In the epic Mahabharata, Droṇa or Droṇāchārya or Guru Droṇa or Rajaguru Devadroṇa was the 3rd incarnation of Brahma and was royal preceptor to the Kauravas and Pandavas. He was a friend of the guru of Asuras, including Mahabali, he was a descendant of sage Angirasa. He was a master of advanced military arts, including Astras. Since Droṇa was not born from a womb, but from a vessel made of leaf, he was named'Droṇa' which means'vessel made of leaf'; the name has Proto-Indo-European origins, is related to English tray. The story of Droṇa's birth is narrated in the Mahabharata. Bharadwaja rishi went with his companions to the Ganga River to perform his ablutions. There he was beheld by the beauty of a beautiful apsara called Ghritachi who had come there to bathe; the sage was overcome by desire, which caused him to produce semen involuntarily out of the visual excitation. Bharadwaja rishi captured this semen in a vessel called a Droṇa, Droṇācharya himself sprang from the semen thus preserved. Droṇācharya spent his youth in poverty, but studied Dharma and military arts such as archery, in which he gained expertise, together with the prince of Panchala, Drupada in the gurukul of Rishi Bharadwaja.
Drupada and Droṇācharya became close friends. Droṇācharya married Kripi, the sister of Kripa, the royal teacher of the princes of Hastinapura. Like Drona himself and her brother had not been gestated in a womb, but outside the human body. Kripi and Droṇa had Ashwatthama. Drona approached Parasurama. However, by the time he was approached by Drona, Parasurama only had his weapons left to give away, he offered to give Droṇa the weapons as well as the knowledge of. This is how Droṇa obtained the greatest weapons in his possession, his title of'ācārya'. For the sake of his wife and son, Droṇa desired freedom from poverty. Remembering a childhood promise given by Drupada, he decided to approach him to ask for help. However, King Drupada refused to acknowledge their friendship, saying friendship was possible only between persons of equal stature in life; as a child, he said, it was possible for him to be friends with Droṇa, because at that time they were equals. But now Drupada had become a king. However, he said he would satisfy Droṇācharya if he asked for alms befitting a Brahmin, rather than claiming his right as a friend.
Droṇa went away silently. Drona decides to continue Parashurama's legacy by starting his own school, he begins wandering Northern India. While at Hastinapur, he comes across the Kuru princes at play, is able to use his abilities to help the princes solve some of their problems. Amazed, the princes go to their patriarch Bhisma with news of this magician. Bhishma realized that this was Drona, asked him to become the Guru of the Kuru princes, training them in advanced military arts. Drona's school soon accepted all students of its allies. Many princes came to study under him. Of all the Kaurava and Pandava brothers training under Drona, Arjuna emerged as the most dedicated, hard-working and most talented of them all, exceeding Drona's own son Ashwatthama. Arjuna assiduously served his teacher, impressed by his devoted pupil. Arjuna surpassed Drona's expectations in numerous challenges; as a reward, Drona gave Arjuna mantras to invoke the super-powerful divine weapon of Brahma known as Brahmāstra, but told Arjuna not to use this invincible weapon against any ordinary warrior.
When Arjuna, inspired by his brother Bhima's nocturnal eating, mastered archery in absolute darkness, Drona was moved. Drona was impressed by Arjuna's concentration and drive, promised him that he would become the greatest archer on earth. Drona gave Arjuna special knowledge of the divine Astras. Drona was partial to Arjuna and Ashwatthama. Drona dearly loved his son Ashwatthama and as a guru, he loved Arjuna more than anyone. A strong criticism of Dronacharya is due to his pervert behavior towards Ekalavya and his strong bias in favor of Arjuna. Ekalavya was the son of a Nishadha chief. Dronacharya refused to train him along with the kṣatriya princes because Ekalavya was not a kṣatriya prince. Ekalavya began practice by himself, having fashioned a clay image of Dronacharya. By his determination, Ekalavya became a warrior of exceptional prowess. One day, kuru princes' dog's barking disturbed a focused Ekalavya. Without looking, Ekalavya fired arrows that sealed up the dog's mouth without spilling any blood of dog or causing any injury to the dog.
