Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Eric Michael Swalwell Jr. is an American politician from California, who serves as the U. S. Representative from California's 15th congressional district, his district covers part of central Contra Costa County. He is a member of the Democratic Party. Swalwell was raised in Sac City and Dublin, California. While attending the University of Maryland, College Park, he served as a student liaison to the city council for College Park, Maryland, he interned for Ellen Tauscher and worked as a deputy district attorney in Alameda County, California. Before being elected to the U. S. House, he served as a local appointee on Dublin commissions, served one term elected to the Dublin City Council, he was elected to the U. S. House in November 2012, defeating incumbent Pete Stark, a 40-year incumbent who had held the office since 1973. Stark was a fellow Democrat a half-century Swalwell's senior. Swalwell took office on January 3, 2013. Swalwell announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination on April 8, 2019.
Swalwell was born in Sac City, the first of four sons of Eric Nelson Swalwell and Vicky Joe Swalwell. After leaving Iowa, the family settled in Dublin, California, he graduated from Wells Middle School, from Dublin High School in 1999. Swalwell attended Campbell University in North Carolina on a soccer scholarship from 1999 to 2001, he broke both of his thumbs in his sophomore year, ending the scholarship. Swalwell transferred to the University of College Park, as a junior. In 2003, he completed his bachelor's degree in government and politics at Maryland, he enrolled at the University of Maryland School of Law and earned his Juris Doctor in 2006. At the University of Maryland, Swalwell served as Vice President of Campus Affairs for the Student Government Association, was an elected member of the Student-Faculty-Staff University Senate and of its executive committee, he was an active member of the Alpha Sigma Phi fraternity. He served as the student liaison to the City Council of College Park. In 2001 and 2002, Swalwell interned for Ellen Tauscher in the United States House of Representatives representative for California's 10th congressional district.
Swalwell focused on services. The September 11 terrorist attacks occurred during his internship; the attacks inspired his first legislative achievement: using his Student Government Association position at Maryland to create a public–private college scholarship program for students who lost parents in the attacks. After graduating from law school, he worked as an Alameda County deputy district attorney, he served on the Dublin Heritage & Cultural Arts Commission from 2006 to 2008 and on the Dublin Planning Commission from 2008 to 2010 before winning election to the Dublin City Council in 2010. While he was running for the U. S. Congress, an attempted recall of Swalwell from the city council led by an anonymous group began, but after he won election to the U. S. House, the attempt was abandoned. In September 2011, Swalwell filed to run for Congress in the 15th district; the district had been the 13th, represented by 20-term incumbent Democrat Pete Stark. Stark had represented the district since 1973.
Swalwell took a leave of absence from the Dublin City Council. Swalwell was only able to contest Stark in the general election because of California's new "top two" primary system put in place by 2010 California Proposition 14. Under that system, the top two primary vote-getters advance to the general election, regardless of party affiliation. In the June primary election, Stark finished first with 41.8% of the vote, Swalwell placed second with 36% of the vote, independent candidate Chris Pareja finished third with 22.2% of the vote. In the November 2012 general election, Swalwell was endorsed by the San Francisco Chronicle. During the 2012 election cycle, the Stark campaign accused Swalwell of being a Tea Party candidate; the accusation was refuted by Swalwell and the San Jose Mercury News, which endorsed Swalwell. Stark refused to debate Swalwell during the campaign. In response, Swalwell organized a mock debate with an actor playing Pete Stark, quoting him verbatim when answering the moderator.
Other campaign gimmicks included Chinese-manufactured rubber ducks, a dreadlocked, bearded information man. In the November 2012 election, Swalwell defeated Stark, 52.1% to 47.9%. During his service in the House, Swalwell has become known for innovative and extensive use of social media to connect with constituents. In April 2016, The Hill dubbed him "the Snapchat king of Congress", he used Facebook Live and Periscope to broadcast House Democrats' historic gun-violence sit-in in June 2016. Swalwell called for new policies regarding cameras on the House floor. Swalwell a member of the Dublin City Council, challenged incumbent Pete Stark in 2012, he defeated Stark in the November general election with 52.1% of the vote to Stark's 47.9%. Swalwell was sworn into his first term in the House on January 3, 2013, becoming only the third person to represent this district and its predecessors since 1945. George P. Miller had held the seat from 1945 to 1973. In his first term, Swalwell served on the House Committee on Homeland Security and the House Committee on Science and Technology.
