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Aspartame

Aspartame is an artificial non-saccharide sweetener 200 times sweeter than sucrose, is used as a sugar substitute in foods and beverages. It is a methyl ester of the aspartic acid/phenylalanine dipeptide with the trade names, NutraSweet and Canderel. Aspartame was first made in 1965 and approved for use in food products by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration in 1981. Aspartame is one of the most rigorously tested food ingredients. Reviews by over 100 governmental regulatory bodies found the ingredient safe for consumption at current levels; as of 2018, several reviews of clinical trials showed that using aspartame in place of sugar reduces calorie intake and body weight in adults and children. Aspartame is around 180 to 200 times as sweet as sucrose. Due to this property though aspartame produces 4 kcal of energy per gram when metabolized, the quantity of aspartame needed to produce a sweet taste is so small that its caloric contribution is negligible; the taste of aspartame and other artificial sweeteners differs from that of table sugar in the times of onset and how long the sweetness lasts, though aspartame comes closest to sugar's taste profile among approved artificial sweeteners.

The sweetness of aspartame lasts longer than that of sucrose, so it is blended with other artificial sweeteners such as acesulfame potassium to produce an overall taste more like that of sugar. Like many other peptides, aspartame may hydrolyze into its constituent amino acids under conditions of elevated temperature or high pH; this makes aspartame undesirable as a baking sweetener, prone to degradation in products hosting a high pH, as required for a long shelf life. The stability of aspartame under heating can be improved to some extent by encasing it in fats or in maltodextrin; the stability when dissolved in water depends markedly on pH. At room temperature, it is most stable at pH 4.3. At pH 7, its half-life is only a few days. Most soft-drinks have a pH between 5, where aspartame is reasonably stable. In products that may require a longer shelf life, such as syrups for fountain beverages, aspartame is sometimes blended with a more stable sweetener, such as saccharin. Descriptive analyses of solutions containing aspartame report a sweet aftertaste as well as bitter and off-flavor aftertastes.

In products such as powdered beverages, the amine in aspartame can undergo a Maillard reaction with the aldehyde groups present in certain aroma compounds. The ensuing loss of both flavor and sweetness can be prevented by protecting the aldehyde as an acetal; the safety of aspartame has been studied since its discovery and is one of the most rigorously tested food ingredients. Aspartame has been deemed safe for human consumption by over 100 regulatory agencies in their respective countries, including the United States Food and Drug Administration, UK Food Standards Agency, the European Food Safety Authority, Health Canada and New Zealand; as of 2017, reviews of clinical trials showed that using aspartame in place of sugar reduces calorie intake and body weight in adults and children. A 2017 review of metabolic effects by consuming aspartame found that it did not affect blood glucose, total cholesterol, calorie intake, or body weight, while high-density lipoprotein levels were higher. High levels of the occurring essential amino acid phenylalanine are a health hazard to those born with phenylketonuria, a rare inherited disease that prevents phenylalanine from being properly metabolized.

Because aspartame contains a small amount of phenylalanine, foods containing aspartame sold in the United States must state: "Phenylketonurics: Contains Phenylalanine" on product labels. In the UK, foods that contain aspartame are required by the Food Standards Agency to list the substance as an ingredient, with the warning, "Contains a source of phenylalanine". Manufacturers are required to print'"with sweetener" on the label close to the main product name on foods that contain "sweeteners such as aspartame" or "with sugar and sweetener" on "foods that contain both sugar and sweetener". In Canada, foods that contain aspartame are required to list aspartame among the ingredients, include the amount of aspartame per serving, state that the product contains phenylalanine. Phenylalanine is one of the essential amino acids and is required for normal growth and maintenance of life. Concerns about the safety of phenylalanine from aspartame for those without phenylketonuria center on hypothetical changes in neurotransmitter levels as well as ratios of neurotransmitters to each other in the blood and brain that could lead to neurological symptoms.

Reviews of the literature have found no consistent findings to support such concerns, while high doses of aspartame consumption may have some biochemical effects, these effects are not seen in toxicity studies to suggest aspartame can adversely affect neuronal function. As with methanol and aspartic acid, common foods in the typical diet such as milk and fruits, will lead to ingestion of higher amounts of phenylalanine than would be expected from aspartame consumption. Reviews have found no association between cancer; this position is supported by multiple regulatory agencies like the FDA and EFSA as well as scientific bodies such as the National Cancer Institute. The EFSA and FDA state. Numerous allegations have been made via the Internet and in consumer magazines purporting neurotoxic effects of aspartame leading to neurological or psychiatric symptoms such as seizures and mood changes. Review of the biochemistry of aspartame has found no evidence that low d

Ebury Street

Ebury Street is a street in Belgravia, City of Westminster, London. It runs from a Grosvenor Gardens junction south-westwards to Pimlico Road, it was built in the period 1815 to 1860. Odd numbers 19 to 231 are on the south-east side, the others, 16 to 230 are opposite. Numbers 2 to 14 have been replaced by a renamed terraced, recessed behind a small green, eight houses known as Lygon Place. A local estate "Eia" is mentioned in the Domesday Book; the surviving houses 180-188 were called "Fivefields Row" when Mozart lived there in 1764. Small portions on the south-east side are late 20th century mid-rise apartments set back from the road replacing bomb damaged areas as a result of the London Blitz. 22b Ebury Street was built in 1830 as a Baptist church. It became in the 20th century divided into flats. Following World War I, Number 42 was the workplace or head office of the "Soldiers' Embroidery Industry". Textile bags and workboxes were so-labelled, adding words "Made by the Totally Disabled", i.e. disabled veterans doing rehabilitation work.

Mozart Terrace was in the late 18th century known as Fivefields Row, it can be numerically addressed as Ebury Street. La Poule au Pot is an expensive restaurant leased from Grosvenor Estates, below social housing managed by Peabody. In 2006 it won two awards in Harden's guide. Ken Lo's Memories of China is a restaurant established in 1981 by Ken Lo. Where Ebury Street meets Pimlico Road is a triangular green due to its trees with seating and a bronze statue of Mozart by Philip Jackson; the triangle is unofficially called Mozart Place, Mozart Green or Mozart Square, the latter reflecting the localised misnomer of "squares" in two notable instances: a thin rectangle grid with a main road running through its longer bisection forms Eaton Square and Chester Square is more street than green. A minority of houses have been converted to hotels. Mid-late 20th century buildings front parts of the street toward either end: Coleshill Flats, Kylestrome House, Kilmuir House, Belgravia Court. Numbers 2 to 14 have been replaced by a renamed terraced, recessed behind a small green, eight houses known as Lygon Place, see below.

Ian Fleming lived from 1934 to 1945 at 22b. F. E. Smith, 1st Earl of Birkenhead lived at number 32. In 1847 Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson lived at number 42. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart lived at "Fivefields Row" from 5 August to 24 September 1764 number 180. Actor Terence Stamp shared a flat here with Michael Caine in 1963.. Vita Sackville-West lived with her husband Harold Nicolson at number 182, their son Nigel was born here. An early photographer, William Downey, had studios at numbers 57 and 61, he made some of the most famous photographs of celebrities of his day — Sarah Bernhardt, Oscar Wilde and the Princess of Wales. The photographer Mabel Sophia Clerke, operating as M. Shadwell Clerke, had a studio at 117 Ebury Street in the early 20th century. Lygon Place is a terrace of initial-category listed buildings recessed by a small green and facing the street; the terrace dates from about 1900 and is an Arts and Crafts-influenced design, by Eustace Balfour and Hugh Thackeray Turner. Notable former residents include 1st Marquess of Willingdon.

Number 5 was a residence of the Italian Air Attaché. Institutions based here included the Shortening Manufacturers' Association. "The Times & The Sunday Times". Timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved 19 March 2017. "UK | England | London | Ramsay voted London's best chef". BBC News. 29 August 2006. Retrieved 19 March 2017

Riley McCusker

Riley Shannon McCusker is an American artistic gymnast and a four-time member of the United States women's national gymnastics team. She is known for her strong execution, extension and difficulty on uneven bars and balance beam, as well as her all-around capabilities, she is the 2019 2017 United States national uneven bars champion. In the all-around, she is the 2019 Pan American Games silver medalist and a two-time U. S. national bronze medalist. She has won six medals at the USA Gymnastics National Championships in her senior career, she was a member of the gold-medal-winning American team at the 2018 World Championships and the 2019 Pan American Games. McCusker was born to Tom and Jessica McCusker in 2001, she has three siblings, she was homeschooled. She lives in New Jersey. McCusker moved up to Level 10 in the 2014 season at age 12 – Level 10 is the highest level of the USA Gymnastics Junior Olympic program and one step below the elite level. At the time, she was training at Dynamic Gymnastics in Mohegan Lake, New York, under the tutelage of Teodora Ungureanu.

At the New York State Championships, she won the all-around title in the Junior A division, as well as titles on bars and floor. Two weeks she competed at the 2014 Region 6 Championships where she won the all-around and vault titles in the Junior A division and qualified for the J. O. National Championships. At Nationals, held in Jackson, Mississippi, McCusker placed 30th in the all-around. McCusker was absent from competition throughout the entire 2015 season. During that year and her family moved from Connecticut to Brielle, New Jersey so that she could train at MG Elite Gymnastics in Morganville, New Jersey with coaches Maggie Haney and Victoria Levine, her former club did not have the resources for high-level elite training. MG Elite had produced rising junior star Laurie Hernandez at the time. In January 2016, McCusker competed as a junior elite at the 2016 Parkettes Invitational in Allentown, Pennsylvania, she won the all-around title in addition to all four event titles. On February 4, 2016, she committed to the University of Florida and the Florida Gators gymnastics program.

She qualified for the Junior International Elite level in March at the 2016 KPAC Cup. In May, McCusker competed as a junior at the 2016 American Classic at the Karolyi Ranch in Huntsville and finished in a tie for fifth. On June 4 at the 2016 U. S. Classic in Hartford, she placed ninth in the all-around and qualified to the U. S. National Championships. At the 2016 U. S. National Championships in St. Louis, Missouri, McCusker was in second place in the junior all-around after day one of competition with a 56.450. She maintained her placement on Day 2, winning the silver medal in the all-around with a combined total score of 112.000. She won the silver medal on bars and floor, she was named to the U. S. Junior National Team. In February 2017, McCusker was named as the wildcard athlete for the 2017 AT&T American Cup, an FIG event held on March 4 at the Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey. McCusker represented the United States alongside 2016 Olympic alternate Ragan Smith. In her senior international debut, McCusker placed 5th overall with a 52.966, behind Kim Bui of Germany, Mélanie de Jesus dos Santos of France, Asuka Teramoto of Japan, Smith, after a fall off of the uneven bars and a scary fall on her beam dismount, landing on her neck.

Despite her struggles on bars and beam, McCusker recorded the second highest scores of the competition on vault and floor. In April, McCusker competed at the City of Jesolo Trophy in Italy, where she won the all-around gold medal with a score of 56.600, finishing ahead of Rebeca Andrade of Brazil. She helped the U. S. win the team gold medal, she won the gold medal on beam and the silver medal on bars behind Elena Eremina of Russia. After returning from Italy, McCusker suffered both an ankle injury and a wrist injury and was forced to stop regular training for a few months. At the end of July, she competed at the 2017 U. S. Classic. Due to her injury, she did not compete at her highest level and placed eighth on bars, thirteenth on beam, fourth on floor. In August at the 2017 U. S. National Championships, McCusker won the bronze medal in the all-around behind Ragan Smith and Jordan Chiles, she won the silver medal on beam behind Smith. She tied for fourth place on floor. Due to her results at the City of Jesolo Trophy and the National Championships, McCusker was placed on the nominative roster for the 2017 World Championships, but in September she was once again injured and had to withdraw from the Worlds Selection Camp, relinquishing her chance at making that year's World team.

In June, McCusker competed at the Brestyan's National Qualifier, where she had the highest score on uneven bars and the second highest score on balance beam. She competed on only two events at the American Classic on July 7, she won the silver medal on beam behind Kara Eaker with a score of 14.000, she placed seventh on bars after scoring 13.500 with a fall. On July 28, she competed at the 2018 U. S. Classic where she won the silver medal in the all-around and on balance beam, behind Simone Biles on both, she won the gold medal on bars, one tenth of a point ahead of Alyona Shchennikova, she placed fourth on floor behind Biles, Jade Carey, Morgan Hurd. In August at the 2018 U. S. National Championships, McCusker won the bronze medal in the all-around behind Biles and Morgan Hurd, she won the silver medal on bars behind Biles, the bronze medal on beam behind Biles and Kara Eaker, she placed seventh on floor. In October, McCusker participated

Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea

The Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea was a joint resolution adopted on March 11, 2014 by the Supreme Council of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council where they expressed their intention to join Russia, in the event of a Yes vote in a referendum, to be held on March 16. The participants were at the time subnational divisions of Ukraine; the international community condemned the Declaration of Independence. A major source of criticism was that the referendum's adoption came after the building of the Supreme Council of Crimea was seized by the Russian military prior to adoption. During that time, no journalists were allowed inside the building to witness the council seating on the referendum; the Council seating on the referendum was not included the in Supreme Council's original schedule, which had no meetings scheduled for March 11, 2014. Deputies were forcefully brought to the building by Russian militants, there is no evidence that there was quorum, a requirement for the seating to occur.

The document reads as follows: Declaration of Independence of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol: We, the members of the parliament of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council, with regard to the charter of the United Nations and a whole range of other international documents and taking into consideration the confirmation of the status of Kosovo by the United Nations International Court of Justice on July 22, 2010, which says that unilateral declaration of independence by a part of the country does not violate any international norms, make this decision jointly:1. If a decision to become part of Russia is made at the referendum of the March 16, 2014, Crimea including the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol will be announced an independent and sovereign state with a republican order.2. Republic of Crimea will be a democratic and multinational state, with an obligation to maintain peace and intersectarian consent in its territory.3.

If the referendum brings the respective results, Republic of Crimea as an independent and sovereign state will turn to the Russian Federation with the proposition to accept the Republic of Crimea on the basis of a respective interstate treaty into the Russian Federation as a new constituent entity of the Russian Federation. Declaration approved by the Resolution of the Supreme Council of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea at the extraordinary plenary session on March 11, 2014 and by the Decision of the Sevastopol City Council at the extraordinary plenary session on March 11, 2014. Russia had recognized the Republic of Crimea as an independent state and agreed to incorporate the Republic into Russian Federation. However, the international community condemned the referendum as illegal. On 27 March 2014, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the "Territorial Integrity of Ukraine" Resolution, which recognized the referendum as part of the illegal annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation.

One hundred nations, including the United States and the United Kingdom, voted in favour of the resolution. Fifty-eight democratic nations abstained, a further eleven voted against

Battle of Neuwied (1797)

The Battle of Neuwied saw Lazare Hoche lead part of the French Army of Sambre-et-Meuse against Franz von Werneck's Austrian army. The French attack broke through their lines. Aside from 1,000 men killed and wounded, Austrian losses included at least 3,000 prisoners, 24 artillery pieces, 60 vehicles, five colors. For their part, the French lost 2,000 men killed and captured; the losses were in vain because Napoleon Bonaparte signed the Preliminaries of Leoben with Austria the same day. The armistice halted the fighting; the action occurred during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars. The battle opened with an Austrian cannonade causing an attack by the French right wing on the Austrian left wing under Pál Kray. After several attacks against the key position on the Austrian right near the village of Bendorff, the French infantry, aided by several squadrons of chasseurs, were able to dislodge the Austrians from this position. A French cavalry charge drove the Austrians out of the village of Sayn.

Hoche launched a column under Antoine Richepanse in the pursuit of the retreating Austrians. Richepanse succeeded in capturing fifty caissons and five Austrian colors; the French infantry, supported by the guns of François Joseph Lefebvre, managed to dislodge the Austrians from the village of Zolenberg, causing the final defeat of the Austrian left wing. As the French right wing attacked the Austrian left wing, Hoche launched a second assault, this time on the Austrian center. After an artillery barrage, the grenadiers of General Paul Grenier assaulted the redoubts of Hettersdorff and took the village in a bayonet charge, while the hussars of Michel Ney outflanked the Austrian center position from the left; these attacks forced the Austrian center to retreat. After being dislodged by Richepanse, the Austrian left was rallied by Kray, able to withstand further French attacks. To counter this, Hoche launched the grenadiers of Grenier and several squadrons of dragoons and Ney's hussars against Kray.

Ney with some 500 hussars proceeded to Dierdorf where he engaged the Austrian reserve of 6,000 for four hours until the rest of the French army caught up. During a counterattack by Austrian cavalry Ney's horse fell and he was captured. Under this attack the Austrian left collapsed and in the pursuit the hussars captured 4,000 men and two colors. On their part of the battlefield the French left wing under Jean Étienne Championnet succeeded in driving the Austrians out of Altenkirchen and Kerathh; the Austrian army lost 3,000 men in the battle and another 7,000 men were captured in the aftermath of the battle. The French captured twenty-seven cannon and seven Austrian colors in this major success. Hoche's successful offensive was stopped by news of the Preliminaries of Leoben which led to the Treaty of Campo Formio; the Battle of Neuwied is inscribed on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris

Kathleen Mavourneen (1930 film)

Kathleen Mavourneen is a 1930 sound/talking film directed by Albert Ray, stars Sally O'Neil and produced and distributed by Tiffany Pictures, is the first talking film version of the oft-filmed Dion Boucicault play. The last version prior to this film was a 1919 silent Fox film starring Theda Bara. Sally O'Neil would star in the 1937 all-Irish version of the story, thereby filming the story twice. Print held by the Library of Congress. Sally O'Neil – Kathleen O'Connor Charles Delaney – Terry Robert ElliottDan Moriarty Aggie Herring – Aunt Nora Shannon Walter Perry – Uncle Mike Shannon Francis Ford – James, The Butlerother Dannie Mac Grant – uncredited Donald Novis – Singer Kathleen Mavourneen @ IMDb.com synopsis at AllMovie