The Kuru princes saw this dog running back to them, wondered who could have done such a feat. They saw Ekalavya; every person saw his skill in shutting the dog's mouth. But Drona had given promise that Arjun will be the greatest archer in the world,so he demanded Ekalavya his right hand thumb as fee of being teacher. Drona held the invincible sword of Lord Brahma. Bhishma once told the story of this sword to Pandava prince Nakula; this sword was the primordial weapon created by the gods for the destruction of evil. The name of the sword was Asi, the personification and the primary energy behind all the weapons created; as per Bhishma, the constellation under which the sword was born is called Krittika, Agni is its deity, Rohini is its Gotra, Rudra is its high preceptor and whoever holds this weapon obtains sure victory. Dronacharya had been
In the epic Mahabharata, Bhishma was well known for his pledge of Celibacy. He was the eighth son of the goddess Ganga. Bhishma was related to both the Pandava and the Kaurava, he was an unparalleled warrior of his time. He handed down the Vishnu Sahasranama to Yudhishtira when he was on his death bed in the battle of Kurukshetra. In Sanskrit, the word Bhishma means'one who undertakes a terrible vow and fulfills it.' His other names are as follows - Devavrata Gangaputra - son of Ganga Shantanava - descendant of Shantanu Pitamaha - paternal grandfather Mahamahima - great king or the one, excessively great Gauranga - the one with fair body Shvetaveera - a white warrior or the one, heroic white Ashta Vasu - elemental gods King Shantanu saw a beautiful woman on the banks of the river Ganges and asked her to marry him. She agreed but with one condition:, they married and she gave birth to a son. But she drowned the child. Shantanu could not ask her the reason, because of his promise. One by one, seven sons were drowned by Ganga.
When Ganga was about to drown the eighth son, devastated, could not restrain himself and confronted her. Ganga explained to King Shantanu about Brahma's curse given to Mahabhisha and her, she told him that their eight children were Eight Vasus who were cursed by Vasishtha to be born on earth as mortal humans however when they pacified him, he limited his curse and told them that they would be freed from this curse within a year of their birth as humans. So she released the seven of them from this life by drowning them all; however the eighth child Bhishma, was cursed to live a long life and to never have a wife or have children. But the sage gave a boon to him that he would be virtuous, conversant with all the holy scriptures and will be an obedient son to his father; that she will take him to the heavens to train him properly for the King's status. With these words she disappeared along with the child while Shantanu was struck with grief thinking about spending the rest of his life without her.
The history behind Bhishma's birth is as follows — once the eight Vasus visited Vashishta's ashram accompanied by their wives. One of the wives took a fancy to Kamadhenu, Vashishta's wish-bearing cow and asked her husband Prabhasa to steal it from Vashishta. Prabhasa stole the cow with the help of the others who were all cursed by Vashishta to be born in the world of humans. Upon the Vasus appealing to Vashishta's mercy, the seven Vasus who had assisted in stealing Kamadhenu had their curse mitigated such that they would be liberated from their human birth as soon as they were born; the curse, however is softened to the extent that he would be one of the most illustrious men of his time. It was this Prabhasa called Vasu Dyaus who took the birth as Bhishma. After Devavrata was born, his mother Ganga took him to different realms, where he was brought up and trained by many eminent sages. Brihaspati: The son of Angiras and the preceptor of the Devas taught Devavrata the duties of kings, or political science and other Shastras.
Shukracharya: The son of Bhrigu and the preceptor of the Asuras taught Devavrata in political science and other branches of knowledge. Vashishtha, the Brahmarshi and Chyavana, the son of Bhrigu taught the Vedas and the Vedangas to Devavrata. Sanatkumara: The eldest son of Lord Brahma taught Devavrata the mental and spiritual sciences. Markandeya: The immortal son of Mrikandu of Bhrigu's race who acquired everlasting youth from Lord Shiva taught Devavrata in the duties of the Yatis. Parashurama: The son of Jamadagni of Bhrigu's race. Parashurama trained Bhishma in warfare. Indra: The king of the Devas, he bestowed celestial weapons on Bhishma. Named Devavratha, he became known as Bhishma after he took the bhishamna pratignya — the vow of lifelong Brahmacharya and of service to whoever sat on the throne of his father. Having joined his father's court, Bhishma was confirmed as the heir apparent. Having undergone a successful military campaign, being the child of a goddess himself, he was confirmed as the heir apparent and was loved by all in the city.
Shantanu was proud of his content that the future was secure. However, Shantanu had been falling in love with a fisherwoman, who operated the boats crossing one of Hastinapur's rivers; when Shantanu approached for her hand in marriage, Satyavati's father refused to give his daughter's hand to Shantanu unless Shantanu would proclaim her children as his heirs. However, doing so would be against the merit-based hereditary rules of Bharat, Shantanu had promised the throne to Bhishma. So, Shantanu sorrowfully had to reject the offer; this made Shantanu despondent, upon discovering the reason for his father's despondency, Devavratha sought out the girl's father and ceded his claim to the throne. At this, Satyavati's father retorted that if Devavratha gave up his claim to the throne, Devavratha's children would still claim the throne. Devavratha took the vow of lifelong celibacy, thus sacrificing his'crown-prince' title and denying himself the pleasures of conjugal love; this gave him immediate recognition among the gods.
His father granted him the boon of Ichcha Mrityu (control over his own death — he could choose the time of
A vajra is a weapon used as a ritual object to symbolize both the properties of a diamond and a thunderbolt. The vajra is a type of club with a ribbed spherical head; the ribs may meet in a ball-shaped top, or they may be separate and end in sharp points with which to stab. The vajra is the weapon of the Indian Vedic rain and thunder-deity Indra, is used symbolically by the dharma traditions of Buddhism and Hinduism to represent firmness of spirit and spiritual power. According to the Indian mythology, vajra is considered as one of the most powerful weapons in the universe The use of the vajra as a symbolic and ritual tool spread from India along with Indian religion and culture to other parts of Asia. According to Asko Parpola, the Sanskrit Vajra- and Avestan Vazra- both refer to a weapon of the Godhead, are from the Proto-Indo-European root *weg'- which means "to be powerful." It is related to Proto-Finno-Uralic *vaśara, "hammer, axe", but both the Sanskrit and Finno-Ugric derivatives are Proto-Aryan or Proto-Indo-Aryan, but not Proto-Iranian, state Parpola and Carpelan, because of its palatalized sibilant.
The earliest mention of the vajra is in part of the four Vedas. It is described as the weapon of the chief among Gods. Indra is described as using the vajra to kill sinners and ignorant persons; the Rigveda states that the weapon was made for Indra by the maker of divine instruments. The associated story describes Indra using the vajra, which he held in his hand, to slay the asura Vritra, who took the form of a serpent. On account of his skill in wielding the vajra, some epithets used for Indra in the Rigveda were Vajrabhrit, Vajrivat or Vajrin and Vajrabahu or Vajrahasta; the association of the Vajra with Indra was continued with some modifications in the Puranic literature, in Buddhist works. Buddhaghoṣa, a major figure of Theravada Buddhism in the 5th century, identified the Bodhisattva Vajrapani with Indra. Many puranas describe the vajra, with the story modified from the Rigvedic original. One major addition involves the role of the Sage Dadhichi. According to one account, the king of the deva was once driven out of devaloka by an asura named Vritra.
The asura was the recipient of a boon whereby he could not be killed by any weapon, known till the date of his receiving the boon and additionally that no weapon made of wood or metal could harm him. Indra, who had lost all hope of recovering his kingdom was said to have approached Shiva who could not help him. Indra along with Brahma went to seek the aid of Vishnu. Vishnu revealed to Indra. Indra and the other deva therefore approached the sage, whom Indra had once beheaded, asked him for his aid in defeating Vritra. Dadhichi acceded to the deva's request but said that he wished that he had time to go on a pilgrimage to all the holy rivers before he gave up his life for them. Indra brought together all the waters of the holy rivers to Naimisha Forest, thereby allowing the sage to have his wish fulfilled without a further loss of time. Dadhichi is said to have given up his life by the art of yoga after which the gods fashioned the vajrayudha from his spine; this weapon was used to defeat the asura, allowing Indra to reclaim his place as the king of devaloka.
Another version of the story exists where Dadhichi was asked to safeguard the weapons of the gods as they were unable to match the arcane arts being employed by the asura to obtain them. Dadhichi is said to have kept at the task for a long time and tiring of the job, he is said to have dissolved the weapons in sacred water which he drank; the deva returned a long time and asked him to return their weapons so that they might defeat the asura, headed by Vritra and for all. Dadhichi however told them of what he had done and informed them that their weapons were now a part of his bones. However, realising that his bones were the only way by which the deva could defeat the asura willingly gave his life in a pit of mystical flames he summoned with the power of his austerities. Brahma is said to have fashioned a large number of weapons from Dadhichi's bones, including the vajrayudha, fashioned from his spine; the deva are said to have defeated the asura using the weapons thus created. There have been instances where the war god Skanda is described as holding a vajra.
Skanda is the name of a bodhisattva in Mahayana Buddhism who wields a vajra. In Buddhism the vajra is the symbol of one of the three major branches of Buddhism. Vajrayana is translated as "Thunderbolt Way" or "Diamond Way" and can imply the thunderbolt experience of Buddhist enlightenment or bodhi, it implies indestructibility, just as diamonds are harder than other gemstones. In Tantric Buddhism the vajra and tribu are used in many rites by a lama or any Vajrayana practitioner of sadhana; the vajra is a male polysemic symbol. The vajra is representative of upaya whereas its companion tool, the bell, a female symbol, denotes prajna; some deities are shown holding each the vajra and bell in separate hands, symbolizing the union of the forces of compassion and wisdom, respectively. In the tantric traditions of Buddhism, the vajra is a symbol for the nature of reality, or sunyata, indicating endless creativity and skillful activity; the term is employed extensively in tantric literature: the term for the s
Dushasana spelled as Dussasana and Dushyasan, was a Kaurav prince, the second son of the blind king Dhritarashtra and Gandhari and the younger brother of Duryodhan in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. The name is derived from two elements, the Sanskrit: duh, meaning'tough or hard to beat' and shasana, meaning "ruling or power". So the word Dussasan means'competent or firm ruler'; when Dhritarashtra's queen Gandhari's pregnancy continued for an unusually long time, she beat her womb in frustration and in envy of Kunti, the queen of Pandu, who had given birth to three of the five Pandav brothers. Due to her actions, a hardened mass of grey-colored flesh emerged from her womb. Gandhari was devastated, called upon Vyasa, the great sage who had blessed her with one hundred sons, to redeem his words. Dussasana was devoted to his older brother Duryodhana, he was closely involved in the various schemes and plots to kill the Pandavas along with Duryodhana and Shakuni. After Yudhishthira lost his kingdom, his brothers and his wife Draupadi, in a game of dice with Shakuni, Dussasana dragged Draupadi by the hair into the assembly, at the behest of his brother Duryodhana, tried to disrobe her.
Draupadi prayed to Krishna and he made her sari to be of infinite length, so that Dussasana could not take it off. Dussasana was exhausted and he nearly fainted; the assembled men were amazed at this miracle. They praised Draupadi. However, the princess was humiliated by being dragged into court by her hair. After this humiliation Draupadi swore that she will not tie her hair until it is bathed with blood of Dushasana. Bhima, who could no longer watch Draupadi's insult in silence, rose up, he vowed to rip Dussasana's arms off his body, with which he had dragged Draupadi by her hair and had tried to disrobe her. He further vowed to drink his blood. Bhima exclaimed that if he could not fulfill his oath he would not meet his ancestors in heaven; the son of Dushasana who helped his father many times in the kurukshtra war. He was present inside the Chakra Vyuh on the thirteenth day of the war and killed Abhimanyu when he was bare handed with his mace. On the 14th day of the Kurukshetra war, when the battle continued after sunset he was killed by Bhima.
