Aspropyrgos is a suburb of Athens, a municipality in the West Attica regional unit, Greece. The municipality had a population of 30,251 at the 2011 census, it has an area of 101.983 km2. The name'Aspropyrgos' is derived from the Greek words άσπρο, meaning'white', πύργος, meaning'castle' or'tower'. Aspropyrgos is located 15 km northwest of the city center of Athens in the Thriasian Plain, it is 5 km northeast of Eleusis, near the Saronic Gulf coast. Mount Parnitha forms its northern border, the Aigaleo hills its southeastern border; the Eleusis Military Airbase lies to its west. The main street is Dimokratias Avenue. Aspropyrgos can be accessed from the Motorway 6 and the Motorway 65, it is accessible through the Motorway A6 exit 4. (The industrial area is in the southeastern part of Aspropyrgos. The Aspropyrgos railway station is served by Proastiakos trains from the Athens International Airport to Kiato. Aspropyrgos consists of a residential downtown area and an industrial area where a number of storage warehouses, metal recycling facilities, logistics handlers, small construction companies and other industrial businesses operate.

The Aspropyrgos Refinery, south of the city and next to the sea, has been producing oil for many years. It is the largest in Greece, with an annual capacity of 135,000 bbl/d; as a consequence, pollution has been a problem for years. The refinery includes depots in the southern and eastern parts, some in the western part and at a dock to the southwest. List of cities in Greece Official website

Betty Clay

Betty St Clair Clay was the younger daughter of Robert Baden-Powell, 1st Baron Baden-Powell, the founder of Scouting and Olave Baden-Powell. She was the sister of Peter Baden-Powell. Betty enrolled in the Brownies as soon, she was educated at Westonbirt School, Gloucestershire and St James' School in Malvern, Worcestershire. While boarding at St James' School, she joined the school's Girl Guide company. Betty accompanied her parents on many official tours including some overseas, the first of, the maiden cruise of the SS Duchess of Richmond round the Mediterranean and down the West Coast of Africa from 26 January to 8 March 1929. Other tours were to Switzerland in 1931, again in 1932 for the opening of "Our Chalet", they did a tour of Africa in 1935-36, where she met her husband-to-be on the homeward voyage from Cape Town to England. Upon her marriage in 1936, Betty moved to Northern Rhodesia, where she became a Cub leader for the pack of which her youngest son was a member, when the leader left.

She was an active Guider in Northern Rhodesia becoming Colony Commissioner for Guides. When the Clays returned to England in 1964, Betty continued her involvement, she was President of the South West Region for the Guide Association from 1970-91. In 1978 she was appointed a vice-president of the Guide Association. In 1985 she became a vice-president of the Scout Association. In 1993, she became only the second person to be awarded an honorary Gilwell Wood Badge. In 1936, on board ship returning from Africa, Betty met Gervas Clay, a District Commissioner in Her Majesty's Colonial Service in Northern Rhodesia, returning to England on leave. Gervas Clay became Her Majesty's Resident Commissioner of the Barotseland Protectorate, in which capacity, in 1960, he and Betty entertained Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. Gervas and Betty Clay had four children: Gillian, Robin and Crispin, they lived in Northern Rhodesia until they retired to Somerset in 1964. Betty and their eldest son Robin were all born on 16 April, sharing the same birthday.

Betty's older brother Peter and his wife shared a birthday. She was the holder of the Bronze Wolf from the World Organization of the Scout Movement and a gold Silver Fish in the form of a brooch from the Guide Association. In 1997 she was made a Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, she attended many Jamborees, including the 4th World Scout Jamboree and 16th World Scout Jamboree and others between. She died, aged 87, on 24 April 2004, in Elliscombe House Nursing Home, where she was recovering following a fall at home, she was cremated in Yeovil Crematorium, on Wednesday, 5 May 2004, her ashes were buried in the Churchyard of the Parish Church of St. John the Baptist, North Cheriton. A memorial service was held at Wells Cathedral, Somerset, on Monday, 12 July 2004 at 2:30 |p.m. and was well-attended. The Scout Association's Betty Clay Library is located in Gilwell Park. Photograph of Betty Clay Photograph of the Baden-Powell family, including Betty in her Brownie uniform Her own WebSite, a family tribute, more biographic details and more links

Ojibwe writing systems

Ojibwe is an indigenous language of North America from the Algonquian language family. Ojibwe is one of the largest Native American languages north of Mexico in terms of number of speakers and is characterized by a series of dialects, some of which differ significantly; the dialects of Ojibwe are spoken in Canada from southwestern Quebec, through Ontario and parts of Saskatchewan, with outlying communities in Alberta and British Columbia, in the United States from Michigan through Wisconsin and Minnesota, with a number of communities in North Dakota and Montana, as well as migrant groups in Kansas and Oklahoma. The absence of linguistic or political unity among Ojibwe-speaking groups is associated with the relative autonomy of the regional dialects of Ojibwe. There is no single dialect, considered the most prestigious or most prominent, no standard writing system used to represent all dialects. Ojibwe dialects have been written in numerous ways over a period of several centuries, with the development of different written traditions reflecting a range of influences from the orthographic practices of other languages.

Writing systems associated with particular dialects have been developed by adapting the Latin script the English or French orthographies. A used Roman character-based writing system is the double vowel system, attributed to Charles Fiero; the double vowel system is gaining popularity among language teachers in the United States and Canada because of its ease of use. A syllabic writing system not related to English or French writing is used by some Ojibwe speakers in northern Ontario and Manitoba. Development of the original form of Canadian Aboriginal syllabics is credited to missionary James Evans around 1840; the Great Lakes Algonquian syllabics are based on French orthography with letters organized into syllables. It was used by speakers of Fox and Winnebago, but there is indirect evidence of use by speakers of Chippewa. Not much is known regarding Ojibwe "hieroglyphics". Similar to Mi'kmaq hieroglyphic writing, they are found as petroglyphs, on story-hides, on Midewiwin wiigwaasabakoon. In treaty negotiations with the British, the treaty-signing chiefs would mark an "X" for their signature and use the Wiigwaasabak character representing their doodem.

Today, Ojibwe artists incorporate motifs found in the Wiigwaasabak to instill "Native Pride."There are said to be several Ojibwe elders who still know the meanings of many of the symbols, but as their content is considered sacred little information about them has been revealed. The different systems used to write Ojibwe are distinguished by their representation of key features of the Ojibwe inventory of sounds. Differences include: the representation of vowel length, the representation of nasal vowels, the representation of fortis and lenis consonants; the double vowel orthography is an adaptation of the linguistically oriented system found in publications such as Leonard Bloomfield's Eastern Ojibwa. Its name arises from the use of doubled vowel symbols to represent long vowels that are paired with corresponding short vowels. Development of the double vowel system is attributed to Charles Fiero. At a conference held to discuss the development of a common Ojibwe orthography, Ojibwe language educators agreed that the double vowel system was a preferred choice but recognized that other systems were used and preferred in some locations.

The double vowel system is favored among language teachers in the United States and Canada and is taught in a program for Ojibwe language teachers. The double vowel orthography is used to write several dialects of Ojibwe spoken in the circum-Great Lakes area. Significant publications in Chippewa include a used dictionary and a collection of texts; the same system with minor differences is used for several publications in the Ottawa and Eastern Ojibwe dialects. One of the goals underlying the double vowel orthography is promoting standardization of Ojibwe writing so that language learners are able to read and write in a consistent way. By comparison, folk phonetic spelling approaches to writing Ottawa based on less systematic adaptations of written English or French are more variable and idiosyncratic and do not always make consistent use of alphabetic letters. Letters of the English alphabet substitute for specialized phonetic symbols, in conjunction with orthographic conventions unique to Ojibwe.

The system embodies two principles: alphabetic letters from the English alphabet are used to write Ojibwe but with Ojibwe sound values. Accurate pronunciation thus cannot be learned without consulting a fluent speaker; the long vowels /iː, oː, aː/ are paired with the short vowels /i, o, a/, are written with double symbols ⟨ii, oo, aa⟩ that correspond to the single symbols used for the short vowels ⟨i, o, a⟩. The long vowel /eː/ does not have a corresponding short vowel, is written with a single ⟨e⟩; the short vowels are: ⟨i, o, a⟩. The long vowels are: ⟨ii, oo, aa, e⟩; the short vowel represented. The long vowel ⟨aa⟩ has values centering on.