A gendarmerie or gendarmery is a military component with jurisdiction in civil law enforcement. The term gendarme is derived from the medieval French expression gens d'armes, which translates to "armed people". In France and some Francophone nations, the gendarmerie is a branch of the armed forces responsible for internal security in parts of the territory with additional duties as a military police for the armed forces; this concept was introduced to several other Western European countries during the Napoleonic conquests. In the mid twentieth century, a number of former French mandates or colonial possessions such as Lebanon and the Republic of the Congo adopted a gendarmerie after independence; the growth and expansion of gendarmerie units worldwide has been linked to an increasing reluctance by some governments to use military units entrusted with external defense for combating internal threats. A somewhat related phenomenon has been the formation of paramilitary units which fall under the authority of civilian police agencies.
Since these are not military forces, they are not considered gendarmerie. Some of the more prominent modern gendarmerie organizations include the French National Gendarmerie, Spanish Civil Guard, Italian Carabinieri, Portuguese National Republican Guard and the Turkish Gendarmerie; the word gendarme comes from the Old French gens d'armes. During the Late Medieval to the Early Modern period, the term referred to a armoured cavalryman of noble birth serving in the French army; the word gained policing connotations only after the French Revolution when the Maréchaussée of the Ancien Régime was renamed the Gendarmerie. The spelling in English was gendarmery, but now the French spelling gendarmerie is more common; the Oxford English Dictionary uses gendarmery as the principal spelling. These forces are titled "gendarmerie", but gendarmeries may bear other titles, for instance the Carabinieri in Italy, the Guarda Nacional Republicana in Portugal, the Guardia Civil in Spain, the Royal Marechaussee in the Netherlands or Internal Troops/National Guard in Ukraine and Russia.
As a result of their duties within the civilian population, gendarmeries are sometimes described as "paramilitary" rather than "military" forces although this description corresponds to their official status and capabilities. Gendarmes are rarely deployed in military situations, except in humanitarian deployments abroad. A gendarmerie may come under the authority of a ministry of defence, a ministry of the interior, or both at once. There is some coordination between a ministry of defence and a ministry of the interior over the use of gendarmes. A few forces which are no longer considered military retain the title "gendarmerie" for reasons of tradition. For instance, the French language title of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police is Gendarmerie royale du Canada because this force traditionally had some military-style functions and has retained its status as a regiment of dragoons; the Argentine Gendarmerie is a military force in terms of training and public perception, was involved in combat in the Falklands War, however it is classified as a "security force" not an "armed force", to exercise jurisdiction over the civilian population under Argentine law.
Since different countries may make different use of institutional terms such as "gendarmerie", there are cases in which the term may become confusing. For instance, in the French-speaking Cantons of Switzerland the "gendarmeries" are the uniformed civil police. In Chile, the word "gendarmerie" refers for historic reasons to the prison service, while the actual gendarmerie force is called the "carabineros". In some cases, a police service's military links are ambiguous and it can be unclear whether a force should be defined as a gendarmerie; some historical military units, such as South-West Africa's Koevoet, were only defined as police for political reasons. Services such as the Italian Guardia di Finanza would be defined as gendarmeries since the service is of an ambiguous military status and does not have general policing duties amongst the civilian population. In Russia, the modern National Guard are military units with quasi-police duties but different bodies within the Tsarist Special Corps of Gendarmes performed a variety of functions as an armed rural constabulary, urban riot control units, frontier guards, intelligence agents and political police.
Prior to the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922, British rule was based on the Royal Irish Constabulary—a drilled and armed force located in rural "barracks", a gendarmerie in all but in name. In 2014 the Mexican Federal Police, a armed force which has many attributes of a gendarmerie, created a new seventh branch of service called the National Gendarmerie Division; the new force would number 5,000 personnel and was created with the assistance of the French gendarmerie. In comparison to civilian police forces, gendarmeries may provide a more disciplined force whose military capabilities make them more capable of dealing with armed groups and wit
Colonialism is the policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories with the aim of opening trade opportunities. The colonizing country seeks to benefit from the colonized land mass. In the process, colonizers imposed their religion and medicinal practices on the natives; some argue this was a positive move toward modernization, while other scholars counter that this is an intrinsically Eurocentric rationalization, given that modernization is itself a concept introduced by Europeans. Colonialism is regarded as a relationship of domination of an indigenous majority by a minority of foreign invaders where the latter rule in pursuit of its interests. Early records of colonization go as far back as Phoenicians, an enterprising maritime trading culture that spread across the Mediterranean from 1550 BC to 300 BC and the Greeks and Persians continued on this line of setting up colonies; the Romans would soon follow, setting up colonies throughout the Mediterranean, Northern Africa, Western Asia.
In the 9th century a new wave of Mediterranean colonization had begun between competing states such as the Islamic Ottomans and the Venetians and Amalfians, invading the wealthy Byzantine or Eastern Roman islands and lands. Venice began with the conquest of Dalmatia and reached its greatest nominal extent at the conclusion of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, with the declaration of the acquisition of three octaves of the Byzantine Empire. In the 15th century some European states established their own empires during the European colonial period; the Belgian, Danish, French, Russian and Swedish empires established colonies across large areas. Imperial Japan, the Ottoman Empire and the United States acquired colonies, as did imperialist China and in the late 19th century the German and the Italian. At first, European colonizing countries followed policies of mercantilism, in order to strengthen the home economy, so agreements restricted the colonies to trading only with the metropole. By the mid-19th century, the British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and adopted the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs.
Christian missionaries were active in all of the colonies because the Colonialists were Christians. Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans controlled at least 35% of the globe, by 1914, they had gained control of 84%. In the aftermath of World War II, the archetypal European colonial system ended between 1945–1975, when nearly all Europe's colonies gained political independence. Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as "the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas". Webster's Encyclopedic Dictionary defines colonialism as "the system or policy of a nation seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories"; the Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by one power over a dependent area or people". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy "uses the term'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement and political control over the rest of the world, including the Americas and parts of Africa and Asia".
It discusses the distinction between colonialism and imperialism and states that "given the difficulty of distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad concept that refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that ended with the national liberation movements of the 1960s". In his preface to Jürgen Osterhammel's Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Roger Tignor says "For Osterhammel, the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from other territories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence." In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can'colonialism' be defined independently from'colony?'" He settles on a three-sentence definition: Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented by the colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are defined in a distant metropolis.
Rejecting cultural compromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and their ordained mandate to rule. Historians distinguish between various overlapping forms of colonialism, which are classified into four types: settler colonialism, exploitation colonialism, surrogate colonialism, internal colonialism. Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons, it pursues to replace the original population. Here, a large number of people emigrate to the colony for the purpose of staying and cultivating the land. Australia, Israel, South Africa, the United States are all examples of current settler colonial societies. Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on the exploitation of natural resources or population as labor to the benefit of the metropole; this category includes trading posts as well as larger colonies where colonists would constitute much of the political and economic administration.
Prior to the end of the slave trade and widespread abolition, when indigenous labor was unavailable, slaves were imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese Empire, by the Spanish, Dutch and British. Surrogate colonialism involves a set
The Weimar Republic is an unofficial historical designation for the German state from 1918 to 1933. The name derives from the city of Weimar; the official name of the republic remained Deutsches Reich unchanged from 1871, because of the German tradition of substates. Although translated as "German Empire", the word Reich here better translates as "realm", in that the term does not have monarchical connotations in itself; the Reich was changed from a constitutional monarchy into a republic. In English, the country was known as Germany. Germany became a de facto republic on 9 November 1918 when Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicated the German and Prussian thrones with no agreement made on a succession by his son Crown Prince Wilhelm, became a de jure republic in February 1919 when the position of President of Germany was created. A national assembly was convened in Weimar, where a new constitution for Germany was written and adopted on 11 August 1919. In its fourteen years, the Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism as well as contentious relationships with the victors of the First World War.
Resentment in Germany towards the Treaty of Versailles was strong on the political right where there was great anger towards those who had signed the Treaty and submitted to fulfill the terms of it. The Weimar Republic fulfilled most of the requirements of the Treaty of Versailles although it never met its disarmament requirements and paid only a small portion of the war reparations. Under the Locarno Treaties, Germany accepted the western borders of the country by abandoning irredentist claims on France and Belgium, but continued to dispute the eastern borders and sought to persuade German-speaking Austria to join Germany as one of Germany's states. From 1930 onwards President Hindenburg used emergency powers to back Chancellors Heinrich Brüning, Franz von Papen and General Kurt von Schleicher; the Great Depression, exacerbated by Brüning's policy of deflation, led to a surge in unemployment. In 1933, Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor with the Nazi Party being part of a coalition government.
The Nazis held two out of the remaining ten cabinet seats. Von Papen as Vice Chancellor was intended to be the "éminence grise" who would keep Hitler under control, using his close personal connection to Hindenburg. Within months, the Reichstag Fire Decree and the Enabling Act of 1933 had brought about a state of emergency: it wiped out constitutional governance and civil liberties. Hitler's seizure of power was permissive of government by decree without legislative participation; these events brought the republic to an end – as democracy collapsed, the founding of a single-party state began the dictatorship of the Nazi era. The Weimar Republic is so called because the assembly that adopted its constitution met at Weimar, from 6 February 1919 to 11 August 1919, but this name only became mainstream after 1933. Between 1919 and 1933 there was no single name for the new state that gained widespread acceptance, why the old name Deutsches Reich remained though hardly anyone used it during the Weimar period.
To the right of the spectrum the politically engaged rejected the new democratic model and cringed to see the honour of the traditional word Reich associated with it. The Catholic Centre party, Zentrum favoured the term Deutscher Volksstaat while on the moderate left the Chancellor's SPD preferred Deutsche Republik. By 1925, Deutsche Republik was used by most Germans, but for the anti-democratic right the word Republik was, along with the relocation of the seat of power to Weimar, a painful reminder of a government structure, imposed by foreign statesmen, along with the expulsion of Kaiser Wilhelm in the wake of massive national humiliation; the first recorded mention of the term Republik von Weimar came during a speech delivered by Adolf Hitler at a National Socialist German Worker's Party rally in Munich on 24 February 1929—it was a few weeks that the term Weimarer Republik was first used in a newspaper article. Only during the 1930s did the term become mainstream, both within and outside Germany.
According to historian Richard J. Evans: The continued use of the term'German Empire', Deutsches Reich, by the Weimar Republic....conjured up an image among educated Germans that resonated far beyond the institutional structures Bismarck created: the successor to the Roman Empire. After the introduction of the republic, the flag and coat of arms of Germany were altered to reflect the political changes; the Weimar Republic without the symbols of the former Monarchy. This left the black eagle with one head, facing to the right, with open wings but closed feathers, with a red beak and claws and white highlighting. By reason of a decision of the Reich's Government I hereby announce, that the Imperial coat of arms on a gold-yellow shield shows the one headed black eagle, the head turned to the right, the wings open but with closed feathering, beak and claws in red color. If the Reich's Eagle is shown without a frame, the same charg
Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck
Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, nicknamed affectionately as the Lion of Africa, was a general in the German Army and the commander of its forces in the German East Africa campaign. For four years, with a force that never exceeded about 14,000, he held in check a much larger force of 300,000 British, Indian and Portuguese troops. Undefeated in the field, Lettow-Vorbeck was the only German commander to invade imperial British soil during the First World War, his exploits in the campaign have been described by Edwin Palmer Hoyt "as the greatest single guerrilla operation in history, the most successful." Others have opined that it was "a campaign of supreme ruthlessness where a small, well trained force extorted supplies from civilians to whome it felt no responsibility...it was the climax of Africa's exploitation". Lettow-Vorbeck's tactics led to famine that killed thousands of Africans and weakened the population, leaving it vulnerable to influenza epidemic in 1919. Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck was born into the Pomeranian minor nobility, while his father was stationed as an army officer at Saarlouis in the Prussian Rhine Province.
He was educated in boarding schools in Berlin and joined the corps of cadets at Potsdam and Berlin-Lichterfelde. In 1890, he was commissioned a Lieutenant into the Imperial German Army and was assigned to the Great German General Staff. In 1900, Lettow-Vorbeck was posted to China as a member of the international alliance forces to quell the Boxer Rebellion, he did not like fighting against guerrillas and considered the war detrimental to the discipline of the German Army. He returned to the German General Staff. Beginning in 1904, he was assigned to German South-West Africa, during the Namaqua and Herero insurrection, he did not participate in the subsequent genocide: having suffered injuries to his left eye and chest, he was evacuated to South Africa for treatment and recovery. In 1907, Lettow-Vorbeck was promoted to Major and assigned to the staff of XI Corps at Kassel, Hesse. From March 1909 to January 1913, he was commanding officer of the marines of II. Seebataillon at Wilhelmshaven, Lower Saxony, German Empire.
In October 1913, the Imperial German army promoted him to Lieutenant Colonel and appointed him to command the German colonial forces known as the Schutztruppe in German Kamerun. Before he could assume this command, his orders were changed and he was posted — with effect from 13 April 1914 — to German East Africa. While travelling to his new assignment, Lettow-Vorbeck formed what would prove to be a lifelong friendship with Danish author Karen Blixen, travelling aboard the same liner. Decades she recalled, "He belonged to the olden days, I have never met another German who has given me so strong an impression of what Imperial Germany was and stood for." Lettow-Vorbeck's plan for the war was quite simple: knowing that East Africa would only be a sideshow to the other theatres of war, he was determined to tie down as many British troops as he could. He intended to keep them away from the Western Front, in this way to contribute to Germany's eventual victory. In August 1914, during the early phases of the First World War, Lettow-Vorbeck was the commander of a small military garrison of just 2,600 German nationals and 2,472 African soldiers in fourteen Askari field companies.
Realising the need to seize the initiative, he disregarded orders from Berlin and the colony's Governor, Heinrich Schnee, who had attempted to achieve neutrality for German East Africa. Lettow-Vorbeck ignored the Governor and prepared to repel a major British amphibious assault on the city of Tanga; the attack began on 2 November 1914, for the next four days the German forces fought one of their greatest engagements, the Battle of Tanga. Lettow-Vorbeck assembled his men and their scant supplies to attack the British railways in East Africa, he scored a second victory over the British at Jassin on 19 January 1915. These victories gave him badly needed modern rifles and other supplies, as well as a critical boost to the morale of his men. However, Lettow-Vorbeck lost many experienced men, including the "splendid Captain Tom von Prince", whom he could not replace. Lettow-Vorbeck knew he could count on his motivated officers. Although casualties remained high, Lettow insisted; the British offered few enticing targets, forced him to conduct raids into British East Africa, targeting forts and communications, all with the goal of forcing the Entente to divert manpower from the main theater of war in Europe.
He realised the critical needs of guerrilla warfare, in that he used everything available to him in matters of supply. The Schutztruppe recruited new personnel and expanded to its eventual size of some 14,000 soldiers, most of them Askaris, all well-trained and well-disciplined. Lettow-Vorbeck's fluency in the Swahili language earned the respect and admiration of his African soldiers. In one historian's estimation, "It is probable that no white commander of the era had so keen an appreciation of the African's worth not only as a fighting man but as a man." He gained the men and artillery of the German cruiser SMS Königsberg which had a capable crew under commande
The Ngoni people are an ethnic group living in the present-day Southern African countries of Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia. The Ngoni trace their origins to the Zulu people of kwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; the displacement of the Ngoni people in the great scattering following the Zulu wars had repercussions in social reorganization as far north as Malawi and Zambia. The rise of the Zulu nation to dominance in southern Africa in the early nineteenth century disrupted many traditional alliances. Around 1817, the Mthethwa alliance, which included the Zulu clan, came into conflict with the Ndwandwe alliance, which included the Nguni people from the kwaZulu-Natal. One of the military commanders of the Ndwandwe army, Zwangendaba Gumbi, was the head of the Jele or Gumbi clan, which itself formed part of the larger emaNcwangeni alliance in what is now north-east kwaZulu-Natal. In 1819, the Zulu army under Shaka defeated the Ndwandwe alliance at a battle on the Umhlatuze River, near Nkandla; the battle resulted in the diaspora of many indigenous groups in southern Africa.
In the following decades, Zwangendaba led a small group of his followers north through Mozambique and Zimbabwe to the region around the Viphya Plateau. In this region, present-day Zambia and Tanzania, he established a state, using Zulu warfare techniques to conquer and integrate local peoples; the date on which Zwengandaba's party crossed the River Zambezi, sometimes given in early writings as 1825, has been argued to have been on 20 November 1835. Following Zwangendaba's death in 1848, succession disputes split the Ngoni people. Zwangendaba's following and the Maseko Ngoni created seven substantial Ngoni kingdoms in Tanzania and Malawi. While the Ngoni were agriculturalists, cattle were their main goal for raiding expeditions and migrations northward, their reputation as refugees escaping Shaka is overstated. They raided north, their prestige became so great that by 1921, in Nyasaland alone, 245,833 people claimed membership as Ngoni although few spoke the Zulu dialect called Ngoni. The Ngoni integrated conquered subjects into their warfare and organization, becoming more a ruling class than an ethnic group, by 1906 few individuals were of pure Ngoni descent.
It was only after Ngoni status began to decline that tribal consciousness of the component groups began to rise along with their reported numbers. In the early 1930s, the Ngonde, Nyasa and other groups once again claimed their original tribal status. While the Ngoni have retained a distinct identity in the post-colonial states in which they live and acculturation has led to them adopting local languages. Mpezeni was the warrior-king of one of the largest Ngoni groups, based in what is now the Chipata District of Zambia, was courted by the Portuguese and British; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes sent agents to obtain a treaty—Alfred Sharpe in 1889, Joseph Maloney in 1895, who were both unsuccessful. In 1897, with over 4,000 warriors, Mpezeni rose up against the British, who were taking control of Nyasaland and North-Eastern Rhodesia, was defeated. Mpezeni signed the treaty which allowed him to rule as Paramount Chief of the Ngoni in Zambia's Eastern Province and Malawi's Mchinji district.
His successors as chief take the title Paramount Chief Mpezeni to this day. The cruelty and ruthlessness of Mpezeni's raids can be understood from this account written by a British hunter who came across a Chewa village a few hours after a raid in 1897: On my arrival I found the male population all under arms, the women crying. A raiding party of Mpezeni’s people had attacked them that morning. Ten women were killed in the gardens and twenty-two were taken away as prisoners. An old man and one of the headman’s children had been wounded, their entrails hung out of frightfully torn wounds, inflicted most by barbed spears. It was a pitiful sight — the groans of the wounded, the women crying over their dead, whose bodies were brought from the gardens, the men standing about helplessly and depressed; as the raiding party could not have been far off, I proposed to the men to follow them up at once, try to release the prisoners, but they were disheartened by the misfortune that so had overtaken them.
The Ngoni people celebrate a festival of first fruits known as Nc'wala in late February at Mutenguleni about 25km from Chipata. Gazaland Mzilikazi Nguni people Matabele Zulu Kingdom Nwaezeigwe, Nwankwo. Ngoni Rau, William Eugene. Mpezeni's Ngoni of Eastern Zambia, 1870–1920, Ph. D. dissertation, 1974 Bauer, Andreus. Street of Caravans. Iliffe, John. Modern History of Tanganyika; the Illustrated Encyclopedia of Mankind Reader, John. Africa, a biography of the Continent Tew, Mary. People of the Lake Nyasa Region Media related to Ngoni people at Wikimedia Commons The revival of Malawian Chingoni, by Pascal J. Kishindo Ngoni history in Tanzania Ngoni People
A security guard is a person employed by a public or private party to protect the employing party’s assets from a variety of hazards by enforcing preventative measures. Security guards do this by maintaining a high-visibility presence to deter illegal and inappropriate actions, looking for signs of crime or other hazards, taking action to minimize damage, reporting any incidents to their clients and emergency services, as appropriate. Security officers are uniformed to represent their lawful authority to protect private property. Security guards are governed by legal regulations, which set out the requirements for eligibility and the permitted authorities of a security guard in a given jurisdiction; the authorities permitted to security guards vary by subnational jurisdiction. Security officers are hired by a range of organizations, including businesses, government departments and agencies and not-for-profit organizations; until the 1980s, the term watchman was more applied to this function, a usage dating back to at least the Middle Ages in Europe where there was no form of law enforcement.
This term was carried over to North America where it was interchangeable with night-watchman until both terms were replaced with the modern security-based titles. Security officers are sometimes regarded as fulfilling a private policing function. Many security firms and proprietary security departments practice the "detect, deter and report" methodology. Security officers are not required to make arrests, but have the authority to make a citizen's arrest, or otherwise act as an agent of law enforcement, for example, at the request of a police officer or sheriff. A private security officer's responsibility is protecting their client from a variety of hazards. Security personnel enforce company rules and can act to protect lives and property, they sometimes have a contractual obligation to provide these actions. In addition to basic deterrence, security officers are trained to perform specialized tasks such as arrest and control, operate emergency equipment, perform first aid, CPR, take accurate notes, write detailed reports, perform other tasks as required by the client they are serving.
All security officers are required to go through additional training mandated by the state for the carrying of weapons such as batons and pepper spray. Some officers are required to complete police certification for special duties; the number of jobs is expected to grow in the U. S. with 175,000 new security jobs expected before 2016. In recent years, due to elevated threats of terrorism, most security officers are required to have bomb-threat training and/or emergency crisis training those located in soft target areas such as shopping malls and any other area where the general public congregate. One major economic justification for security personnel is that insurance companies will give substantial rate discounts to sites which have a 24-hour presence. For a high risk or high value property, the discount can exceed the money being spent on its security program. Discounts are offered because having security on site increases the odds that any fire will be noticed and reported to the local fire department before a total loss occurs.
The presence of security officers tends to diminish "shrinkage", employee misconduct and safety rule violations, property damage, or sabotage. Many casinos hire security officers to protect money when transferring it from the casino to the casino's bank. Security personnel may perform access control at building entrances and vehicle gates. Security officers are called upon to respond to potential hazards and to assist in serious emergencies by securing the scene to prevent further loss or damage, summoning emergency responders to the incident, helping to redirect foot traffic to safe locations, by documenting what happened on an incident report to give their client an idea of how to prevent similar situations from occurring. Armed security officers are contracted to respond as law enforcement until a given situation at a client location is under control and/or public authorities arrive on the scene. Patrolling is a large part of a security officer's duties, as most incidents are prevented by being looked for instead of waiting for them to occur.
These patrols are logged by use of a guard tour patrol system, which require regular patrols. Until the most used form used to be mechanical clock systems that required a key for manual punching of a number to a strip of paper inside with the time pre-printed on it, but electronic systems have risen in popularity due to their light weight, ease of use, a