He along with Duryodhana lead one of the Akshauhanis of the Kaurava army. On the 1st day of the war he was spared by him for sake of Bhima's vow. On the 13th day of the war he was defeated by Abhimanyu badly. On the 17th day of the Kurukshetra War, Bhima killed Dussasana, he and Dussasana were fighting with arrows. Dussasana's arrows pierced Bhima. Bhima attacked him with his mace and caused him to fall on the ground, he ripped Dussasana's arms off his body. Bhima tore open Dussasana's chest and drank his warm blood. Bhima exclaimed that the taste of the blood was sweeter than that of milk and danced around his body. Dussasana's brutal death agitated Duryodhana, demoralized the Kaurava army watching Bhima in his ecstasy of wrath. Bhima washed Draupadi's hair with Dussasana's blood. However, this did little to end the conflict, as Duryodhana reaffirmed his view on the continuation of the war; the Mahabharata by Krishna Dharma Media related to Dushasana at Wikimedia Commons
In the Mahabharata, a Hindu epic text, the Pandavas are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri, the princess of Madra. Their names are Yudhishthira, Arjuna and Sahadeva. All five brothers were married to Draupadi. Together the brothers fought and won the great war against their cousins the Kauravas, which came to be known as the Kurukshetra War; the word Pandava is derived from their father's name and means "descendants of Pandu". The other epithets of the Pandava group are: Pāṇḍuputra - sons of Pandu Pāṇḍavakumāra - young Pandavas Kaunteya - sons of Kunti Mādreya - sons of Madri Yudhishthira: The eldest Pandava brother, his name means "one, steadfast during war". His parents were Kunti and pandu, god of virtue and morality. Though he lacked the characteristic combat prowess of a Kshatriya, Yudhishthira was one of the most virtuous men, skilled in the duties of a king and steadfast in the path of dharma, he was a good king. In consequence of Krishna's machinations and by his brothers' conquest of the world, Yudhishthira became the emperor of the world.
He performed one Rajasuya sacrifice. Yudhishthira became good at playing chess, his other names are Dharmaraja. Bhima: The second Pandava brother, his name means "of terrible might". His parents were Kunti and Vayu, the god of air and wind, known for his might. Bhima has the physical strength and prowess equal to a hundred elephants and was athletic, he was prone to anger. Of all the brothers, he alone opposed Yudhishthira, although loyal to him, for his questionable decisions opposing common sense in the name of dharma. Bhima was their natural protector, he was a master in wielding the mace. He was a powerful archer, having fought Drona and Ashwatthama and Karna on several occasions. Bhima was very skilled in diverse areas of warfare, including wrestling, riding elephants and sword fighting. Along with Arjuna, he went on expeditions to conquer the kingdoms to the south. During the Rajasuya Yagna, Bhima subjugated the kingdoms of the eastern direction completely, he slew Krishna's most dangerous enemy, Jarasandha, in a wrestling bout, slew the Matsya commander, for molesting Draupadi.
During the war, Bhima was most famous for slaying one hundred Kauravas and Duryodhana himself. He was skilled in chopping wood, culinary arts and sciences. Bhima's other name was Vrikodara. However, he was selfish as well, he married a rakshashi Hidimba during their hiding in the forest in addition to Draupadi and had a son Ghatotkachh. Arjuna: The third Pandava brother, his name relates to "arjana" or earning. His parents were king of the gods and the god of the sky and war, he was virtuous and avoided unjust acts. He was known for his singleminded concentration and his devotion to Krishna, he was the only person. Arjuna was more fortunate than his brothers as he was the favourite of Bhishma, popular among the people, famous among the gods and attractive to women, he was the favorite disciple of his guru Drona. Arjuna was ambidextrous and the greatest of archers, having mastered archery to the highest possible level, he was rivalled by Bhishma and Karna. In those days, archery was considered to be the foremost of all fighting disciplines, Arjuna's mastery over it contributed to his popularity.
Arjuna was a complete master archer, a supreme chariot warrior and had obtained near-perfect mastery over all divine and esoteric weapons, along with the secrets of invoking and recalling them. He spent five years mastering divine weapons from Indra and the other gods, he acquired the mastery over the rarest and the most powerful weapon, the Pashupatastra, from Lord Shiva himself. He had command over devastating weapons like the Brahmastra. Nakula: The fourth Pandava brother, his name means "without kula". His parents were the Ashwin twin Nasatya, he was attractive, humble and helpful. During the Rajasuya Yagna, Nakula conquered the western direction. During the Kurukshetra War, he slew many warriors including many sons of Karna and son of shakuni, Uluka. Nakula and his younger twin brother, were excellent sword fighters. Nakula was a master of equestrian arts and sciences, skilled in wielding unusual weapons, in chariotry and in riding horses, he was known for special ways with horses. Sahadeva: The fifth and the youngest brother of the Pandavas.
His name means "along gods" or "with gods". His parents were the Ashwin twin Dasra. Sahadeva was the wisest of all the Pandava brothers, the most mysterious and introverted. Like Nakula, Sahadeva was a master of sword fighting, he was skilled in fighting and taming wild bulls. Additionally, he was a skilled cowherd, capable of maintaining cattle, treating their diseases, assessing their health, milking them and in producing milk products. Sahadeva acquired mastery over
The Kurukshetra War called the Mahabharata War, is a war described in the Indian epic poem Mahābhārata. The conflict arose from a dynastic succession struggle between two groups of cousins, the Kauravas and Pandavas, for the throne of Hastinapura in an Indian kingdom called Kuru, it involved a number of ancient kingdoms participating as allies of the rival groups. The location of the battle is described as having occurred in Kurukshetra in north India. Despite only referring to these eighteen days, the war narrative forms more than a quarter of the book, suggesting its relative importance within the epic, which overall spans decades of the warring families; the narrative describes individual battles and deaths of various heroes of both sides, military formations, war diplomacy and discussions among the characters, the weapons used. The chapters dealing with the war are considered amongst the oldest in the entire Mahabharata; the historicity of the war remains subject to scholarly discussions.
Attempts have been made to assign a historical date to the Kurukshetra War. Suggested dates range from 5561 to around 950 BCE, while popular tradition holds that the war marks the transition to Kaliyuga and thus dates it to 3102 BCE, it is possible that the Battle of the Ten Kings, mentioned in the Rigveda, may have "formed the'nucleus' of story" of the Kurukshetra war, though it was expanded and modified in the Mahabharata's account, which would therefore be of dubious historicity. Mahabharata, one of the most important Hindu epics, is an account of the life and deeds of several generations of a ruling dynasty called the Kuru clan. Central to the epic is an account of a war that took place between two rival families belonging to this clan. Kurukshetra, was the battleground. Kurukshetra was known as "Dharmakshetra", or field of righteousness. Mahabharata tells that this site was chosen because a sin committed on this land was forgiven on account of the sanctity of this land.. About 1.66 billions warriors death was described of war in the Indian epic.
The Kuru territories were divided into two and were ruled by Dhritarashtra and Yudhishthira of the Pandavas. The immediate dispute between the Kauravas and the Pandavas arose from a game of dice, which Duryodhana won by deceit, forcing his Pandava cousins to transfer their entire territories to the Kauravas and to "go into exile" for thirteen years; the dispute escalated into a full-scale war when Duryodhana, driven by jealousy, refused to restore to the Pandavas their territories after the exile as earlier decided, because Duryodhana objected that they were discovered while in exile, that no return of their kingdom had been agreed upon. Indian archeologist Swaraj Prakash Gupta and K. S. Ramachandran state that the Divergence of views regarding the Mahabharata war is due to the absence of reliable history of the ancient period; this is true of the historical period, where there is no unanimity of opinion on innumerable issues. Dr Mirashi accepts that there has been interpolation in the Mahabharata and observes that,'Originally it was a small poem of 8,800 verses and was known by the name Jaya it swelled to 24,000 verses and became known as Bharata, it reached the present stupendous size of the one lakh verses, passing under the name Mahabharata.'
The historicity of the Kurukshetra War is subject to scholarly dispute. The existing text of the Mahabharata went through many layers of development, belongs to the period between c. 500 BCE and 400 CE. Within the frame story of the Mahabharata, the historical kings Parikshit and Janamejaya are featured as scions of the Kuru clan, Michael Witzel concludes that the general setting of the epic has a historical precedent in Iron Age India, where the Kuru kingdom was the center of political power during 1200 to 800 BCE. According to Professor Alf Hiltebeitel, the Mahabharata is mythological. Indian historian Upinder Singh has written that: Whether a bitter war between the Pandavas and the Kauravas happened cannot be proved or disproved, it is possible that there was a small-scale conflict, transformed into a gigantic epic war by bards and poets. Some historians and archaeologists have argued that this conflict may have occurred in about 1000 BCE. Despite the inconclusiveness of the data, attempts have been made to assign a historical date to the Kurukshetra War.
Popular tradition holds that the war marks the transition to Kaliyuga and thus dates it to 3102 BCE. A number of other proposals have been put forward: P. V. Vartak calculates a date of 16 October 5561 BCE using planetary positions. P. V. Holey states a date of 13 November 3143 BCE using planetary positions and calendar systems. Aihole inscriptions give the date of Kurukshetra war around 3102 BCE. K. Sadananda, based on translation work, states that the Kurukshetra War started on 22 November 3067 BCE. B. N. Achar used planetarium software to argue that the Mahabharata War took place in 3067 BCE. S. Balakrishna concluded a date of 2559 BCE using consecutive lunar eclipses. R. N. Iyengar concluded a date of 1478 BCE using Saturn + Jupiter conjunctions. P. R. Sarkar estimates a date of 1298 BCE for the war of Kurukshetra. V. S. Dubey claims that the war happened near 950 BCE Though the Kurukshetra War is not mentioned in Vedic literature, its prominence in literature led British Indologist A. L. Basham, writing in 1954, to conclude that there was a great battle at Kurukshetra which, "magnified to titanic pro
Yuyudhana, better known as Satyaki, was a powerful warrior belonging to the Vrishni clan of the Yadavas, to which Krishna belonged. According to the Puranas, he was grandson of Shini of the Vrishni clan, adopted son of Satyaka, after whom he was named. A valiant warrior, Satyaki was a student of Arjuna. Satyaki is called Sivi Sivi dynasty is called Shaineya. In case of apparent death of Pandavas at Lakshagraha, Satyaki does the last rites for the Pandavas as their closest living relation, he is the one who does last rites for his cousin Abhimanyu. Both these rituals indicate his closeness to Pandava main clan. Satyaki and passionately favored the cause of the Pandavas over the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War, despite the fact that the Narayani Sena of Gopas had been promised to Duryodhana by Krishna. Satyaki accompanied Krishna to the Kuru capital, with Krishna as the emissary of peace, ridiculed and turned down by Duryodhana. Satyaki lead the Sivi Akshauhini to Pandava camp. Satayaki and Chekitana are examples of top Yadava allies who joined Pandava camp with armies of Kingdom of Sivi and Kekaya.
While Syenajita took Bhoja forces of Kunti kingdom to Pandava camp, Kritvarmma took Mrtikkavati Bhoja forces of Salwa kingdom to Kaurava camp. During the war, Satyaki is the commander of one akshauhini of the Pandava army; the fourteenth day of the conflict features Satyaki in a prominent role. With Arjuna attempting to pierce Drona's formation, in order to fulfill his oath of killing Jayadratha, Satyaki defends Yudhishthira from Drona, attempting to capture the emperor in Arjuna's absence. Rescuing Dhristadyumna from Drona, Satyaki engages in a long fight with Drona, taking up the morning's fight. Drona gets so frustrated by Satyaki, that he uses divine weapons, which Satyaki counters using his knowledge of divine weapons from his education under Arjuna. Satyaki tires, he is wounded by Drona's arrows, he is rescued by a new attack from the Upapandavas. Satyaki manages to stall Drona long enough that Duryodhana, frustrated with Drona's lack of progress, withdraws Drona to focus on the conflict with Arjuna.
In the day, Yudhishthira gets worried that he cannot hear the twang of Arjuna's Gandiva bow. Despite his protests that protecting the king was more important, Satyaki is ordered to find and aid Arjuna. At the entrance to the Padmavyuha, he meets Drona. Drona tells Satyaki. Satyaki tells Drona that he must leave as Arjuna is Satyaki's guru, the disciple should follow the teacher's example; as Arjuna is being attacked from multiple sides, Satyaki appears, along with Bhima. Satayki fights an intense battle with archrival, Bhurisravas with whom he had a long-standing family feud, following from when Satyaki's grandfather defeated Bhurisravas's father in a duel. After a long and bloody battle, Satyaki exhausted from fighting Drona, begins to falter, Bhurisravas pummels him and drags him across the battlefield. Raising his sword, Bhurisravas prepares to kill Satyaki, but he is rescued from death by Arjuna, who shoots an arrow cutting off Bhurisravas's arm. Arjuna had disgraced the honor between warriors.
Arjuna rebukes him for attacking a defenseless Satyaki. Moreover, he criticizes Bhurisravas for his actions during the death of Abhimanyu. Recognizing his shame, Bhurisravas sits down in meditation. Satyaki emerges from his swoon, swiftly decapitates his enemy, he is condemned for this rash act, but Satyaki states that the moment Bhurisravas struck his semiconscious body, he had sworn that he would kill Bhurisravas. With the day's battle nearly over and Jayadratha still far away, the debate of the morality of Satyaki's actions is shelved.. On the fifteenth day of battle, Satyaki killed Bhurisravas's father Somadatta, helped Bhima to kill Somadatta's father, Bahlika. In the Kurukshetra war and Kritavarma were two important Yadava heroes who fought on the opposing sides. Satyaki fought on the side of the Pandavas. Satyaki is noted as an Ayurvedic physician, an expert in Shalya and Shalakya, he is mentioned by Chakrapani in Netraroga. After the Kurukshetra war, Gandhari had cursed Krishna that his clan will be destroyed 36 years in a fratricidal massacre just like the battle between the Kuru clan he had caused.
During the 36th year, the Yadavas retired to Prabhasa where they were allotted temporary residences, where the Vrishnis started revelling and drinking. Inebriated, Satyaki laughed at and insulted Kritavarma for killing the Pandava army in midst of their sleep. Pradyumna applauded Satyaki for this which incensed Kritavarma. Kritavarma taunted Satyaki by saying that he had slain Bhurishravas in cold blood. Satyaki narrated the incident when Kritavarma tried to kill Satrajit. Satyabhama upon hearing this became angry and started ran to Krishna. Satyaki rising up in anger said that he would kill Kritavarma for slaying the warriors of the Pandava army while they were asleep. Having said this he severed his head with a sword, he started killing the warriors who were on Kritavarma's side. Krishna ran to stop Satyaki; the Bhojas and the Andhakas incensed at Satyaki surrounded him. Krishna, knowing the character of the hour, stood there unmoved; the Bhojas and Andhakas started striking Satyaki with the pots.
Pradyumna upon seeing this became enraged and rushed forward for resc