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Fraxinus latifolia, the Oregon ash, is a member of the ash genus Fraxinus, native to western North America. Fraxinus latifolia is a medium-sized deciduous tree that can grow to heights of 60 ft to 25 m in height, with a trunk diameter of 40–75 cm in its 100-150 year average life span. Oregon Ash can grow larger and can have well over a 200 year life span, or become stunted and small in more dry habitats, it can develop a broad crown as wide as a bigleaf maple when it grows in the open, but crowns remain narrow when they are part of a denser tree stand, similar to that of Red Alder. The bark is distinctive with dark gray-brown, it will develop a woven pattern of deep fissures and ridges; the compound leaves are pinnate, 12–33 cm long, with 5-9 leaflets attached in pairs to a linear stalk and an additional leaflet at the tip. Each leaflet is 6 -- 12 cm long and 3 -- 4 cm broad; the leaves are noticeably lighter green than those of associated broadleaf species, turn bright yellow and fall off early in autumn.
It is common for the leaves and bark to show signs of disease and brown rot on otherwise healthy plants. After leaves have fallen off the plant in fall and before it begins to leaf out, Oregon Ash can be identified by its stout twigs and opposite branching arrangement and opposing buds. Unlike bigleaf maples, ash twigs have woolly hairs. In mid to late spring, the tree produces small flowers that are not noticeable, it is dioecious. The fruit, produced by female trees, is a cluster of samara, 3–5 cm long that includes wings similar to maple trees, it is shaped with the small seed located near one end. Fraxinus latifolia is found on the west side of the Cascade Range from southwestern British Columbia south through western Washington, western Oregon, northwestern California; the Oregon ash grows in wet habitats and prefers damp, loose soils such as sloughs, swale_s, wet meadows, swamps and bottomlands. It grows from sea level to 900 metres in elevation, up to 1,700 metres in the south of the range in California.
In central Southern California, it integrates with Fraxinus velutina of southern California east into Arizona. Oregon ash is intolerant of shade, may be replaced by more competitive trees such as bigleaf maples or conifers that block the light with their leaves or sheer size; this tree flourishes when its habitat become opened due to blowdowns, or other disturbances. Oregon ash sprouts vigorously from fire-killed trees. Young trees grow vigorously for their first 60 years, with their growth slowing in the following years; this particular species of ash is well adapted to soggy ground due to its moderately shallow, but extensive and wide-spreading root system. This allows for the tree to withstand wind storms exceptionally well. Ash tolerates flooding better than Douglas-fir and grand-fir. Oregon ash provides nourishment to songbirds and water fowl by way of its seeds. Deer and elk have been known to graze its foliage and sprouts; the wood of Oregon Ash compares favorably to the valuable lumber of eastern ashes, but it is used for hardwood products because of its limited availability and distribution.
The Cowlitz Tribe used. Europeans, European Americans, have long preferred similar species of ash for comparable purposes such as tool handles and sports equipment; the light color of the wood is somewhat lustrous, strong, high in shock resistance, workable with machines, wears smooth with use. The commercial application of Oregon Ash has been limited due to the much more abundant eastern ash; the young and fast-growing wood of ash is more elastic and more favorable for handles and baseball bats because it has wider growth rings. The wood of old ash trees in general are valued for firewood due to their fine-grain and brittleness, it is used as an ornamental or shade tree within and beyond it native range of the Pacific Northwest because of its rapid growth rate, symmetrical shape, hardiness. It has been known to be used for wind breaks and to help with riparian restoration due to its wide root system and quick growth. Media related to Fraxinus latifolia at Wikimedia Commons
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
San Leandro, California
San Leandro is a large suburban town in Alameda County, United States. It is located on the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay, between Oakland to the northwest and Hayward to the southeast; the first inhabitants of the geographic region which would become San Leandro were the ancestors of the Ohlone people, who arrived sometime between 3500 and 2500 BC. The Spanish settlers called these natives Costeños or "coast people" and the English-speaking settlers called them Costanoans. San Leandro was first visited by Europeans on March 20, 1772 by Spanish soldier Captain Pedro Fages and the Spanish Catholic priest Father Crespi. San Leandro is located on the Rancho San Rancho San Antonio Mexican land grants, its name refers to Leander of a sixth-century Spanish bishop. Both land grants were located along El Camino Viejo, modern 14th Street / State Route 185; the smaller, Rancho San Leandro 9,000 acres, was given to José Joaquín Estudillo in 1842. The larger, Rancho San Antonio 44,000 acres was given to another Spanish soldier Don Luis Maria Peralta in 1820.
Beginning in 1855, two of Estudillo's sons-in-law, John B. Ward and William Heath Davis, laid out the town site that would become San Leandro, bounded by the San Leandro Creek on the north, Watkins Street on the east, Castro Street on the south, & on the west by the longitude lying a block west of Alvarado Street; the city has a historic Portuguese American population dating from the 1880s when Portuguese laborers from Hawaii or from the Azores began settling in the city in and established farms and businesses. By the 1910 census, they had accounted for nearly two-thirds of San Leandro's population. In 1856 San Leandro became the county seat of Alameda county, but the county courthouse was destroyed there by the devastating 1868 quake on the Hayward Fault; the county seat was re-established in the town of Brooklyn, California in 1872. During the Civil War San Leandro and its neighbor, fielded a California militia company, the Brooklyn Guard. San Leandro was one of a number of suburban cities built in the post-World War II era of California that had restrictive covenants, which barred property owners in the city from selling properties to African Americans and other minorities.
As a result of the covenant, In 1960, the city was entirely white, while its neighbor city of Oakland had a large African American population. The United States Supreme Court, in Shelley v. Kraemer declared such covenants unenforceable by the state. San Leandro was an 86.4% white-non Hispanic community according in the 1970 census. The city's demographics began to diversify in the 1980s. By 2010, Asian Americans had become a plurality population in San Leandro, with one third of the population, with non-Hispanic Whites accounting for 27.1% of the population. The San Leandro Hills run above the city to the northeast. In the lower elevations of the city, an upper regionally contained aquifer is located 50 to 100 feet below the surface. At least one deeper aquifer exists 250 feet below the surface; some salt water intrusion has taken place in the San Leandro Cone. Shallow groundwater flows to the west, from the foothills toward San Francisco Bay. Shallow groundwater is contaminated in many of the locales of the lower elevation of the city.
Contamination by gasoline, volatile organic compounds and some heavy metals has been recorded in a number of these lower elevation areas. The trace of the Hayward Fault passes under Foothill Boulevard in San Leandro. Follow the link in the reference to see a series of photos of the fault cutting the asphalt between 1979 and 1987; the 2010 United States Census reported that San Leandro had a population of 84,950. The population density was 5,423.8 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Leandro was 31,946 White, 10,437 African American, 669 Native American, 25,206 Asian, 642 Pacific Islander, 11,295 from other races, 4,755 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 23,237 persons. Non-Hispanic Whites numbered 20,004; the Census reported that 84,300 people lived in households, 282 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 368 were institutionalized. There were 30,717 households, out of which 10,503 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 14,142 were married couples, 4,509 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,863 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 1,706 unmarried couples, just 326 same-sex couples. 8,228 households were made up of individuals and 3,128 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74. There were 20,514 families; the population was spread out with 18,975 people under the age of 18, 7,044 people aged 18 to 24, 23,469 people aged 25 to 44, 23,779 people aged 45 to 64, 11,683 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.5 males. There were 32,419 housing units at an average density of 2,069.9 per square mile, of which 30,717 were occupied, of which 17,667 were owner-occupied, 13,050 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.4%. 50,669 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 33,631 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2000 census, there we