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Aspirin

Aspirin known as acetylsalicylic acid, is a medication used to reduce pain, fever, or inflammation. Specific inflammatory conditions which aspirin is used to treat include Kawasaki disease and rheumatic fever. Aspirin given shortly after a heart attack decreases the risk of death. Aspirin is used long-term to help prevent further heart attacks, ischaemic strokes, blood clots in people at high risk, it may decrease the risk of certain types of cancer colorectal cancer. For pain or fever, effects begin within 30 minutes. Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and works to other NSAIDs but suppresses the normal functioning of platelets. One common adverse effect is an upset stomach. More significant side effects include stomach ulcers, stomach bleeding, worsening asthma. Bleeding risk is greater among those who are older, drink alcohol, take other NSAIDs, or are on other blood thinners. Aspirin is not recommended in the last part of pregnancy, it is not recommended in children with infections because of the risk of Reye syndrome.

High doses may result in ringing in the ears. A precursor to aspirin found in leaves from the willow tree has been used for its health effects for at least 2,400 years. In 1853, chemist Charles Frédéric Gerhardt treated the medicine sodium salicylate with acetyl chloride to produce acetylsalicylic acid for the first time. For the next fifty years, other chemists established the chemical structure and came up with more efficient production methods. In 1897, scientists at the Bayer company began studying acetylsalicylic acid as a less-irritating replacement medication for common salicylate medicines. By 1899, Bayer had sold it around the world. Aspirin's popularity grew over the first half of the twentieth century leading to competition between many brands and formulations; the word Aspirin was Bayer's brand name. Aspirin is one of the most used medications globally, with an estimated 40,000 tonnes consumed each year, it is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system.

As of 2014, the wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.002 to US$0.025 per dose. As of 2015, the cost for a typical month of medication in the United States is less than US$25.00. It is available as a generic medication. In 2016, it was the 38th most prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 19 million prescriptions. Aspirin is used in the treatment of a number of conditions, including fever, rheumatic fever, inflammatory conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Kawasaki disease. Lower doses of aspirin have been shown to reduce the risk of death from a heart attack, or the risk of stroke in people who are at high risk or who have cardiovascular disease, but not in elderly people who are otherwise healthy. There is some evidence that aspirin is effective at preventing colorectal cancer, though the mechanisms of this effect are unclear. In the United States, low-dose aspirin is deemed reasonable in those between 50 and 70 years old who have a risk of cardiovascular disease over 10%, are not at an increased risk of bleeding, are otherwise healthy.

Aspirin is an effective analgesic for acute pain, although it is considered inferior to ibuprofen because aspirin is more to cause gastrointestinal bleeding. Aspirin is ineffective for those pains caused by muscle cramps, gastric distension, or acute skin irritation; as with other NSAIDs, combinations of aspirin and caffeine provide greater pain relief than aspirin alone. Effervescent formulations of aspirin relieve pain faster than aspirin in tablets, which makes them useful for the treatment of migraines. Topical aspirin may be effective for treating some types of neuropathic pain. Aspirin, either by itself or in a combined formulation treats certain types of a headache, but its efficacy may be questionable for others. Secondary headaches, meaning those caused by another disorder or trauma, should be promptly treated by a medical provider. Among primary headaches, the International Classification of Headache Disorders distinguishes between tension headache and cluster headache. Aspirin or other over-the-counter analgesics are recognized as effective for the treatment of tension headache.

Aspirin as a component of an aspirin/paracetamol/caffeine combination, is considered a first-line therapy in the treatment of migraine, comparable to lower doses of sumatriptan. It is most effective at stopping migraines. Like its ability to control pain, aspirin's ability to control fever is due to its action on the prostaglandin system through its irreversible inhibition of COX. Although aspirin's use as an antipyretic in adults is well established, many medical societies and regulatory agencies, including the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Food and Drug Administration advise against using aspirin for treatment of fever in children because of the risk of Reye's syndrome, a rare but fatal illness associated with the use of aspirin or other salicylates in children during episodes of viral or bacterial infection; because of the risk of Reye's syndrome in children, in 1986, the US Food and Drug Administration required labeling on all aspirin-containing medications advising against its use in children and teenagers.

Aspirin is used as an anti-inflammatory agent for both acute and long-term inflammation, as well as for treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid ar

Ghoraghat Upazila

Ghoraghat is an Upazila of Dinajpur District in the Division of Rangpur, Bangladesh. Ghoraghat is located at 25.2458°N 89.2167°E / 25.2458. It has 17535 house holds and a total area of 148.67 km². Ghoraghat thana was established in 1895 and was turned into an upazila in 1984; the upazila consists of One Paurashava, 115 mouzas and 111 villages. Member of parliament: Md. Shibli Sadique. Ghoraghat was established in the time of Bakhtlar Khilji. After the historical conquest of Nabadwip from Lakshman Sen in 1203 and the conquest of principal city Gaur, Ikhtiyar al-Dīn Muḥammad Khalji left the town of Devkot in 1206 to attack Tibet, leaving Ali Mardan Khalji in Ghoraghat; the old Musalman military outpost of Deocote or Devkot near Gangarampur was in this Sarkar. As soon as the Muslims had made themselves masters of Gaur, they established two frontier posts, one at Dumdumma, on the bank of river Punarbhaba and another at Ghoraghat. A mosque in Dumdumma bears an inscription recording that it was built by Zafar Khan Bahram Iztin in the reign of Kai Kaos Shah in the year 697 A.

H.. Ghoraghat was one of the 19 sarkars of Bengal. Sarkar was the administrative unit in the Mughal Empire of India. Raja Todar Mal, the Finance Minister of the Mughal empire during Akbar's reign divided Bengal into 19 sarkars to make the revenue collection easier. Ghoraghat Sarkar comprised South-East Dinajpur and North Bogra, it had 84 mahals in its territory. It became Chakla of Ghoraghat; the Sarkar produced much raw silk, revenue Rs.202,077. After the battle of Patna, 982 A. H. when Daud retired to Orissa, his generals Kalapahar and Babu Mankli proceeded to Ghoraghat. Akbar's general, Majnun Khan, died at Ghoraghat. Being the northern frontier district skirting Koch-Behar, numerous colonies of Afghan and Mughal chiefs were planted there under the feudal system, with large jagir lands under each. Bhim Narain, Rajah of Kuch Behar used to pay tribute to the Emperor Shah Jahan, but that during the chaos which arose owing to Emperor's illness, after the death of Sultan Shuja in February 1661 there was anarchy in the region.

Bhim Narain refused to pay tribute and with a large force attacked Ghoraghat. In the same year the Khan-i-Khinan set out from Khizapur with war-vessels, for the conquest of Koch-Behar; the Rajah fled to Bhutan, his minister Bholanath fled to the Murang, the Imperialists stormed Kuch-Behar town, named it Alamgirnagar. The shrine of Shah Ismail Ghazi is at Ghoraghat, he was a saint-warrior of the time of Ruknuddin Barbak Shah. Shah Ismail Ghazi was first appointed to deal with the aggressive designs of the Orissan king Gajapati in the southern frontier of Bengal, he defeated Gajapati and wrested from him the frontier outpost. The successful general was sent against Kamrup king Kameshwar, defeated and forced to pay tribute to the sultan, but soon, Bhandsi Rai, a commander of the frontier post of Ghoraghat, got jealous over the popularity and fame of Shah Ismail and sent a false report to the sultan that Ismail Ghazi, in collusion with the Kamrup king, was mediating to set up an independent kingdom for himself.

The enraged sultan ordered the saint to be beheaded. The Sura Mosque is situated in Ghoraghat-Panchbibi road. There is no inscription tablet at the mosque, but it has been dated to the early sixteenth century in the light of its close links with dated monuments of similar style. An inscription from the time of Alauddin Hussain Shah, dated at 910 A. H./1504 A. D. was discovered in the village Champatali, a few miles away from the place. It records the construction of a mosque, if this inscription describes the mosque at Sura, the year 1504 A. D. is the date of its construction. Ghoraghat Fort Mosque situated in the southeastern corner of the Ghoraghat Fort, located on the right side of the river Karatoya in the southeastern part of the district of Dinajpur. Within the fort area were erected a number of religious and secular buildings, of which only a mosque in ruinous condition and a few scattered mounds have survived. According to an inscription the mosque was built in 1740-41 AD by Zainul Abedin, the Mughal fauzdar of the Sarkar of Ghoraghat.

The Laldaha Beel is situated Ghoraghat thana Sadar west nort side of Kadim nagar and Lal bagg village. Many fairy tales are there about this beel; the climate here is tropical. The summers here have a good deal of rainfall, while the winters have little; this location is classified as Aw by Geiger. The average temperature in Ghoraghat is 25.3 °C. August is the warmest month of the year; the temperature in August averages 28.9 °C. January is the coldest month, with temperatures averaging 18.0 °C. About 1902 mm of precipitation falls annually; the driest month is December, with 3 mm of rain. Most of the precipitation here falls in July. Average literacy 26.1%. Educational institutions: colleges 8, secondary schools 18, primary schools 53, brac schools 29, kindergartens 2, madrasas 34. Noted educational institutions: Ghoraghat Govt. College, Ghoraghat Women Degree College, Raniganj Mahila College, Dugdugirhat Technical College, Raniganj Bilateral High School, Chatsal Secondary School, Balahar Secondary School, Balagari' Secondary School, Gopalpur Secondary School, Krishnarampur Fazil Madrasa, Deogaon Rahmania Senior Madrasa, Nurjahanpur R.

M. C. High School, K. C. pilo

Brian McNicholl

Brian Frederick McNicholl, OAM is a New Zealand-born Australian Paralympic powerlifter, wheelchair basketballer, athlete, who won five medals at six Paralympic games from 1976 to 1996. McNicholl was born on 30 December 1951 in Christchurch, New Zealand, became a paraplegic after contracting polio at the age of eleven months. During school, he was forced to sit in the library, he moved from New Zealand to Australia in 1978. McNicholl's first and only medal for New Zealand was silver at the 1976 Toronto Games in the Men's Slalom 4 event. At the same games McNicholl competed in the 100 m race, placed fourth in both shot put and the lightweight weightlifting event. After moving to Australia in 1978, he represented the country at five Paralympics and won three bronze, another silver and a gold medal, all in weightlifting and powerlifting. At the 1980 Arnhem Games, he placed fourth again in the shot put event, was part of the Australia men's national wheelchair basketball team that came thirteenth at the Games, won a bronze medal in the Men's Middleweight −75 kg paraplegic weightlifting event.

At the 1984 New York/Stoke Mandeville Games, McNicholl finished 4th in the same weight bracket. In 1985, he won his first World Wheelchair Championships. McNicholl won another bronze medal at the 1988 Seoul Games in the Men's Up To 85 kg weightlifting event. In 1991, McNicholl won his second World Wheelchair Weightlifting Championships at the University of Rhode Island, US, where he set a world record of 205 kilograms. McNicholl's gold medal came at the 1992 Barcelona Games in the Men's Up To 90 kg event with his world record lift of 227.5 kilograms, for which he was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia. He said of the win: "Although placed in other Paralympics, I was inexperienced and didn't quite know how to handle the pressure." In 1994, he set another world record when he lifted 230 kilograms, won his third World Wheelchair Weightlifting Championships in Melbourne, Australia. In 1995, he competed at the European Weightlifting Championships in Strasbourg and won a gold medal with a lift of 200 kilograms.

He was coached by Blagoy Blagoev, advised by Olympic runner Herb Elliott, who he has known since the 1980s. In 1995, he was an Australian Institute of Sport Athlete with a Disability scholarship holder, his second silver medal, first for Australia, was at the 1996 Atlanta Games in the Men's Up To 90 kg powerlifting event. Despite being ranked second in the world in 1999, McNicholl retired from competitive lifting a few months before the 2000 Sydney Paralympics due to injury; that year, he received an Australian Sports Medal. McNicholl served as the Chairman of Australian Weightlifting for People With Disabilities. From 1995 to 1998, he was the conditioning coach for Collingwood Football Club, he spent six years promoting sport in schools for the Victorian Department of Sport and Recreation. Brian McNicholl at Paralympics New Zealand Brian McNicholl at the International Paralympic Committee

Count of Vila Franca

The Count of Vila Franca was a title of nobility granted to a hereditary line of nobles from the island of São Miguel in the Portuguese archipelago of the Azores, most associated with the Gonçalves da Câmara familial line. The title was first conferred to Rui Gonçalves da Câmara in 1662, his branch of the Câmara dynastic family continued to receive the title long until the possessions and privileges of Rodrigo da Câmara. In 1573, the captain of São Miguel, Manuel da Câmara passed on the administration of the island to his son Rui Gonçalves da Câmara, went to live in Lisbon until his death in 1578, at a time when the reign of the Cardinal King was nearing its end. Following the king's death several pretenders lined-up to assume the monarchy, including Philip II of Spain, António, Prior of Crato and the Infanta Catherine, Duchess of Braganza, among others. But, it was the conflict between António and Philip II that took centre stage: following António's defeat at the Battle of Alcântra, he remained king in only the Azores.

Rui, following his father's death had chosen to remain in Lisbon, was there when the continent fell to Philip II. He aligned himself, by association, his family to the Philippine succession. For his part, King Philip conceded to the title of Count of Vila Franca. At the time, the Countship was the highest honorific title that the King could bestow on a Portuguese citizen one, not his own son. There were few counts in Portugal, many of them were wealthy and powerful; the selection of the designation was chosen to privilege the nobles of the island of São Miguel, where the provincial capital had been of Vila Franca do Campo until 1522. Yet, the municipal authorities at the time did not appreciate that D. Rui was named Count in their name, since that title was conferred by a Spanish King. Philip II undeterred responded that the title was honorific, that the title did not transgress any of the rights and privileges of the "citizens" of the town. Rui da Câmara arrived in his countship along with a second fleet, ordered to the archipelago to conquer the island of Terceira, which had held out the acclamation of Philip as King of Portugal.

This began a period of unified power in the Azores under the flag of Spain, that would continue until the Restoration of Portuguese independence. In the meantime, the Gonçalves da Câmara line enjoyed privileges in the Azores, under successive Captains-Donataráios and Counts of Vila Franca; the end occurred in the aftermath of the succession of John IV to the throne. Many of the islands of the Azores acclaimed the Portuguese monarch, Rodrigo da Câmara accepted his governance following the defeat of the Spanish at the fortress of Terceira and a personal letter from John IV. Rodrigo kept his titles and privileges following the defeat, but, in 1650, the Inquisition investigated and arrested the Count from several complaints raised against him associated with sexual escapades, his possessions and titles were confiscated and his family's position was in crisis: the noble died a miserable death in the Convent of Cape St. Vincent in 1601. Through the influence of his spouse and her familial line, the Câmaras regained some prestige obtaining the new title of Counts of Ribeira Grande.

Rui Gonçalves da Câmara, 1st Count of Vila Franca Manuel da Câmara, 2nd Count of Vila Franca Rodrigo da Câmara, 3rd Count of Vila Franca Manuel da Câmara, 4th Count of Vila Franca List of countships in Portugal Notes SourcesNobreza de Portugal e do Brasil, III, Portugal: Zairol Lda. 1989, pp. 219–222

List of people from Bergen

This is a list of famous people from Bergen, Norway. Ludvig Holberg, playwright Johan Christian Dahl, painter Ole Bull, composer Edvard Grieg, pianist Harald Sæverud, composer Helge Jordal, actor Jan Eggum, singer-songwriter Truls Mørk, cellist Sissel Kyrkjebø, singer Magnet, musician Roger Tiegs, musician: Gorgoroth Olve Eikemo, musician: Immortal Varg Vikernes, musician Tom Cato Visnes, musician: God Seed/Gorgororth Kristian Espedal, musician: God Seed/Gorgororth Erlend Øye, musician Eirik Glambek Bøe, musician Kurt Nilsen, musician Anne Lilia Berge Strand, musician Vegard Ylvisåker, musician, talk show host Bård Ylvisåker, musician, talk show host Sondre Lerche, musician Lars Vaular, rapper Christine Guldbrandsen, singer Kygo, Kyrre Gørvell-Dahll, DJ, record producer Aurora Aksnes, songwriter Alan Walker, producer Einar Selvik, musician: Gorgoroth/Wardruna KREAM, producer Karoline Larm, singer-songwriter MYRA, rapper Sigrid, singer-songwriter boy pablo, band/singer Daniel Simonsen, comedian Dorothe Engelbretsdotter, author Johan Sebastian Welhaven, poet Amalie Skram, author Arnulf Øverland, author Babbis Friis-Baastad, children's writer Nordahl Grieg, author Torborg Nedreaas and winner of the Kritikerprisen Gunnar Staalesen, author Gerhard Armauer Hansen, leprosy researcher Leonhard Hess Stejneger, ornithologist and zoologist Ivar Giaever, Nobel Prize in Physics laureate in 1973 Trond Torleivsson Benkestok, nobleman Christian Michelsen, ship owner, prime minister Ingvald B.

Aase, trade unionist and politician for the Labour and Communist parties Robert Hagelin, politician for the Conservative Party Carl Joachim Hambro, President of Parliament Erna Solberg, 28th Prime minister of Norway Georg Wallace elected to the Storting for one term in 1850 as representative of Bergen Christian Wilhelm Wisbech elected to parliament in 1883 and 1889 representing the constituency of Jarlsberg og Larviks Amt Ulrik Vilhelm Koren, Norwegian-American Lutheran church leader Tryggve Gran, aviator Carl Søyland, Norwegian American editor-in-chief of Nordisk Tidende Leif Andreas Larsen, naval officer Reidar Fauske Sognnaes, Dean of the Harvard University School of Dental Medicine, founding Dean of the UCLA School of Dentistry Max Manus, decorated resistance-fighter Roald Jensen, football player Terje Rød-Larsen, sociologist Terje Hauge, football referee Peter Sunde, The Pirate Bay Cecilia Brækhus and former kickboxer Alexander Dale Oen, swimmer Magnus Midtbø El Rubius, Rubén Gundersen, YouTube personality, the 7th most subscribed on YouTube

Tom Evans (musician)

Thomas Evans Jr was a British musician and songwriter, most notable for his work with the band Badfinger. He co-wrote the song "Without You". In July 1967, the Iveys went to Liverpool at the suggestion of their manager, Bill Collins, to recruit a replacement for Dave Jenkins, their rhythm guitarist and frontman, they discovered Tommy Evans singing with Them Calderstones and invited him to London to audition for the band. He accepted and joined the Iveys in August 1967, his first gig with the Iveys was on 20 August 1967 at the Starlite Ballroom in Crawley. On 23 July 1968, the Iveys were signed to the Beatles' Apple Records label, their debut worldwide single release was Maybe Tomorrow, a Tom Evans composition, written for his girlfriend in Liverpool, Leslie Sandton, who he used to date when he was a member of Them Calderstones. On 15 November 1968, "Maybe Tomorrow" b/w an Evans/Ham song "And Her Daddy's a Millionaire" was released in the UK on Apple 5; the US release date was 27 January 1969 and the song peaked at No. 51 on the Cash Box chart and No. 67 on the Billboard chart.

In the Netherlands, it reached No. 1. It was very successful throughout Europe and in Japan. In July 1969, this prompted the release of the Iveys' album Maybe Tomorrow being only released in those countries where the single charted high; the album was released in Japan and Germany only. The album contained the following Tom Evans compositions: "Beautiful and Blue", "Fisherman", "Maybe Tomorrow" and "Angelique". One of the attempts at a follow-up single to Maybe Tomorrow was another Tom Evans composition called Storm in a Teacup, but this was rejected and ended up being used on a promotional Apple EP for Wall's Ice Cream in July 1969. In November 1969, the Iveys changed their name to Badfinger, Paul McCartney of the Beatles gave the group a boost by offering them his song "Come and Get It", which he produced for the band, it became a featured track for the film The Magic Christian, which starred Ringo Starr and Peter Sellers. Evans was chosen by McCartney to sing lead on this track, it reached the Top 10 worldwide.

The B-side, Rock of All Ages, co-written by Evans with Pete Ham and Mike Gibbins, features Tom Evans singing lead. Paul McCartney produced this, sang scratch vocals with Evans on the basic track. A third Magic Christian song, "Carry On Till Tomorrow" was co-written by Ham. After the departure of original bassist Ron Griffiths, the band fruitlessly auditioned a replacement and with the arrival of Liverpudlian guitarist Joey Molland, who had played guitar, switched to bass and thus stabilizing the classic line-up of Ham, Evans and Molland. Badfinger enjoyed more major successes in the early 1970s with singles such as "No Matter What," "Day After Day," and "Baby Blue"; each featured some of Evans vocals. Evans' high-career moment was with his composition "Without You," a song co-written with bandmate Pete Ham; the song became a No. 1 hit worldwide for Harry Nilsson and has since become a standard in the music industry. Badfinger dissolved following Ham's suicide in 1975, after which Evans joined a group called the Dodgers with Badfinger bandmate Bob Jackson.

The Dodgers released three singles produced by Muff Winwood and toured Britain before recording an album, Love on the Rebound, with producer Pat Moran. Evans was asked to leave the band midway through the recording sessions and he retired from the music industry. Evans resurfaced in 1977 to join Joey Molland for two Badfinger "comeback" albums; the first single of two from the first album Airwaves, was an Evans composition - "Lost Inside Your Love", but it failed to chart after its release in March 1979. The second album, Say No More spawned the Evans and Tansin single "Hold On", which reached No. 56 on the Billboard chart in 1981. Evans and Molland went their separate ways after this second album was released, the two put together rival Badfinger touring bands in the US. In 1982, Jackson rejoined Evans in the latter's version of Badfinger. Original Badfinger drummer Mike Gibbins was enlisted for Evans' band for one tour, but after Evans and Jackson signed separate management contracts with a Milwaukee businessman, the trio of Evans and Jackson said they found themselves stranded in the US without tour dates, food, or money, under much duress from physical threats.

After returning to Britain, Evans was sued for $5 million in damages for abandoning his touring contract. In 1983, after a dispute with former band mate Joey Molland over royalties for the song "Without You", Evans hanged himself in his garden. In addition to his wife Marianne, Evans is survived by a son, Stephen. In 1993, a compilation of recordings made in the early 1980s by Evans and musician friend Rod Roach was posthumously released in the UK on Gipsy Records under the title Over You. Maybe Tomorrow Magic Christian Music No Dice Straight Up Ass Badfinger Wish You Were Here Airwaves Say No More Over You: The Final Tracks Head First 94 Baker Street An Apple a Day Treacle Toffee World Evans appeared as a guest artist on The Concert for Bangladesh All Things Must Pass by George Harrison "It Don't Come Easy" by Ringo Starr (si