Asian Americans are Americans of Asian ancestry. The term refers to a panethnic group that includes diverse populations, which have origins in East Asia, South Asia, or Southeast Asia, as defined by the U. S. Census Bureau; this includes people who indicate their race on the census as "Asian" or reported entries such as "Chinese, Indian, Japanese and Other Asian". In 2017, Asian Americans comprised 5.6% of the U. S. population. Although migrants from Asia have been in parts of the contemporary United States since the 17th century, large-scale immigration did not begin until the mid-19th century. Nativist immigration laws during the 1880s–1920s excluded various Asian groups prohibiting all Asian immigration to the continental United States. After immigration laws were reformed during the 1940s–60s, abolishing national origins quotas, Asian immigration increased rapidly. Analyses of the 2010 census have shown that Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial or ethnic minority in the United States.
As with other racial and ethnicity-based terms and common usage have changed markedly through the short history of this term. Prior to the late 1960s, people of Asian ancestry were referred to as Oriental and Mongoloid. Additionally, the American definition of'Asian' included West Asian ethnic groups Jewish Americans, Armenian Americans, Assyrian Americans, Iranian Americans, Kurdish Americans, Arab Americans, although these groups are now considered Middle Eastern American; the term Asian American was coined by historian Yuji Ichioka in 1968 during the founding of the Asian American Political Alliance, he is credited with popularizing the term, which he meant to be used to frame a new "inter-ethnic-pan-Asian American self-defining political group". Changing patterns of immigration and an extensive period of exclusion of Asian immigrants have resulted in demographic changes that have in turn affected the formal and common understandings of what defines Asian American. For example, since the removal of restrictive "national origins" quotas in 1965, the Asian-American population has diversified to include more of the peoples with ancestry from various parts of Asia.
Today, "Asian American" is the accepted term for most formal purposes, such as government and academic research, although it is shortened to Asian in common usage. The most used definition of Asian American is the U. S. Census Bureau definition, which includes all people with origins in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent; this is chiefly because the census definitions determine many governmental classifications, notably for equal opportunity programs and measurements. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, "Asian person" in the United States is sometimes thought of as a person of East Asian descent. In vernacular usage, "Asian" is used to refer to those of East Asian descent or anyone else of Asian descent with epicanthic eyefolds; this differs from the U. S. Census definition and the Asian American Studies departments in many universities consider all those of East, South or Southeast Asian descent to be "Asian". In the US Census, people with origins or ancestry in the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent are classified as part of the Asian race.
As such, "Asian" and "African" ancestry are seen as racial categories for the purposes of the Census, since they refer to ancestry only from those parts of the Asian and African continents that are outside the Middle East and North Africa. In 1980 and before, Census forms listed particular Asian ancestries as separate groups, along with white and black or negro. Asian Americans had been classified as "other". In 1977, the federal Office of Management and Budget issued a directive requiring government agencies to maintain statistics on racial groups, including on "Asian or Pacific Islander". By the 1990 census, "Asian or Pacific Islander" was included as an explicit category, although respondents had to select one particular ancestry as a subcategory. Beginning with the 2000 census, two separate categories were used: "Asian American" and "Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander"; the definition of Asian American has variations that derive from the use of the word American in different contexts.
Immigration status, citizenship and language ability are some variables that are used to define American for various purposes and may vary in formal and everyday usage. For example, restricting American to include only U. S. citizens conflicts with discussions of Asian American businesses, which refer both to citizen and non-citizen owners. In a PBS interview from 2004, a panel of Asian American writers discussed how some groups include people of Middle Eastern descent in the Asian American category. Asian American author Stewart Ikeda has noted, "The definition of'Asian American' frequently depends on who's asking, who's defining, in what context, why... the possible definitions of'Asian-Pacific American' are many and shifting... some scholars in Asian American Studies conferences suggest that Russians and Israelis all might fit the field's subject of study." Jeff Yang, of the Wall Street Journal, writes that the panethnic definition of Asian American is a unique American construct, as an identity is "in beta".
