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Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mould species found in various climates worldwide. Aspergillus was first catalogued in 1729 by biologist Pier Antonio Micheli. Viewing the fungi under a microscope, Micheli was reminded of the shape of an aspergillum, from Latin spargere, named the genus accordingly. Aspergillum is an asexual spore-forming structure common to all Aspergillus species. Aspergillus can be eliminated from homes with the help of either rubbing alcohol or by using strong air purifiers to eliminate the effects on the lungs. Aspergillus consists of a few hundred species. Aspergillus is defined as a group of conidial fungi --; some of them, are known to have a teleomorph in the Ascomycota. With DNA evidence, all members of the genus Aspergillus are members of the Ascomycota. Members of the genus possess the ability to grow. Aspergillus species are aerobic and are found in all oxygen-rich environments, where they grow as molds on the surface of a substrate, as a result of the high oxygen tension.

Fungi grow on carbon-rich substrates like monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Aspergillus species are common contaminants of starchy foods, grow in or on many plants and trees. In addition to growth on carbon sources, many species of Aspergillus demonstrate oligotrophy where they are capable of growing in nutrient-depleted environments, or in environments with a complete lack of key nutrients. Aspergillus niger is a prime example of this. Several species of Aspergillus, including A. niger and A. fumigatus, will colonise buildings, favouring warm and damp or humid areas such as bathrooms and around window frames. Aspergillus are found in millions in pillows. Species of Aspergillus are important medically and commercially; some species can cause infection in other animals. Some infections found in animals have been studied for years, while other species found in animals have been described as new and specific to the investigated disease, others have been known as names in use for organisms such as saprophytes.

More than 60 Aspergillus species are medically relevant pathogens. For humans, a range of diseases such as infection to the external ear, skin lesions, ulcers classed as mycetomas are found. Other species are important in commercial microbial fermentations. For example, alcoholic beverages such as Japanese sake are made from rice or other starchy ingredients, rather than from grapes or malted barley. Typical microorganisms used to make alcohol, such as yeasts of the genus Saccharomyces, cannot ferment these starches. Therefore, koji mold such as Aspergillus oryzae is used to first break down the starches into simpler sugars. Members of the genus are sources of natural products that can be used in the development of medications to treat human disease; the largest application of Aspergillus niger is as the major source of citric acid. A. niger is commonly used for the production of native and foreign enzymes, including glucose oxidase and lactase. In these instances, the culture is grown on a solid substrate, although this is still common practice in Japan, but is more grown as a submerged culture in a bioreactor.

In this way, the most important parameters can be controlled, maximal productivity can be achieved. This process makes it far easier to separate the chemical or enzyme of importance from the medium, is therefore far more cost-effective. A. nidulans has been used as a research organism for many years and was used by Guido Pontecorvo to demonstrate parasexuality in fungi. A. nidulans was one of the pioneering organisms to have its genome sequenced by researchers at the Broad Institute. As of 2008, a further seven Aspergillus species have had their genomes sequenced: the industrially useful A. niger, A. oryzae, A. terreus, the pathogens A. clavatus, A. fischerianus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus. A. fischerianus is hardly pathogenic, but is closely related to the common pathogen A. fumigatus. Of the 250 species of aspergilli, about 64% have no known sexual state. However, many of these species have an as yet unidentified sexual stage. Sexual reproduction occurs in two fundamentally different ways in fungi.

These are outcrossing in which two different individuals contribute nuclei, self-fertilization or selfing in which both nuclei are derived from the same individual. In recent years, sexual cycles have been discovered in numerous species thought to be asexual; these discoveries reflect recent experimental focus on species of particular relevance to humans. A. fumigatus is the most common species to cause disease in immunodeficient humans. In 2009, A. fumigatus was shown to have a heterothallic functional sexual cycle. Isolates of complementary mating types are required for sex to occur. A. flavus is the major producer of carcinogenic aflatoxins in crops worldwide. It is an opportunistic human and animal pathogen, causing aspergillosis in immunocompromised individuals. In 2009, a sexual state of this heterothallic fungus was found to ar


The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the Wehrmacht during World War II. Germany's military air arms during World War I, the Luftstreitkräfte of the Imperial Army and the Marine-Fliegerabteilung of the Imperial Navy had been disbanded in May 1920 as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles which stated that Germany was forbidden to have any air force. During the interwar period, German pilots were trained secretly in violation of the treaty at Lipetsk Air Base in Soviet Union. With the rise of the Nazi Party and the repudiation of the Versailles Treaty, the Luftwaffe's existence was publicly acknowledged on 26 February 1935, just over two weeks before open defiance of the Versailles Treaty through German re-armament and conscription would be announced on 16 March; the Condor Legion, a Luftwaffe detachment sent to aid Nationalist forces in the Spanish Civil War, provided the force with a valuable testing ground for new tactics and aircraft. As a result of this combat experience, the Luftwaffe had become one of the most sophisticated, technologically advanced, battle-experienced air forces in the world when World War II broke out in 1939.

By the summer of 1939, the Luftwaffe had twenty-eight Geschwader. The Luftwaffe operated Fallschirmjäger paratrooper units; the Luftwaffe proved instrumental in the German victories across Poland and Western Europe in 1939 and 1940. During the Battle of Britain, despite inflicting severe damage to the RAF's infrastructure and, during the subsequent Blitz, devastating many British cities, the German air force failed to batter the beleaguered British into submission. From 1942, Allied bombing campaigns destroyed the Luftwaffe's fighter arm. From late 1942, the Luftwaffe used its surplus ground support and other personnel to raise Luftwaffe Field Divisions. In addition to its service in the West, the Luftwaffe operated over the Soviet Union, North Africa and Southern Europe. Despite its belated use of advanced turbojet and rocket propelled aircraft for the destruction of Allied bombers, the Luftwaffe was overwhelmed by the Allies' superior numbers and improved tactics, a lack of trained pilots and aviation fuel.

In January 1945, during the closing stages of the Battle of the Bulge, the Luftwaffe made a last-ditch effort to win air superiority, met with failure. With dwindling supplies of petroleum and lubricants after this campaign, as part of the entire combined Wehrmacht military forces as a whole, the Luftwaffe ceased to be an effective fighting force. After the defeat of Germany, the Luftwaffe was disbanded in 1946. During World War II, German pilots claimed 70,000 aerial victories, while over 75,000 Luftwaffe aircraft were destroyed or damaged. Of these, nearly 40,000 were lost entirely; the Luftwaffe had only two commanders-in-chief throughout its history: Hermann Göring and Generalfeldmarschall Robert Ritter von Greim for the last two weeks of the war. The Luftwaffe was involved in Nazi war crimes. By the end of the war, a significant percentage of aircraft production originated in concentration camps, an industry employing tens of thousands of prisoners; the Luftwaffe's demand for labor was one of the factors that led to the deportation and murder of hundreds of thousands of Hungarian Jews in 1944.

The Oberkommando der Luftwaffe organized Nazi human experimentation, Luftwaffe ground troops committed massacres in Italy and Poland. The Imperial German Army Air Service was founded in 1910 with the name Die Fliegertruppen des deutschen Kaiserreiches, most shortened to Fliegertruppe, it was renamed the Luftstreitkräfte on 8 October 1916. The air war on the Western Front received the most attention in the annals of the earliest accounts of military aviation, since it produced aces such as Manfred von Richthofen and Ernst Udet, Oswald Boelcke, Max Immelmann. After the defeat of Germany, the service was dissolved on 8 May 1920 under the conditions of the Treaty of Versailles, which mandated the destruction of all German military aircraft. Since the Treaty of Versailles forbade Germany to have an air force, German pilots trained in secret. Civil aviation schools within Germany were used, yet only light trainers could be used in order to maintain the façade that the trainees were going to fly with civil airlines such as Deutsche Luft Hansa.

To train its pilots on the latest combat aircraft, Germany solicited the help of the Soviet Union, isolated in Europe. A secret training airfield was established at Lipetsk in 1924 and operated for nine years using Dutch and Soviet, but some German, training aircraft before being closed in 1933; this base was known as 4th squadron of the 40th wing of the Red Army. Hundreds of Luftwaffe pilots and technical personnel visited and were trained at Soviet air force schools in several locations in Central Russia. Roessing, Fosse, Heini, Makratzki and many other future Luftwaffe aces were trained in Russia in joint Russian-German schools that were set up under the patronage of Ernst August Köstring; the first steps towards the Luftwaffe's formation were undertaken just months after Adolf Hitler came to power. Hermann Göring, a World War I ace, became National Kommissar for aviation with former Luft Hansa director Erhard Milch as his deputy. In April 1933 the Reich Aviation Ministry was established; the RLM was in charge of production of aircraft.

Göring's control over all aspects of aviation became absolute. On 25 March 1933 the German Air Sports Association absorbed all private and national organizations, while retaining its'sports' title. On 15 May 1933, all military aviation orga


Jabesh-Gilead is an ancient town referred to in four books of the Hebrew Bible. Some biblical scholars believe it to have been located east of the Jordan River, in the vicinity of Wadi Yabes; the name Jabesh means "dry" in Hebrew. Jabesh Gilead is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible Book of Judges, in the first and second books of Samuel and in the book of Chronicles. Jabesh Gilead is mentioned in connection with King Saul's and King David's battles against the Philistines and Ammonites. Book of JudgesIn the Book of Judges, Chapters 19–21, eleven tribes of Israel had all but wiped out the tribe of Benjamin. Only 600 men from Benjamin remained on the Rimmon Rock; however the eleven tribes relented from destroying the whole tribe, they decided that they needed to find wives for the 600 men since all other people in Benjamin had been killed. But they had taken an oath not to give their daughters to a Benjaminite, so they found the one city in Israel that had not joined the fight: Jabesh. All The inhabitents were executed under theHerem except for 400 virgins.

They gave them to the men on Rimmon Rock. Books of Samuel and ChroniclesLater Saul from the tribe of Benjamin and the city of Gibeah is made king of Israel. A month in 1 Samuel 11 Nahash of Ammon attacks Jabesh, Saul leads Israel to the defense of Jabesh; when Saul dies in 1 Samuel 31 it is not the tribe of Benjamin who retrieve his body from the Philistines, nor David, but men of Jabesh. The identification of Jabesh-Gilead has been studied for a long time; the most locations are said to be Tell el-Maqlub and Tell Abu al-Kharaz. General References dealing with the excavations at Tell Abu al-Kharaz: Fischer, P. M, Tell Abu al-Kharaz in the Jordan Valley. Volume II: The Middle and Late Bronze Ages, Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna 2006. M; the Chronology of the Jordan Valley during the Middle and Late Bronze Ages: Pella, Tell Abu al-Kharaz and Tell Deir'Alla, edited by P. M. Fischer, contributions by S. Bourke, P. M. Fischer and G. van der Kooij. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna 2006.

M. Tell Abu al-Kharaz in the Jordan Valley. Volume I: The Early Bronze Age. Austrian Academy of Sciences Press, Vienna 2008. Jabesh Gilead

Elachista canapennella

Elachista canapennella is a moth of the family Elachistidae. It is found from Fennoscandia and northern Russia to the Pyrenees and Romania and from Ireland to central Russia; the wingspan is 8–10 millimetres. Adults are on wing from April from July to September. There are two generations per year; the larvae feed on Agrostis stolonifera, Arrhenatherum elatius, Avenula pubescens, Deschampsia cespitosa, Holcus mollis and Poa. They mine the leaves of their host; the pupation takes place outside the mine.

Polytechnic Boxing Club

The Polytechnic Boxing Club was formed in 1888 in London for amateur boxing. Starting in 1898 the club awarded the Studd trophy, named after Sir John Edward Kynaston Studd; the club was located at 309 Regent Street in London and was a member of the Amateur Boxing Association of England. The building is now part of the University of Westminster. Harold Brewer, 1907 ABA Heavyweight Champion. John Elliott, 1924–1925 ABA Middleweight Champion. Pat Floyd, 1946 ABA Heavyweight Champion. Frank Parks joined in 1892, he was the 1899, 1901–1902, 1905–1906 ABA Heavyweight Champion. Frederick Parks won the bronze medal in Boxing at the 1908 Summer Olympics. Ronald Rawson, 1920–1921 ABA Heavyweight Champion. Dave Thomas, 1957–1959 ABA Heavyweight Champion

Calvary Hospital, Canberra

Calvary Public Hospital Bruce is a public hospital located in Bruce, Australian Capital Territory serving the northern suburbs of Canberra. It is classified as a secondary care facility; the hospital is operated by Calvary Health Care ACT, a not-for-profit venture of Little Company of Mary Health Care on behalf of the ACT Government and is integrated into the Territory's public healthcare system. Calvary was established in 1979, it is a teaching hospital affiliated with the Australian Catholic University, Australian National University and University of Canberra. The Calvary Private Hospital and Hyson Green Mental Health Clinic are co-located on the site and share many facilities with the public hospital. An agreement between the Commonwealth Government and Corporation of the Little Company of Mary was reached on 22 October 1971 to construct and operate a public hospital providing up to 300 beds to service the Inner North and Belconnen districts in Canberra, to be located on a site in the new suburb of Bruce.

The new hospital commenced operations in May 1979, with the ownership and operation of the hospital remaining unchanged following the transition to self-government of the Territory in 1988. In 2007/2008 the hospital conducted a pilot Refugee Mentoring Program; this community program is designed to provide refugees to Australia with work experience and career information and promotes cross cultural understanding. The program was launched in June 2008 and is funded through LCMHC's national Community Benefit Program. In 2009, amid concerns regarding the ACT hospital system reaching capacity the Territory Government investigated acquiring the hospital to bring it under full government ownership and control; the move was prompted by government concerns about control of its assets should it commit to investing in upgrading the existing hospital. However following public consultation and extensive negotiations with LCMHC in 2010, this proposal failed to eventuate and the existing operational agreements have been maintained.

The Government projects medium term demand for another 400 hospital beds across Canberra and are now pursuing options to meet this including the construction of a new public hospital to be built in the northern suburbs, with some services separated and others shared with Calvary. In May 2014, the ACT Government announced $19 million funding for the construction of a 700 space multi-story car park to relieve demand for parking at the hospital, as well as upgrading the hospital's electrical sub-station to allow for expansion of clinical services offered on the campus. Calvary hospital was among the earliest institutions in Australia to undertake sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures under the guidance of prominent local breast cancer surgeon Dr. John Buckingham. Calvary hospital provides services including: Emergency department Intensive Care Unit Reconstructive surgery General medicine and surgery Mental Health Obstetrics and Neonatology Rheumatology Cardiology Endocrinology Gastroenterology and respiratory care Urology Neurology Ophthalmology Orthopaedics Oncology and breast cancer nursing services Pastoral CareThe Bruce campus is home to a variety of outpatient and Allied Health services which operate in conjunction with the hospital.

Due to moral concerns of the Catholic church, the agreement under which the hospital operates allows that certain procedures including In vitro fertilisation and induced abortions not be performed at Calvary. In the 2011-2012 financial year, Calvary Hospital conducted 4,691 elective surgeries and handled 53,650 Emergency Department presentations. Waiting times were longer than national averages and comparable hospitals in all measures except for urgent emergencies, where the hospital performed to an average standard, urgent elective surgeries where according to the Australian Government's My Hospital website 97% of patients were treated within clinically recommended timeframes, compared to an average of 92% at comparable hospitals. List of hospitals in Australia List of hospitals in the Australian Capital Territory