and Yamana Tokiuji captured Kyoto again in July 1353, but were repulsed by Yoshiakira in August.
In January 1355, Loyalist forces led by Momonoi and Yamana captured Kyoto again. However, Kyoto was recaptured on 25 April by Yoshiakira's combined forces. Yoshiakira succeeded his father Takauji as Sei-i Taishōgun after his death in 1358. Significant events shape the period during which Yoshiakira was shōgun: 1358 – Takauji dies. 1362 – Hosokawa Kiyouji and Kusunoki Masanori attack Kyoto, Yoshiakira flees, but regains the capital in twenty days. 1365 – Emperor Go-Daigo's son, Prince Kaneyoshi gains control of Kyushu. 1367 – Kantō kubō Ashikaga Motouji dies. Some months after his death he was succeeded by his son Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who became the third shōgun in 1368. Yoshiakira was posthumously named 宝篋院, his grave is at Tōji-in, Kyoto, at the same site as his father's grave. Father: Ashikaga Takauji Mother: Akahashi Toshi Wife: Shibukawa Koshi Concubine: Kino Yoshiko Children: Ashikaga Senjuo by Koshi a boy by Yoshiko Ashikaga Yoshimitsu by Yoshiko Ashikaga Mitsuakira by Yoshiko Kashiwabi Kiyokuni Teiyou Soki Keiko Hokyoji-dono The years in which Yoshiakira was shōgun are more identified by more than one era name or nengō.
Nanboku-chō southern court Eras as reckoned by legitimate Court: Shōhei Nanboku-chō northern Court Eras as reckoned by pretender Court: Enbun Kōan Jōji Ackroyd, Joyce I. Lessons from History: the Tokushi Yoron. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press. ISBN 9780702214851. A History of Japan: 1334–1615. Stanford: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0525-7. Nihon Ōdai Ichiran. Paris: Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland. OCLC 585069
The Kikuchi clan of Higo Province was a powerful daimyō family of Higo, Kyūshū. The lineage was renowned against foreign invaders, they first distinguished itself during the Jürchen invasion of northern Kyūshū in 1019 and rose to prominence during the Mongol invasions of Japan, when the heroism of Kikuchi Takefusa helped drive back the enemy. The Kikuchi were active in the Kenmu Restoration, an attempt by the emperor Go-Daigo to reassert imperial authority against the Kamakura shogunate; this clan descended from Fujiwara clan. However it is questioned as a Korean Baekje origin Buddha statue found in their origin site is the same type of Buddha statue belonged to Kikuchi clan, as the statue was made before Fujiwara clan existed, it's believed that Kikuchi clan was older than Fujiwara clan. Japanese genealogist, Suzuki Matoshi claimed the clan was from the Korean kingdom of Baekje while Oota Akira, Japanese historian, claimed the clan originated from Ki clan. Many famous warriors have come from this family such as Kikuchi Takanao, Kikuchi Takefusa who stopped the Mongol Invasions of Japan, Kikuchi Taketoki and Kikuchi Takemitsu whose stories have become some of the most colorful in Japanese history.
Along with the Ōtomo, Ōuchi, Shōni and Shimazu they would write the history of the island of Kyūshū. The Kikuchi clan was destroyed when the Ōuchi clan attacked them and many clan members went into hiding either by moving or entering another family. Notable Kikuchi descendants are Hayashi Narinaga, a general for Mōri Motonari and Saigō Takamori, dubbed the last samurai. Known as Fujiwara no Noritaka he was the first to take the name Kikuchi, his father Masanori worked for the Fujiwara clan. Genealogists believed that Masanori was a son of Fujiwara no Takaie but new evidence shows that his father was named Chikanori, it is recorded that Masanori was awarded a katana for military service in time of war and on April 3, 1022 he was appointed as governor of Tsushima for his service against Toi invaders. He changed his name to Tsushima-no-kami Kuranori. "Shōyūki, Jian 2/4/3"Noritaka held a high position in the Daizaifu Government. When Fujiwara no Takaie moved back to Kyoto in 1070 Noritaka decided to retire and built a retirement villa in Kikuchi District, Higo Province where he lived until his death.
The remains of the villa can still be seen today. In 1071 he became master of Kikuchi District. Today there is a city in Kumamoto Prefecture called Kumamoto, he founded the Kikuchi clan. Born the second son of Tsunemune he was known as Kikuchi no Jirō Takanao and became the sixth head of the Kikuchi clan, his childhood name was Kurō. He was given the title Higo-Gon-no-kami. In 1180 at the start of the Genpei War he sided with Minamoto no Yoritomo and began levying troops in Kyūshū but Taira no Sadayoshi marched against him and defeated him. Takanao was present at the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Shortly after the battle that same year he was turned over to Minamoto no Yoshitsune by his lord Ogata no Saburo Koreyoshi and was taken to the Rokujō riverbed where he was beheaded. "One of your retainers, Kikuchi no Jirō Takanao, has been my enemy for years... You may rely on me if you will turn Kikuchi over for execution." —Minamoto no Yoshitsune At the end of the twelfth century events far away in eastern Japan led to the establishment of Japan's first military government, the Kamakura shogunate, during the initial stages at least, ran in tandem with the old imperial administration.
The wars surrounding the birth of this new regime saw the Kikuchi clan coalesce into a powerful warrior league, or bushidan. In 1181–82, their leader Kikuchi Takanao, joined with Ogata Koreyoshi of Bungo, another important local warrior, in rebellion against the Taira, which converted them into de facto allies of Minamoto Yoritomo, founder of the Bakafu; this rising was, crushed by Haruda Tanenao. Perversely, as the fighting drew to a close and the Taira star waned, the Kikuchi chose to align themselves with the erstwhile enemies and, together with the leading Kyūshū warriors including the Haruda and Itai, suffered a crushing defeat at the hands of the now triumphant Bakafu; the battle took place off the coast of Kyūshū, at Dannoura, it saw the emergence of Minamoto no Yoritomo as Japan's unquestioned military leader. His forces were drawn from the east, while, in the dying moments, the Taira had relied exclusively on warriors from Kyūshū; the new military regime, titled decidedly toward the east and against the west, a fact, to have profound consequences for the island's future.
Yoshitaka was the eighth clan son of Takatsugu. During the Genpei War he was fought on the side of the Heike and after the war though he was on the losing side the Genji permitted Yoshitaka to keep is land. During the Shōkyū War of 1221, Kikuchi Yoshitaka's job was Kyōto Obanyaku, the post to guard Kyōto the palace and the residences of special imperial family members, he dispatched his two uncles to Kyōto to follow the Gotobajoko but the Kamakura shogunate were pleased increasing the lands of the Kikuchi. Born the second son of Takayasu he was known as Kikuchi Jirō Takefusa, he gained fame for his crucial role in the Mongol in
Kitabatake Akiie was a Japanese court noble, an important supporter of the Southern Court during the Nanboku-chō Wars. He held the posts of Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North, Governor of Mutsu Province, his father was Imperial advisor Kitabatake Chikafusa. In 1333, Akiie was ordered to accompany the six-year-old eighth son of Emperor Go-Daigo, Prince Norinaga, to Mutsu, where the Prince became Governor-General of Mutsu and Dewa; these two large provinces constituted much of the north-western end of Honshū, the area now known as Tōhoku. In April 1333, he was appointed to the post of Chinjufu-shōgun, or Commander-in-Chief of the Defense of the North; this was a position, held by Minamoto no Yoshiie two hundred years earlier. A number of families formed a league under his direction; the Soma and several other daimyō were convinced to change sides by Takauji, however. Three years he led an army nominally under the command of Norinaga to the outskirts of Kyoto to reinforce the forces of Nitta Yoshisada against Ashikaga Takauji.
Nitta and Kitabatake were aided by warrior monks from Enryakuji, the temple of Miidera, whose monks supported Ashikaga Takauji, was burned to the ground. Traveling to Kyūshū, Kitabatake gathered support for the Southern Court in the absence of Ashikaga Takauji, one of the strongest leaders of the Northern Court. In 1337, despite facing opposition at home in the north, Kitabatake was ordered by Emperor Go-Daigo to come to the aid of his army to the south of Kyoto. Kitabatake led his forces south, fighting the Northern Court in many battles, he was defeated at the Tone River before pushing south and occupying Kamakura, the capital of the Ashikaga shogunate, making his way to Nara, fighting at Iga and Sekigahara. In Nara, while trying to rest and reorganize his forces, he was set upon by Kō no Moronao and escaped to Kawachi Province, he recouped and pushed through enemy forces at Tennōji, but was defeated and killed at Izumi in 1338 at the age of twenty. His death is described in his father's Jinnō Shōtōki.
His kami is enshrined at Ryōzen Shrine in Date, Fukushima Prefecture, one of the Fifteen Shrines of the Kenmu Restoration. Father: Kitabatake Chikafusa Mother: Unknown Spouse: A woman related to Hino Suketomo, Son: Kitabatake Akinari, - His descendants formed the Namioka Clan Daughter: Wife of Andō Sadasue Son: Kitabatake Moroaki? - His descendants formed the Takioka Clan