Raitz von Frentz is the name of a baronial family, that belongs to the German ancient nobility. The Barons Raitz von Frentz should be distinguished from the dynastic family "von Frenz", a branch of the Dukes of Limburg, that became extinct in the 14th century; the Raitz von Frentz is one of the oldest patrician and noble families of the free imperial city of Cologne. A member of the family Raitz was first mentioned in a document as witness of the Archbishop Wichfrid of Cologne in the year 948; the uninterrupted line of ancestors starts with the Ministerialis Raitz at St. Pantaleon Abbey in Cologne, 1106–1154. In the Middle Ages several members of the family were mayors of the free imperial city of Cologne. Lord Rutger Raitz, mayor of the free imperial city of Cologne, was married to Lady Ida von Heppendorf, daughter of Lord Gerhard III von Heppendorf, noble reeve of the Electoral Principality of Cologne, married to Count Ruprecht III von Virneburg in 1330, her son Lord Rutger Raitz bought in 1347 from his step father the castle and the lordship of Frentz near Quadrath-Ichendorf, now known as Frens Castle.
Lordship and castle were a fief of the Dukes of Limburg, belonged to a branch of that family. Since 1347 the family is called Raitz von Frenz. Members of the family Raitz von Frentz were Free Imperial Knights. Since 1620 the family became hereditary treasurer of the Electoral Principality of Cologne, ruled by the Prince-Elector and Arch-Bishop of Cologne. In 1635 the branch "Raitz von Frentz zu Kendenich und Stolberg", was created hereditary Baron of the Holy Roman Empire; this branch became extinct in 1746. The family received the lordship of Kendenich at the beginning of the 16th century, when Robert Raitz von Frentz married Agnes von Orsbeck zu Kendenich. In 1648 the family received the lordship and castle Stolberg when Ferdinand Baron of the Holy Roman Empire Raitz von Frentz zu Kendenich married Odilia Maria Baroness von Efferen zu Stolberg, daughter of Baron Adolf von Efferen and Gertrud, née Lady von Metternich. In 1512 Lord Winand Raitz von Frentz married Lady Maria von und zu Schlenderhan, the last of her line.
This branch received the lordship of Schlenderhan and was henceforth known as "Raitz von Frentz von und zu Schlenderhan". The branch was created Baron of the Holy Roman Empire as "Raitz von Frentz von und zu Schlenderhan und Kleinenbruch" on 15 July 1650. On 25 October 1652, the branch "Raitz von Frentz von und zu Schlenderhan" received the county Odenkirchen from the Prince-Elector and Archbishop of Cologne Maximilian Heinrich and was created Hereditary Burgrave of the Electoral Principality of Cologne. On 11 June 1672 the immatriculation among the nobility of the Kingdom of Bohemia followed. In 1826 the King of Prussia recognised the of the only surviving branch Raitz von Frentz von und zu Schlenderhan and the branch Freiherr Raitz von Frentz zu Kellenberg, which became extinct in the late 19th century. All male members of the family bear the name Freiherr Raitz von Frentz, their wives that of Freifrau Raitz von Frentz. A daughter of a married male member of the family is called Freiin Raitz von Frentz.
The original coat of arms shows a continuous golden cross on a black background. The helmet decoration of the coat of arms consists of neck and head of a black bull with golden horns; the helmet covers are black-golden. The oldest preserved seal with the cross coat of arms dates from 20 January 1289 of "Theodericus dictus Raitze miles, civis Colon" and his sons; the coat of arms of the Raitz von Frentz was changed in each case on the occasion of the elevation of two lines into the rank of Barons of the Holy Roman Empire. On the occasion of the elevation of the line Raitz von Frentz zu Kendenich und Stolberg to the status of imperial barons, the coat of arms of this line was confirmed as follows in 1635: Quarter: Box 1 and 4: A continuous golden cross on a black background. Box 2 and 3: Two red rafters in silver; the coat of arms of the Raitz von Frentz von und zu Schlenderhan line was confirmed as follows on the occasion of its elevation to imperial barons in 1650: Quarter: Box 1 and 4: A continuous golden cross on a black background.
Box 2 and 3: A black bar in silver, covered with 3 golden blackbirds. Red-blue divided, a silver, gold-crowned lion above; the heart shield was added on the occasion of the awarding of the title of Baron of the Holy Roman Empire. Haus Stapel Burg Dreiborn Untere Burg Antweiler Haus Müttinghoven Bakenhof Lordship und Castle Frentz Lordship and Castle Schlenderhan Lordship and Castle Stolberg Lordship and Castle Fliesteden Lordship and Castle Kellenberg Lordship and Castle Garath Lordship and Castle Hall Lordship and Castle Martfeld Lordship and Castle Blens Lordship and Castle Kendenich Lordship and Castle Kühlseggen Lordship and Castle Hirschhorn Lordship and Castle Elsum Lordship and Castle Ulmen Lordship and Castle Bachen Lordship and Castle Hemmerich Lordship and Castle Bießen Lordship and Castle Föhren Lordship and Castle Odenkirchen Lordship and Castle Benatek Lordship and Castle Randerath Lordship and Castle Listringhausen Lordship and Castle Badinghagen Lordship and Castle Paland Lordship and Castle Gusdorf Lordship and Castle Nagelsgaul Lordship and Castle Hausen Henricus Raitz – "Henricus de foro", mayor of the free imperial city of Cologne, alderman of the Cologne High Court.
Theodericus Raitz, mayor of the free imperial city of Cologne, alderma
Ursula Röthlisberger is a professor of computational chemistry at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. She works on density functional theory using mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical methods, she is an associate editor of the American Chemical Society Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Röethlisberger was born in Solothurn, she studied physical chemistry at the University of Bern. She earned her diploma under the supervision of Ernst Schumacher in 1988, she joined IBM Research – Zurich as a doctoral student with Wanda Andreoni. Her thesis was completed in collaboration with She worked in IBM Zurich as a postdoc from until 1992. Röethlisberger moved to the University of Pennsylvania to work with Michael L. Klein. In 1995 she moved to Germany and joined the laboratory of Michele Parrinello at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research. Together they used the Car-Parrinello method to study nanoscale clusters of silicon.
Röethlisberger was appointed assistant professor at ETH Zurich in 1996. She was the first woman to win the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Zurich Ruzicka Prize in 2001, she joined École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne as an associate professor in 2002 and was made full professor in 2009. In 2005 she was the first woman to be awarded the World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists Dirac Medal. Röethlisberger works on density functional theory, extending the Car-Parrinello method to include QM/MM simulations in a code called CPMD. QM/MM systems treat the electronically active part of a molecular structure as a quantum mechanical system, whereas the rest of the molecule is treated classically using molecular mechanics, she uses her hybrid Car–Parrinello systems to study enzymatic reactions to design biomimetic compounds. Röethlisberger has expanded QM/MM to include ground to excited state transitions, making it possible to predict photoinduced charge separation and electron transfer.
She works on ab initio simulations of biological systems, has added the Van der Waals interactions of macromolecules to density functional theory. She has used her simulations for several different applications, including the design of new materials for photovoltaics and exploring the operational mechanisms of chemotherapy. In 2017 she demonstrated that taking Auranofin whilst on RAPTA-T enhances the activity of the anti-cancer drug, she teaches classes in molecular dynamics. Röethlisberger supports young women scientists and is involved with mentoring of early career researchers, she contributed to the book A Journey into Time in Powers of Ten. She is involved with scientific art, used on the journals in which she publishes. 2001 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology at Zurich Ruzicka Prize 2004 World Association of Theoretical and Computational Chemists Dirac Medal 2015 European Chemical Society Lecture Award 2015 International Academy of Quantum Molecular Science Member 2016 The Swiss Foundation for the Doron Prize 2018 American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellow