Jeon Do-yeon is a South Korean actress. She won Best Actress at the 60th Cannes Film Festival and the 1st Asia Pacific Screen Awards in Lee Chang-dong's 2007 film Secret Sunshine. Jeon Do-yeon spent five years starring in television dramas before achieving instant star status with her film debut opposite Han Suk-kyu in The Contact, she went on to establish a reputation as a "chameleon" who can take on a wide variety of roles, from her performance as a doctor in the hit melodrama A Promise, to that of a schoolgirl in The Harmonium in My Memory a wife having an adulterous affair in Happy End. In 1999 and 2000 she received a Best Actress award from both the Blue Dragon Film Awards and the Grand Bell Awards for her role in The Harmonium in My Memory. In 2001 she played a bank teller in Park Heung-sik's directorial debut I Wish. After starring as the tough-talking "Sunglasses" in Ryoo Seung-wan's No Blood No Tears, Jeon spent time acting in the TV drama Shoot for the Stars. In 2003 she found box-office success in E J-yong's Untold Scandal, an adaptation of the famous French novel Dangerous Liaisons set in Joseon.
The following year she reunited with Park Heung-sik in a dual role for the time-bending melodrama My Mother, the Mermaid. In 2005 Jeon played a prostitute who contracts AIDS in Park Jin-pyo's hard-hitting melodrama You Are My Sunshine; the film made into a box-office hit, her performance won her more local acting awards. She returned to television in Lovers in Prague which depicts the love story between the president's daughter and an ordinary detective. In Korea, it is rare for a movie and a TV drama with the same leading actor or actress to become major hits at the same time, but Jeon managed to pull both roles off without causing any confusion in the audience, her next role in Lee Chang-dong's Secret Sunshine in 2007 received universal critical acclaim. Although the film itself, which debuted at the Cannes Film Festival, evoked differing assessments from international critics, Jeon's performance was universally praised, she was presented with a Best Actress award by the Cannes jury—the first Korean to receive an acting award at Cannes.
After starring in My Dear Enemy post-Cannes, Jeon rested for a while. In 2010, she returned to play a controversial remake The Housemaid. In a 2011 Countdown, Jeon played a female con artist who risks her life for ten days for a final deal with a cold-hearted debt collector. Countdown premiered at the 2011 Toronto International Film Festival. After a two-year break, Jeon starred in Bang Eun-jin's Way Back Home, based on the true story of a housewife, imprisoned for two years on the island of Martinique after being wrongly arrested for drug smuggling at Paris's Orly Airport in 2004, she became a member of the main competition jury at the 2014 Cannes Film Festival, the first Korean actor or actress to have that honor. In 2015, Jeon starred in The Shameless, a thriller that explores the unexpected and carnal attraction that develops between a detective and the girlfriend of the murderer he's investigating. For her performance in the film, Jeon won Best Actress at the 24th Buil Film Awards, the 15th Director's Cut Awards, the 52nd Baeksang Arts Awards respectively.
She played a blind swordswoman in the Goryeo-set revenge period drama Memories of the Sword, her third collaboration with Park Heung-sik. This was followed by Jeon's second film with director Lee Yoon-ki, A Man and a Woman, about a forbidden romance that takes place in the snow-swept landscape of Finland. Jeon returned to the small screen in the Korean remake of the American legal drama The Good Wife in 2016. In April 2019, Jeon reunited with Sol Kyung-gu, eighteen years after I Wish I Had a Wife, in a film Birthday; the film, inspired by the Sinking of MV Sewol tragedy, deals with the struggles faced by a couple who lose their son in a tragic accident. The film had its international premiere at the 2019 Far East Film Festival in Udine. Next, she will star opposite Jung Woo-sung in Beasts that Cling to the Straw, a mystery thriller based on Keisuke Sone's novel. Although not as broadly popular with audiences as some other stars in South Korea, Jeon is respected for her acting abilities, many young actresses cite her as a role model.
Jeon married businessman Kang Shi-kyu in a private wedding ceremony at Shilla Hotel on March 11, 2007. She gave birth to a daughter on January 22, 2009. Jeon Do-yeon at HanCinema Jeon Do-yeon on IMDb Jeon Do-youn at the Korean Movie Database
The film industry or motion picture industry, comprises the technological and commercial institutions of filmmaking, i.e. film production companies, film studios, animation, film production, pre-production, post production, film festivals and actors, film directors and other film crew personnel. Though the expense involved in making films immediately led film production to concentrate under the auspices of standing production companies, advances in affordable film making equipment, expansion of opportunities to acquire investment capital from outside the film industry itself, have allowed independent film production to evolve; as of 2018, the global box office is worth $41.7 billion. When including box office and home entertainment revenue, the global film industry is worth $136 billion as of 2018. Hollywood is the world's oldest national film industry, remains the largest in terms of box office gross revenue. Indian cinema is the largest national film industry in terms of the number of films produced and the number of tickets sold, with 3.5 billion tickets sold worldwide annually and 1,986 feature films produced annually.
The worldwide theatrical market had a box office of US$38.6 billion in 2016. The top three continents/regions by box office gross were: Asia-Pacific with US$14.9 billion, the U. S. and Canada with US$11.4 billion, Europe, the Middle East and North Africa with US$9.5 billion. As of 2016, the largest markets by box office were, in decreasing order, the United States, Japan and the United Kingdom; as of 2011, the countries with the largest number of film productions were India and the United States. In Europe, significant centers of movie production are France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Distinct from the centers are the locations; because of labor and infrastructure costs, many films are produced in countries other than the one in which the company which pays for the film is located. For example, many U. S. films are filmed in Canada, many Nigerian films are filmed in Ghana, while many Indian films are filmed in the Americas, Singapore etc. The cinema of the United States generally referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on cinema across the world since the early 20th century.
The United States cinema is the oldest film industry in the world which originated more than 121 years ago and the largest film industry in terms of revenue. Hollywood is the primary nexus of the U. S. film industry with established film study facilities such as the American Film Institute, LA Film School and NYFA being established in the area. However, four of the six major film studios are owned by East Coast companies; the major film studios of Hollywood including Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 20th Century Fox, Paramount Pictures are the primary source of the most commercially successful movies in the world, such as Star Wars, Titanic. American film studios today collectively generate several hundred films every year, making the United States one of the most prolific producers of films in the world. Only The Walt Disney Company — which owns the Walt Disney Studios — is based in Southern California, and while Sony Pictures Entertainment is headquartered in Culver City, its parent company, the Sony Corporation, is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.
Most shooting now takes place in California, New York, Louisiana and North Carolina. Hollywood is the most popular film industry with the highest number of screens, is the highest-grossing film industry in the world. Between 2009-2015, Hollywood grossed $10 billion annually. Hollywood's award ceremony, the Academy Awards known as The Oscars, is held by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences every year and a total of 2,947 Oscars have been awarded since the inception of the award; the earliest documented account of an exhibition of projected motion pictures in the United States was in June 1894 in Richmond, Indiana by Charles Francis Jenkins which makes United States cinema the earliest cinema in the whole world. Jenkins used his Phantoscope to project his film before an audience of family and reporters; the film featured a vaudeville dancer performing a Butterfly Dance. Jenkins and his new partner Thomas Armat modified the Phantoscope for exhibitions in temporary theaters at the Cotton States Exposition in the fall of 1895.
The was sold to Thomas Edison, who changed the name of the projector to Edison's Vitascope. Nestor Studios was Hollywood's first film studio, founded on 27 October 1911, it was built by David Horsley for Nestor Motion Picture Company. It was owned and operated by David Horsley and his brother, William Horsley; the first motion picture stage in Hollywood was built behind the tavern. Other East Coast studios had moved production to Los Angeles, prior to Nestor's move west; the California weather allowed for year-round filming and the ambitious studio operated three principal divisions under its Canadian-born general manager, Al Christie. Other filmmakers began opening studios in the Hollywood area; the Horsleys operated the Nestor Studios at the Sunset and Gower location until 20 May 1912, when the Universal Studios was formed, headed by Carl Laemmle. Nestor, along with several other motion picture companies, including Laemmle's Independent Moving Pictures, was merged with Universal; the Cinema of China is one of three distinct historical threads of Chinese-language cinema together with the cinema of Hong Kong and the cinema of Taiwan.
Cinema was introduced in China in 1896 and the first Chinese film, Dingjun Mountain, was made in 1905, with the film industry being cent
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Joan Chen is a Chinese American actress, film director and film producer. In China she performed in the 1979 film Little Flower and came to the attention of western audiences for her performance in the 1987 film The Last Emperor, she is known for her roles in Twin Peaks, Red Rose, White Rose, Saving Face, The Home Song Stories, for directing the feature film Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl. Chen was born to a family of pharmacologists, she and her older brother, were raised during the Cultural Revolution. At the age of 14, Chen was discovered on the school rifle range by Jiang Qing, the wife of leader Mao Zedong and major Chinese Communist Party figure for excelling at marksmanship; this led to her being selected for the Actors' Training Program by the Shanghai Film Studio in 1975, where she was discovered by veteran director Xie Jin who chose her to star in his 1977 film Youth as a deaf mute whose senses are restored by an Army medical team. Chen graduated from high school a year in advance, at the age of 17 entered the prestigious Shanghai International Studies University, where she majored in English.
Chen performed alongside Tang Guoqiang in Zhang Zheng's Little Flower in 1979, for which she won the Hundred Flowers Award. Chen portrayed a pre-Maoist revolutionary's daughter, reunited with her brother, a wounded Communist soldier learned that his doctor was her biological mother. Little Flower was her second film and she soon achieved the status of China's most loved actress. In addition, Chen was in the 1979 film Hearts for the Motherland; the film directed by Ou Fan and Xing Jitian depicts an overseas Chinese family that returns to China from southeast Asia out of their patriotic feelings but encounter political troubles during the Cultural Revolution. The songs, "I Love You, China" and "High Flies the Petrel", sung by Chen's character, are perennial favorites in China. In 1981, Chen starred in Awakening, directed by Teng Wenji. At age 20, Chen moved to the United States, where she studied filmmaking at California State University, Northridge, her first Hollywood movie was Tai-Pan, filmed on location in China.
In 1985 she appeared in the show'Miami Vice' as May Ying, former wife of Martin "Marty" Castillo and husband to Ma Sek in the episode "Golden Triangle". She went on to star in Bernardo Bertolucci's The Last Emperor in 1987 and the David Lynch/Mark Frost television series Twin Peaks as Josie Packard, she starred alongside Rutger Hauer in 1989's The Blood of Heroes and directed by David Webb Peoples. In 1993 she co-starred in Oliver Stone's Earth, she portrayed two different characters in Clara Law's Temptation of a Monk: a seductive princess of Tang dynasty, a dangerous temptress. She shaved her head on-screen for the role; the award-winning film was adapted from a novel by Lilian Lee. In 1994 she co-starred with Steven Seagal in the action-adventure On Deadly Ground. In 1996, she was a member of the jury at the 46th Berlin International Film Festival. Tired of being cast as an exotic beauty in Hollywood films, Chen moved into directing in 1998 with the critically acclaimed Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl, adapted from the novella Heavenly Bath by her friend Yan Geling.
She directed Autumn in New York, starring Richard Gere and Winona Ryder, in 2000. In the middle of the 2000s, Chen made a comeback in acting and began to work intensely, alternating between English and Chinese-language roles. In 2004, she starred in Hou Yong's family saga Jasmine Women, alongside Zhang Ziyi, in which they played multiple roles as daughters and mothers across three generations in Shanghai, she starred in the Asian American comedy Saving Face as a widowed mother, shunned by the Chinese-American community for being pregnant and unwed and has come to live with her lesbian daughter. In 2005, she appeared in Zhang Yang's family saga Sunflower, as a mother whose husband and son have a troubled father-son relationship over 30 years, she starred in the Asian American independent film Americanese and in Michael Almereyda's Tonight at Noon, the first part of a two part project, scheduled to be released in 2009. In 2007, Chen was acclaimed for her performance in Tony Ayres' drama The Home Song Stories.
She portrayed a glamorous and unstable Chinese nightclub singer who struggles to survive in seventies Australia with her two children. The role earned her four awards including the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Actress and the Golden Horse Award for Best Actress; the same year saw her co-starring in two other acclaimed films: Ang Lee's Lust, opposite Tony Leung Chiu-Wai, Jiang Wen's The Sun Also Rises, opposite Anthony Wong Chau-Sang, for which she received an Asian Film Award for Best Supporting Actress. In 2008, she starred alongside Sam Chow in Shi Qi, directed by Joe Chow, as a rural mother of a 17-year-old in eastern Zhejiang province; the same year Joan Chen portrayed in Jia Zhangke's 24 City
The Sun Also Rises (2007 film)
The Sun Also Rises is a 2007 film directed, produced and co-written by Chinese director Jiang Wen starring Joan Chen, Anthony Wong, Jaycee Chan, Jiang Wen himself. This movie is the polyptych of interconnected stories in different time-zones, shifting between a Yunnan village, a campus, the Gobi Desert; this movie was screened in competition at the Venice International Film Festival and nominated for Golden Lion but lost to Ang Lee's historical thriller Lust, Caution. This film premiered at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival on September 9, was nominated for Achievement in Cinematography at the 2007 Asia Pacific Screen Awards; the movie details four interconnected stories. In the first story and mischief as a single mother drives her devoted son to distraction with her daredevil antics in pursuit of tranquility; the agile mom climbs tall stands perilously astride a small earthen raft on the river. She treasures a beautiful pair of slippers that she is forever losing, the son fears that, one day, the footwear will remain while his mother disappears.
In the second story, on a college campus, two old friends find their friendship tested by rivalry over a woman. Doctor Lin is the mistress of Old Tang, but she finds herself drawn to teacher Liang, catnip to beautiful women; when Liang is accused of groping women at a campus gathering, Lin offers her rear end behind a curtain to determine whose was the guilty hand. Old Tang, a hunter, has a young wife who begins a relationship with the madwoman's son. One day, Tang overhears their noises of passion and his wife whispering that her husband says her belly is like velvet, he determines to shoot the young man but is given pause when the boy asks him, "What is velvet?" The final episode involves all the characters in a dreamlike sequence that brings their lives full circle. Jiang Wen as... Old Tang Joan Chen as... Doctor Lin Zhou Yun as... Mad Mother Jaycee Chan as... The Son Anthony Wong as... Teacher Liang Kong Wei as... Tang's Wife The film received positive reviews from critics. Toronto Review states that "a new aesthetic of magical realism, Jiang deftly defies the gravity of linear storytelling to produce sheer visual poetry.
This gallery of lavishly composed frames may seem to follow an irrational logic but, in the end, the imagery is as rare and precious as velvet was scarce in the isolated China the film so vividly depicts." The Hollywood Reporter wrote "Fluid motion and glorious colors provide a visual treat in Jiang Wen's sumptuous romantic fantasy... besides being wonderful to look at, The Sun Also Rises is great fun, with sure-handed performances." Moreover, this film was rumored to be China's official entries to the 2008 Oscars bidding with Lust and The Warlords. Writing in Muse Magazine, Perry Lam gave a negative review, criticizing "Jiang's timidity and the small-mindedness of his new movie." The Sun Also Rises on IMDb The Sun Also Rises at AllMovie Toronto International Film Festival official site - The Sun Also Rises Entry
A statue is a free-standing sculpture in which the realistic, full-length figures of persons or animals or non-representational forms are carved in a durable material like wood, metal, or stone. Typical statues are close to life-size. Statues have been produced in many cultures from prehistory to the present. Statues represent many different people and animals and mythical. Many statues are placed in a public places as public art; the world's tallest statue, Statue of Unity, is 182 metres tall and is located near the Narmada dam in Gujarat, India. Ancient statues survive showing the bare surface of the material of which they are made. For example, many people associate Greek classical art with white marble sculpture, but there is evidence that many statues were painted in bright colors. Most of the color has weathered off over time. A travelling exhibition of 20 coloured replicas of Greek and Roman works, alongside 35 original statues and reliefs, was held in Europe and the United States in 2008: Gods in Color: Painted Sculpture of Classical Antiquity.
Details such as whether the paint was applied in one or two coats, how finely the pigments were ground, or which binding medium would have been used in each case—all elements that would affect the appearance of a finished piece—are not known. Richter goes so far as to say of classical Greek sculpture, "All stone sculpture, whether limestone or marble, was painted, either wholly or in part." Medieval statues were usually painted, with some still retaining their original pigments. The coloring of statues ceased during the Renaissance, as excavated classical sculptures, which had lost their coloring, became regarded as the best models; the Löwenmensch figurine from the Swabian Alps in Germany is the oldest known statue in the world, dates to 30,000-40,000 years ago. The Venus of Hohle Fels, from the same area, is somewhat later. Throughout history, statues have been associated with cult images in many religious traditions, from Ancient Egypt, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome to the present.
Egyptian statues showing kings as sphinxes have existed since the Old Kingdom, the oldest being for Djedefre. The oldest statue of a striding pharaoh dates from the reign of Senwosret I and is the Egyptian Museum, Cairo; the Middle Kingdom of Egypt witnessed the growth of block statues which became the most popular form until the Ptolemaic period. The oldest statue of a deity in Rome was the bronze statue of Ceres in 485 BC; the oldest statue in Rome is now the statue of Diana on the Aventine. The wonders of the world include several statues from antiquity, with the Colossus of Rhodes and the Statue of Zeus at Olympia among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. While Byzantine art flourished in various forms and statue making witnessed a general decline. An example was the statue of Justinian which stood in the square across from the Hagia Sophia until the fall of Constantinople in the 15th century. Part of the decline in statue making in the Byzantine period can be attributed to the mistrust the Church placed in the art form, given that it viewed sculpture in general as a method for making and worshiping idols.
While making statues was not subject to a general ban, it was hardly encouraged in this period. Justinian was one of the last Emperors to have a full-size statue made, secular statues of any size became non-existent after iconoclasm. Starting with the work of Maillol around 1900, the human figures embodied in statues began to move away from the various schools of realism that been followed for thousands of years; the Futurist and Cubist schools took this metamorphism further until statues still nominally representing humans, had lost all but the most rudimentary relationship to the human form. By the 1920s and 1930s statues began to appear that were abstract in design and execution; the notion that the position of the hooves of horses in equestrian statues indicated the rider's cause of death has been disproved. UK Public Monument and Sculpture Association
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi