Asian Australians

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Asian Australians
Total population
At least 2,665,814 (2016)
11.82–16.15% of Australian population[1][2]
Regions with significant populations
Capital cities of Australia
Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide
External territories of Australia
Christmas Island (More than 90%)[A]
Languages
Australian English · Asian languages
Religion
Buddhism · Christianity · Islam · Hinduism · Sikhism · East Asian religions · Indian religions · other religions

Asian Australians refers to Australians of Asian ancestry.

For the purposes of aggregating data, the Australian Bureau of Statistics in its Australian Standard Classification of Cultural and Ethnic Groups (ASCCEG) has grouped certain ethnic groups into certain categories, including Northeast Asian (e.g. Chinese Australians), Southeast Asian (e.g. Vietnamese Australians) and South and Central Asian (e.g. Indian Australians). Notably, Middle-Eastern ancestries are separately classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics and 'Middle Eastern and North African' and are not included in statistics for Asian Australians.[5] While for statistical purposes, 'Asian Australian' includes Northeast Asians, Southeast Asians and South and Central Asians, in general Australian English parlance, 'Asian' generally refers to persons of Northeast Asian and Southeast Asian ancestry, with persons of South and Central Asian ancestry generally referred to by their specific national ancestral origin, eg 'Indian' or 'Pakistani'.

Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on ancestry (ie national ethnic rather than racial origin),[6] at the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia.[7] This represents 11.82% of the total of 29,613,856 ancestry responses,[8][B] or 16.15% of persons who nominated their ancestry.[C] 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census.[11] Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.[12][D]

History of immigration[edit]

Gold rush[edit]

Early Chinese migration stemmed from the phenomenon of the Victorian gold rush, this was met with some considerable opposition due to existing sinophobia and anti-Chinese sentiment.[citation needed] Racial tensions escalated into several riots at Lambing Flat and Buckland. Later, entry taxes, killings and segregation in the short term and became the foundations of the White Australia policy.[dubious ][13][14]

Immigration restriction[edit]

In the 1870s and 1880s, the trade union movement began a series of protests against foreign labour, the union movement was critical of Asians, mainly Chinese, who did not join unions, and who were prepared to work for lower wages and conditions.[dubious ][15] Wealthy land owners in rural areas countered with the argument Asians working on lower wages and conditions were necessary for development in tropical Queensland and the Northern Territory,[15] it was claimed that without Asian workers these regions would be abandoned.[dubious ][16] Under growing pressure from the union movement, each Australian colony enacted legislation between 1875-1888 excluding further Chinese immigration.[dubious ][16]

Post-war immigration[edit]

The government began to expand access to citizenship for non-Europeans in 1957 by allowing access to 15-year residents, and in 1958 by reforming entry permits via the Migration Act 1958; in March 1966, the immigration ministry began a policy of allowing the immigration of skilled and professional non-Europeans, and of expanding the availability of temporary residency to these groups. These cumulatively had the effect of increasing immigration numbers from non-European countries; in 1973 Whitlam took steps to bring about a more non-discriminatory immigration policy—temporarily bringing down overall immigration numbers. The eventual evolution of immigration policy has been along a trajectory of non-discrimination, dismantling European-only policies, and the broadening of pathways to citizenship for Asians,[17] during the Fraser government, with the increasing intake of Vietnamese refugees in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, Australia experienced the largest intake of Asian immigrants since the arrival of the Chinese gold miners during the gold rush of the 1850s and 1860s.[citation needed] In 1983, the level of British immigration was below the level of Asian immigration for the first time in Australian history.[18]

Demographics[edit]

Notably, Australia does not collect statistics on the racial origins of its residents, instead collecting data at each five-yearly census on ancestry (ie national ethnic rather than racial origin),[19] at the 2016 census, there were 3,514,915 nominations of ancestries classified by the Australian Bureau of Statistics as falling within the geographical categories of Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and Central and Southern Asia.[20] This represents 11.82% of the total of 29,613,856 ancestry responses,[21][E] or 16.15% of persons who nominated their ancestry.[F] 2,665,814 persons claimed one of the six most commonly nominated Asian ancestries, namely Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan, at the 2016 census.[24] Persons claiming one of these six ancestries alone represented 12.25% of the total population who nominated their ancestry.[25][G]

Chinese, Indian, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Sri Lankan are the most commonly nominated Asian ancestries in Australia.[26] Chinese Australians constituted 5.6% of the Australian population and Indian Australians constituted 2.8 percent at the 2016 census.[27] 30% of Asians in Australia go to university, 20% of all Australian doctors are Asian, and 37% of Asian Australians take part in some form of organised sport.[dubious ][28] Second and third generation Chinese and Indian Australians are already present in large numbers.[28] Sydney and Melbourne have made up a large proportion of Asian immigration, with Chinese Australians constituting Sydney's fourth largest ancestry (after English, Australian and Irish). Chinese, Indian and Vietnamese-Australians are among Sydney's five largest overseas-born communities.[29]

Metropolitan areas with significant Asian Australian populations (2016 Census)[30]
Metropolitan area Asian ancestry responses Asian ancestry responses (% of total ancestry responses) Asian ancestry responses (% of population nominating ancestry)
Sydney 1,264,242 21.2% 28%
Melbourne 1,026,536 18.3% 24.4%
Brisbane 294,389 9.8% 13.9%
Perth 319,302 12.8% 17.6%
Adelaide 169,018 10.1% 13.8%

Asian Australians by Greater Sydney region (2011 census):[31]

Region Asian population Asian people as % of total population
Parramatta 132,663 33.61
Ryde 52,975 32.53
South West 102,583 28.48
Inner South West 137,251 26.21
Blacktown 77,866 25.65
Inner West 65,922 25.01
City and Inner South 55,028 20.80
North Sydney and Hornsby 72,786 19.43
Baulkham Hills and Hawkesbury 37,585 17.86
Eastern Suburbs 29,293 11.74
Outer South West 23,357 9.91
Northern Beaches 14,362 6.04
Outer West and Blue Mountains 15,127 5.25
Sutherland 9,712 4.62
Central Coast 6,459 2.07

Asian Australians by Melbourne region (2011 census):[31]

Region Asian population Asian people as % of total population
South East 169,302 25.73
Inner East 74,477 21.90
West 126,787 20.58
Inner Melbourne 73,188 14.58
North East 48,858 11.18
Outer West 49,335 10.30
Inner South 38,088 10.07
North West 38,088 9.74
Mornington Peninsula 7,884 2.91

Notable people[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The population of Christmas Islanders of full or partial Asian descent consists mainly of Australians of Malaysian descent particularly Malaysian Chinese and Malay descent but also some individuals of Malaysian Indian descent.[3][4]
  2. ^ The figure of 29,613,856 ancestry responses is a figure greater than the total Australian population as each resident can nominate up to two ancestries.[9] Given the more recent immigrant origins of the majority of Asian Australians and the consequent shorter history of intermixing relative to European Australians, who are more likely to nominate more than one ancestry, this represents a smaller share than those residents claiming an Asian ancestry out of the total Australian population as a whole who nominated their ancestry.
  3. ^ As up to two ancestries may be nominated for each person, this represents the highest possible proportion of the population accounted for by those nominating an Asian ancestry[10]
  4. ^ As such, this represents the lowest possible proportion of the Australian population constituted by persons claiming an Asian ancestry as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
  5. ^ The figure of 29,613,856 ancestry responses is a figure greater than the total Australian population as each resident can nominate up to two ancestries.[22] Given the more recent immigrant origins of the majority of Asian Australians and the consequent shorter history of intermixing relative to European Australians, who are more likely to nominate more than one ancestry, this represents a smaller share than those residents claiming an Asian ancestry out of the total Australian population as a whole who nominated their ancestry.
  6. ^ As up to two ancestries may be nominated for each person, this represents the highest possible proportion of the population accounted for by those nominating an Asian ancestry[23]
  7. ^ As such, this represents the lowest possible proportion of the Australian population constituted by persons claiming an Asian ancestry as defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.

See also[edit]

Asians in other countries[edit]

Cultural and social perceptions[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  2. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  3. ^ "Island induction - Christmas Island District High School". 
  4. ^ Simone Dennis (2008). Christmas Island: An Anthropological Study. Cambria Press. pp. 91–. ISBN 9781604975109. 
  5. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/mf/1249.0
  6. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  7. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  8. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  9. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  10. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  11. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  12. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  13. ^ O'Brien, Antony (2005), Shenanigans on the Ovens Goldfields, Hartwell: Artillery Publishing, ISBN 0-9758013-0-9 
  14. ^ Cronin, Katherine (1982), Colonial Casualties: Chinese in Early Victoria, Carlton: Melbourne University Press, ISBN 0-522-84221-6 
  15. ^ a b Markey, Raymond (1 January 1996). "Race and organized labor in Australia, 1850–1901". Highbeam Research. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  16. ^ a b Griffiths, Phil (4 July 2002). "Towards White Australia: The shadow of Mill and the spectre of slavery in the 1880s debates on Chinese immigration" (RTF). 11th Biennial National Conference of the Australian Historical Association. Retrieved 2013-03-25. 
  17. ^ "Fact Sheet - 8. Abolition of the 'White Australia' Policy". Australian Department of Immigration. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. Retrieved 11 April 2015. 
  18. ^ Price, CA (September 1998). "POST-WAR IMMIGRATION: 1945-1998". Journal of the Australian Population Association. 15 (2): 17. 
  19. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  20. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  21. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  22. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  23. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/websitedbs/censushome.nsf/4a256353001af3ed4b2562bb00121564/f31b4dddfa48a2a8ca257a75002adec8!OpenDocument
  24. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  25. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  26. ^ http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2016/communityprofile/036?opendocument
  27. ^ http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/abs@.nsf/Lookup/by%20Subject/2071.0~2016~Main%20Features~Cultural%20Diversity%20Article~20?OpenDocument&ref=story
  28. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference bbc.co.uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ "2011 Census QuickStats: Greater Sydney". 
  30. ^ https://guest.censusdata.abs.gov.au/webapi/jsf/tableView/tableView.xhtml#
  31. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference censusdata.abs.gov.au was invoked but never defined (see the help page).

External links[edit]