Asmara, or Asmera, is the capital and most populous city of Eritrea, in the country's Central Region. It sits at an elevation of 2,325 metres, making it the sixth highest capital in the world by altitude; the city is located at the tip of an escarpment, both the northwestern edge of the Eritrean Highlands and the Great Rift Valley in neighbouring Ethiopia. In 2017, the city was declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its well-preserved modernist architecture. Asmera was first settled in 800 BC with a population ranging from 100 to 1000; the city was founded in the 12th century AD after four separate villages unified to live together peacefully after long periods of conflict. According to Eritrean Tigrinya oral traditional history, there were four clans living in the Asmera area on the Kebessa Plateau: the Gheza Gurtom, the Gheza Shelele, the Gheza Serenser and Gheza Asmae; these towns were attacked by clans from the low land and from the rulers of "seger mereb melash", until the women of each clan decided that to defeat their common enemy and preserve peace the four clans must unite.
The men accepted, hence the name "Arbate Asmera". Arbate Asmera means, in the Tigrinya language, "the four made them unite". Arbate was dropped and it has been called Asmera which means "they made them unite". There is still a district called Arbaete Asmera in the Administrations of Asmara, it is now called the Italianized version of the word Asmara. The westernized version of the name is used by a majority of non-Eritreans, while the multilingual inhabitants of Eritrea and neighboring peoples remain loyal to the original pronunciation, Asmera; the missionary Remedius Prutky passed through Asmera in 1751, described in his memoirs that a church built there by Jesuit priests 130 years before was still intact. Asmera, a small village in the nineteenth century, started to grow when it was occupied by Italy in 1889. Governor Ferdinando Martini made it the capital city of Italian Eritrea in 1900. In the early 20th century, the Eritrean Railway was built to the coast, passing through the town of Ghinda, under the direction of Carlo Cavanna.
In both 1913 and 1915 the city suffered only slight damage in large earthquakes. A large Italian community developed the city. According to the 1939 census, Asmera had a population of 98,000. Only 75,000 Italians lived in all of Eritrea; the capital acquired an Italian architectural look. Europeans used Asmera "to experiment with radical new designs". By the late 1930s, Asmera was called Piccola Roma. Nowadays more than 400 buildings are of Italian origin, many shops still have Italian names; the Kingdom of Italy invested in the industrial development of Asmera, but the beginning of World War II stopped this. The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organisation made Asmera a World Heritage Site in July 2017, saying "It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context". In 1952, the United Nations resolved to federate the former colony under Ethiopian rule. During the Federation, Asmera was no longer the capital city.
The capital was now Addis Ababa, over 1,000 kilometres to the south. The national language of the city was therefore replaced from Tigrinya language to the Ethiopian Amharic language. In 1961, Emperor Haile Selassie I ended the "federal" arrangement and declared the territory to be the 14th province of the Ethiopian Empire. Ethiopia's biggest ally was the United States; the city was home to the US Army's Kagnew Station installation from 1943 until 1977. The Eritrean War of Independence began in 1961 and ended in 1991, resulting in the independence of Eritrea. Asmera was left undamaged throughout the war, as were the majority of highland regions. After independence, Asmera again became the capital of Eritrea; the city lies at an elevation of 2,325 metres above sea level. It lies on north-south trending highlands known as the Eritrean Highlands, an extension of the Ethiopian Highlands; the temperate central portion, where Asmera lies, is situated on a rocky highland plateau, which separates the western lowlands from the eastern coastal plains.
The lands that surround Asmera are fertile those to the south towards the Debub Region of Eritrea. The highlands that Asmera is located in fall away to reveal the eastern lowlands, characterized by the searing heat and humidity of the Eritrean salt pans, lapped by the Red Sea. To the west of the plateau stretches a vast semi-arid hilly terrain continuing all the way towards the border with Sudan through the Gash-Barka Region. Asmera features a somewhat rare version of a steppe climate, with warm, but not hot summers and mild winters. According to Köppen's classification, Asmera has a cold semi-arid climate. Asmera's climate can be considered semi-arid. Due to its 2,325-metre altitude, temperatures are mild for a city located not far from deserts; this climate is characteristic of wet seasons and dry seasons. Asmera averages about 518 mm of precipitation annually. Frost, however, is rare in the city; the long rainy season of the year extends from June until September. The short rainy season occurs from March until April.
On average, about 60% of Asmera's annual precipitation is
A Member of Youth Parliament, is an individual aged between 11 and 18 elected by young people to represent their local area on the UK Youth Parliament. There are around 600 MYPs across the United Kingdom; the title of Member of Youth Parliament was created upon the organisation's formation in July 1999. Though only a smaller number existed at first, this has now expanded beyond 600 members, with 1625 young people standing for the position in their local areas during the 2008 annual elections; the process of these elections differs from area to area, dependent on how the associated local government and youth bodies feel to be the best option for their circumstances. This ranges to an American-styled Electoral College. Unlike General Elections, these do not all occur at the same time; each member has at least one deputy, able to fulfill their duties should they be unable. This number is not limited, as it again varies on the circumstances of the area in which the MYP is based; however MYPs from Scotland do not have DMYPs.
Scotland does not directly elect MYPs. The Scottish Youth Parliament has 200 Members of the Scottish Youth Parliament by electing 2 in every Scottish Parliament constituency which returns 146 constituency MSYPs; the other 56 are appointed from voluntary organisations. Delegates to UKYP events are chosen by the Scottish Youth Parliament; the roles of Members and Deputy Members of the Youth Parliament are based around providing a loud and active voice for the young people that they represent. This includes working in their local area with the likes of town and parish councillors and their own MP, they may liaise with community action groups, colleges, youth forums and youth centers so as to broaden their audience as as possible. They act on a regional basis, attending monthly meetings in which they work on developing the issues they feel most important to young people. An Annual Sitting is held. There is a lively atmosphere, with many chants along the lines of "OHHH Yorkshire and Humber", a chant after a specific member who has the same name as former Prime Minister James Callaghan.
Special debates are held within the House of Commons and House of Lords. Both of these instances are historic in their overturning of ancient protocol, requiring that only members of the respective houses be allowed to sit within them. UK Youth Parliament Official Website
The term bard came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment to folk singers of the American folk music revival. Because in bard music songwriters perform their own songs, the genre is commonly referred to as author song. Bard poetry differs from other poetry in being sung with simple guitar accompaniment as opposed to being spoken. Another difference is that it focuses more on meaning; this means that fewer stylistic devices are used, the poetry is in the form of a narrative. What separates bard poetry from other songs is that the music is far less important than the lyrics. A far more obvious difference is the commerce-free nature of the genre. Stylistically, the precursors to bard songs were Russian "city romances" known as urban romances, which touched upon common life and were popular throughout all layers of Russian society in the late 19th to early 20th centuries.
These romances were traditionally performed with a guitar accompaniment. Bard poetry may be classified into two main genres: tourist song and political song, although some other subgenres are recognized, such as outlaw song and pirate song; the term "bard" was used by fans of the tourist song genre, outside those circles, the term was perceived as derisive. However, there was a need for a term to distinguish this style of song from the traditional mainstream pop song, the term stuck. Many bards performed their songs for small groups of people using a Russian guitar, if would they be accompanied by other musicians or singers; those who became popular were able to hold modest concerts. Bards were permitted to record their music, given the political nature of many of their songs; as a result, bard tunes made their way around via the copying of amateur recordings made at concerts those songs that were of a political nature. During the Soviet Era of Stagnation and its intense forms such as alpinism, kayaking/canoeing, canyoning, became a form of escapism for young people, who felt that these activities were the only ways of life in which such values as courage, risk, trust and mutual support still mattered.
It is these types of virtues that tourist songs use for their subject matter. Many of the best tourist songs were composed by Yuri Vizbor who participated and sang about all the sports described above, Alexander Gorodnitsky who spent a great deal of time sailing around the world on ships and on scientific expeditions to the far North. A notable subgenre of the Tourist song was the Sea song; as with other tourist songs, the goal was to sing about people in hard conditions where true physical and emotional conflicts appear. Vladimir Vysotsky had several songs of this sort, since his style suited them perfectly. Many of Alexander Gorodnitsky's songs are about the sea since he had the opportunity to experience life at sea. While some songs were about sailors, others were about pirates. With the romanticism of songs like Brigantine by Pavel Kogan, pirate songs are still popular at author song concerts today; every bard has at least one song of this type. Tourist song was tolerated by the government, it existed under the moniker author song, i.e. songs sung by the authors themselves, as opposed to those sung by professional singers.
Another name for this genre was "amateur song". This term reflects the cultural phenomenon of the Soviet Union called "amateur performing arts," or khudozhestvennaya samodeyatelnost, it was a widespread heavily subsidized occupation of Soviet people in their spare time. Every major industrial enterprise and every kolkhoz had a Palace of Culture, or at least a House of Culture, for amateur performers to practice and perform. Many of them, as well as many universities, had Clubs of Amateur Song, which, in fact, were clubs of bard song and which stood quite apart from the mainstream Soviet "samodeyatelnost'". Grushinsky festival traces its origins to tourist song fan meetings, but now includes songs from all genres. Compare: Tramping song, a similar tradition in the Czech Republic. Songs of this kind expressed protest against the Soviet way of life; the genre varied from acutely political, "anti-Soviet" songs to witty satire in the best traditions of Aesop. Some of Bulat Okudzhava's songs touch on these themes.
Vladimir Vysotsky was perceived as a political song writer, although he was part of the mainstream culture. It was not so with Alexander Galich, forced to emigrate. Before emigration, he suffered from KGB persecution, as did Yuliy Kim. Others, like Evgeny Kliachkin and Aleksander Dolsky, maintained a balance between outright "anti-Soviet" and plain romantic material. "songs" from pro-Communist plays by Bertolt Brecht criticizing fascism and capitalist society, could be seen as protest songs, hence were popular among bards. These were called z
Mesquita Brasil is a mosque located in Cambuci, central district of São Paulo city, Brazil. It was first founded in 1929 by the Muslim Beneficent Society of São Paulo. Mesquita Brasil is one of the oldest mosques in South America. History of Mesquita Brasil dates back to the 1920s. In the aftermath of the World War I, many Muslim immigrants began arriving in São Paulo after fleeing troubles in the Middle East region. In 1927, Palestinian Muslim Charitable Society was formed by some Palestinian immigrants including Darwich Gazal and Hosni Adura; as more immigrants arrived from Syria and Lebanon, they changed the name of the society to Muslim Beneficent Society in 1929. The Mesquita Brasil began in 1929 with the formation of the Muslim Beneficent Society of São Paulo; the Muslim Beneficent Society first began holding congregation prayers in rented rooms in Av Rangel Pestana and Barão de Duprat in São Paulo. In 1938, they shifted prayers to the Avenue of the State. In 1940, the society moved permanently to the present premises of the Mesquita Brasil in Av.
Do Estado, 5,382, Cambuci, São Paulo and began construction of the first Brazilian mosque. Construction took many years and the mosque was inaugurated in 1956. Islam in Brazil List of mosques in Brazil List of mosques in the Americas List of the oldest mosques
Matthew Mead was a Lieutenant Colonel who served on George Washington's staff in the American Revolutionary War. He was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from Norwalk in the sessions of May 1779, May and October 1780, May and October 1781, he was born on August 1736 in Norwalk. He was the Hannah St. John. Mead enlisted in the army on September 8, 1755 as a private in Captain Samuel Hanford's Company and Indian War. In 1758 he was Quartermaster of the 4th Regiment in the expedition against Crown Point and Ticonderoga, he married Phebe Whelpey on February 1759 in Wilton. In 1773 he was commissioned Captain of the Wilton company in Connecticut Militia. At the outbreak of the Revolution he was commissioned Captain of the 5th Regiment of Connecticut, Continental Line. In 1777 he was made Lieutenant Colonel of the 5th Regiment. In that year he was in the Battle of Philadelphia, he commanded the 8th Regiment of Continental Line, at Valley Forge. He resigned his commission on 25 May 1778 after the winter of 1777-78 at Valley Forge, where he was quartered with his Regiment and was on the staff of General Washington.
He served as a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives from Norwalk in the sessions of May 1779, May and October 1780, May and October 1781
Trigana Air is an airline based in Jakarta, Indonesia. The company commenced operations in early 1991 with two Beechcraft King Air 200 fixed-wing aircraft, by the end of that year had added two licence-built Bell 412SP helicopters, they operate 2 ATR aircraft for Hainan Airlines from Sanya to Haikou and Hanoi until 2016. Trigana Air flies to 15 destinations throughout Indonesia. Ambon – Pattimura Airport Dobo – Dobo Airport Dekai - Nop Goliat Dekai Airport Jakarta – Soekarno-Hatta International Airport Base Jayapura – Sentani Airport Moa - Jos Orno Imsula Airport Kai Islands - Karel Sadsuitubun Airport Buru - Namrole Airport Nabire - Nabire Airport Oksibil – Oksibil Airport Pangkalan Bun – Iskandar Airport Saumlaki – Saumlaki Airport Semarang – Achmad Yani International Airport Surabaya – Juanda International Airport Wamena – Wamena Airport The Trigana Air fleet consisted of the following aircraft: The airline operated the following aircraft: 1 Boeing 737-200 2 Boeing 737-200 1 further Boeing 737-300F Trigana Air is once banned from operating in European Union airspace.
The ban was imposed on all Indonesian airlines by the European Commission in 2007 in consultation with member states' aviation authorities. It was lifted in 2018 along with all other Indonesian Airlines. Aircraft operated by Trigana Air have been involved in 14 serious incidents, 10 of which resulted in hull loss. On 21 April 2002, a Trigana Air Antonov An-72, registered as ES-NOP, was carrying out a chartered cargo service from Sentani Airport, Jayapura to Wamena Airport, Wamena; the plane was carrying 4 people, a Lithuanian pilot, Estonian co-pilot, Russian Flight Engineer, a Load Master. While landing in Wamena, the front compartment of the Antonov An-72 caught fire. All aboard were evacuated safely from the plane. On 25 May 2002, a de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter registered PK-YPZ crashed in heavy rain whilst carrying supplies for the local town. All four passengers and both crew members lost their lives. On 11 February 2010, Trigana Air Flight 162, operated by an ATR 42-300 registered PK-YRP, force landed in a paddy field near Balikpapan after both engines failed in-flight.
All 52 passengers and crew on board survived. On 8 April 2012, a DHC-6 Twin Otter carrying eight passengers and crew had several shots fired at it whilst landing at Mulia Airport in Papua province on a flight from Nabire. Both pilots received injuries which led them to lose control of the aircraft, which veered into an airport building. Of the eight passengers and crew aboard one was killed and four were injured. On 16 August 2015, Trigana Air Flight 267, operated by an ATR 42-300 registered PK-YRN, lost contact just before 3pm local time after taking off from Sentani airport in Papua's capital Jayapura on a flight to Oksibil, its wreckage was found by villagers in the Bintang highlands region of Oksibil. All 49 passengers and 5 crew members were killed in the accident; the NTSC realised their report 2 years and 5 months after the crash and stated that Pilot Error and the failure of the ground proximity warning system. On 13 September 2016 a Boeing 737–300 freighter, registration PK-YSY performing flight IL-7321, operating a flight from Sentani Airport in Jayapura, made a hard landing on runway 15 at Wamena Airport, breaking both main gears.
The aircraft slid to a stop on the runway, coming to rest on the grass. Nobody was hurt. On January 3, 2018, Trigana Air was awarded the dubious title of the worst in airline safety with a "one-star rating" out of seven by Airlines Ratings. Besides Trigana, the other airlines rated worst are North Korea's Air Koryo, Suriname's Blue Wing Airlines and Nepal's Buddha Air, Nepal Airlines, Tara Air and Yeti Airlines