Sindhology is a field of study and academic research that covers the history, society and literature of Sindh, a province of Pakistan. The subject was first brought into the academic circles with the establishment of the Institute of Sindhology at Sindh University in 1964. Since it has developed into a discipline that covers the aspects of history and archaeology from the Indus Valley Civilization to the modern Sindhi society; the subject has received wider attention at international levels. An academic or expert who specialises in Sindhology is called a Sindhologist; the term Sindhology to denote a subject of knowledge about Sindh was first coined in 1964 with the establishment of the Institute of Sindhology. The objective at the time was to promote the study and broader research on Sindh, develop a repository of archives, books and research papers. Another wider objective was to promote the knowledge about Sindh in various other national and regional languages of Pakistan, as well as international languages such as Arabic, English and Urdu.
The subject was developed on the patterns of Egyptology and Indology. The study area encompassed the multidisciplinary research about the land, shaped by the 5000 years old Indus Valley Civilization as well as the Indus river; this enables the scope of the study to cover the antiquities, culture and literature with unique forms of music and poetry that has prevailed in both the ancient and modern Sindh. Institute of Sindhology, Pakistan Indian Institute of Sindhology American Institute of Sindhology The first major attempt to bring together the leading Sindhologists was an international seminar'Sindh Through the Centuries' held in Karachi in Spring 1975 under the auspices of the Government of Sindh; some of the prominent names in Sindhology include: Ali S. Asani Dr. Nabi Bux Khan Baloch Hassam-ud-Din Rashidi Ahmad Hasan Dani Annemarie Schimmel Allama I. I. Kazi Asko Parpola Ghulam Ali Allana Jean-François Jarrige N. G. Majumdar K. R. Malkani Muhammad Usman Diplai Ghulam Rabbani Agro Muhammad Qasim Maka Institute of Sindhology Encyclopedia Sindhiana University of Sindh Sindhi literature Sindhi Adabi Board Jamshoro List of museums in Pakistan Government of Sindh Sind Through the Centuries, Proceedings of an International Seminar Held in Karachi in Spring 1975, by Department of Culture, Government of Sind.
Oxford University Press, Karachi. ISBN 978-0-19-577499-3 Institute of Sindhology University of Sindh Indian Institute of Sindhology
Simo Kaarlo Antero Parpola is a Finnish Assyriologist specializing in the Neo-Assyrian Empire and Professor emeritus of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki. Simo Parpola studied Assyriology and Semitic Philology at the University of Helsinki, the Pontifical Biblical Institute and the British Museum in 1961–1968, he completed his PhD in Helsinki and began his academic career as wissenschaftlicher Assistent of Karlheinz Deller at the Seminar für Sprachen und Kulturen des Vorderen Orients of the University of Heidelberg in 1969. Between 1973 and 1976 he was Docent of Assyriology and Research Fellow at the University of Helsinki, from 1977 to 1979 Associate Professor of Assyriology with tenure at the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago, he was appointed Extraordinary Professor of Assyriology at the University of Helsinki in 1978 and has directed the University’s Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project since 1986. He taught at the University of Padua as Visiting Professor in Spring 1995, worked as Research Fellow in the Institute for Advanced Studies, Hebrew University in 1999.
He contributed to the compilation of the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary from 1982 until its completion in 2010 and partook in the Ziyaret Tepe archaeological expedition as Senior Epigraphist in 2001–2006. The main focus of Parpola's research has been on the study of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in all its aspects, but he has contributed to the study of the Indus script, Sumerian language, Jewish mysticism and Assyrian identity in post-empire times, among others. In 1986 he initiated a long-term international research project to edit Neo-Assyrian sources, which has resulted in a 19-volume series of standard text editions and in a digital corpus of texts written in the Neo-Assyrian language; the published series contains cuneiform texts and translations of first hand records written by civil servants and administrators and are considered to be an important source accessible to scholars of many disciplines. In 1998, Parpola started the Melammu Project, an interdisciplinary project that investigates the continuity and diffusion of Mesopotamian culture in the classical world and thereafter.
Finnish Professor of the Year, 1992. J. V. Snellman Public Information Award of the University of Helsinki, 1996. Honorary Member of the American Oriental Society, 2001. Honorary Member of the Finnish Science Center, Heureka, 2003. Books Etymological Dictionary of the Sumerian Language I-II. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2016. Assyrian-English-Assyrian Dictionary. Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2008. ISBN 9789521013324 The Helsinki Atlas of the Ancient Near East in the Neo-Assyrian Period. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 2001. Neo-Assyrian Legal Texts in Istanbul. Studien zu den Assur-Texten, Bd. 2. Saarbücken: Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, 2001. ISBN 978-3-930843-64-0 The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part III: Letters from Media and Babylonia. State Archives of Assyria 15. Helsinki University Press, 2001. Assyrian Prophecies. State Archives of Assyria 9. Helsinki University Press, 1997; the Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. State Archives of Assyria Cuneiform Texts 1. Helsinki: The Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, 1997.
Letters from Assyrian and Babylonian Scholars. State Archives of Assyria 10. Helsinki University Press, 1993. Legal Transactions of the Royal Court of Nineveh, Part I: Tiglath-Pileser III through Esarhaddon. State Archives of Assyria 6. Helsinki University Press, 1991; the Correspondence of Sargon II, Part II: Letters from the Northern and Northeastern Provinces. State Archives of Assyria 5. Helsinki University Press, 1990. Neo-Assyrian Treaties and Loyalty Oaths. State Archives of Assyria 2. Helsinki University Press, 1988. ISBN 978-951-570-034-6 The Correspondence of Sargon II, Part I: Letters from Assyria and the West. State Archives of Assyria 1. Helsinki University Press, 1987. Letters from Assyrian Scholars to the Kings Esarhaddon and Assurbanipal, Part II: Commentary and Appendices. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 5/2, Neukirchen-Vluyn: Butzon & Bercker, 1983. Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian Tablets in the British Museum, Part 53: Neo-Assyrian Letters from the Kuyunjik Collection. London, 1979. A Concordance to the Indus Inscriptions.
Annales Academiae Scientiarum Fennicae, Series B 185. Helsinki, 1973. Neo-Assyrian Toponyms. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 6, Neukirchen-Vluyn: Butzon & Bercker, 1970. Decipherment of the Proto-Dravidian Inscriptions of the Indus Civilization. Scandinavian Institute of Asian Studies, Special Publications 1. Copenhagen, 1969. Articles "Mount Nisir and the Foundations of the Assyrian Church", pp. 469–484 in Salvatore Gaspa et al. From Source to History: Studies on Ancient Near Eastern Worlds and Beyond Dedicated to G. B. Lanfranchi. Alter Orient und Altes Testament 412. Münster: Ugarit-Verlag, 2014. "Globalization of Religion: Jewish Cosmology in its Ancient Near Eastern Contex t", pp. 15–27 in Markham J. Geller, Melammu: The Ancient World in an Age of Globalization. Proceedings of the Sixth Symposium of the Melammu Project. Max Plack Research Library for the History and Development of Knowledge, Proceedings 7. Berlin, 2014. "The Etymology of the Sumerian Word for Star", pp. 29–43 in Antonio Panaino, Non licet stare caelestibus: Studies on Astronomy and Its History offered to Salvo De Meis.
Indo-Iranica et Orientalia. Milano: Mimesis, 2014. "Sumerian: A Urali
Forssa is a town and municipality of Finland. It is located in the centre of a triangle defined by the three largest major cities in Finland, in the Tavastia Proper region; the town has a population of 17,021 and covers an area of 253.38 square kilometres of which 4.61 km2 is water. The population density is 68.42 inhabitants per square kilometre. Forssa is known for its annual big events like in the first weekend of August held Holjat Festival as well as car enthusiasts get together in Pick-Nick, the biggest event in Northern Europe. A tradition is annual Suvi-ilta Maraton - the second biggest marathon event in Finland. Suvi-ilta Maraton takes place a weekend before Midsummer. There is a popular harness racing track in Forssa; the name Forssa comes from the Swedish word "fors". The municipality is unilingually Finnish. Forssa is twinned with: Södertälje, Sweden Sarpsborg, Norway Struer, Denmark Serpukhov, Russia Gödöllő, Hungary Sault Ste. Marie, Canada Aarne Ervi Pentti Niinivuori Kalevi Aho Mika Helkearo Miia Nuutila Jonna Tervomaa Johanna Paasikangas-Tella Tuukka Kotti Kirsi Perälä Jussi Heikkilä Sanni Grahn-Laasonen Media related to Forssa at Wikimedia Commons Town of Forssa – Official website
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Indo-Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-Aryan languages. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo-Aryan languages, most of them native to the Indian subcontinent and presently found all across South Asia, where they form the majority; some of the theories proposed in the 20th century for the dispersal of Indo-Aryan languages are described by linguist Colin Masica in the chapter, "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan" in his book, The Indo-Aryan Languages. A recent Indo-Aryan migration theory—proposed by anthropologist David W. Anthony and by archaeologists Elena Efimovna Kuzmina and J. P. Mallory—claims that the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent was a result of a migration of people from the Sintashta culture through the Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent; these migrations started 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, brought Indo-Aryan languages into the Levant and Inner Asia.
It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the Proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe, which started in the 5th to 4th millennia BCE, the Indo-European migrations out of the Eurasian steppes, which started 2,000 BCE. The theory posits that these Indo-Aryan speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted. The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture, the Andronovo culture, which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. The proto-Indo-Iranians were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices.
The Indo-Aryans split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the Iranians, whereafter the Indo-Aryans migrated into the Levant and north-western India. This scenario is disputed by the scholars who argue that Indo-Aryan culture is result of the Indus Valley culture, forming the basis for the Indo-Aryan culture that developed later; the alternate Indigenous Aryans theory places the Indo-Aryans languages as being indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and they spread outside the subcontinent. Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University A tale of two horses - Frontline
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC