Frederick III of Denmark
Frederick III was king of Denmark and Norway from 1648 until his death. He governed under the name Frederick II as diocesan administrator of the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and he instituted absolute monarchy in Denmark-Norway in 1660, confirmed by law in 1665 as the first in Western historiography. He ordered the creation of the Throne Chair of Denmark and he was born the second-eldest son of Christian IV and Anne Catherine of Brandenburg. Frederick was only considered an heir to the throne after the death of his older brother Prince Christian in 1647, in order to be elected king after the death of his father, Frederick conceded significant influence to the nobility. As king, he fought two wars against Sweden and he was defeated in the Dano-Swedish War of 1657–1658, but attained great popularity when he weathered the 1659 Assault on Copenhagen and won the Dano-Swedish War of 1658–1660. Later that year, Frederick used his popularity to disband the elective monarchy in favour of absolute monarchy and he married Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, with whom he fathered Christian V of Denmark.
Frederick was born at Haderslev in Slesvig, the son of Christian IV, in his youth and early manhood, there was no prospect of his ascending the Danish throne, as his older brother Christian was elected heir apparent in 1608. Frederick was educated at Sorø Academy and studied in the Netherlands, as a young man, he demonstrated an interest in theology, natural sciences, and Scandinavian history. He was a reserved and enigmatic prince who seldom laughed, spoke little, and wrote less, even though he lacked the impulsive and jovial qualities of his father, Frederick possessed the compensating virtues of moderation and self-control. On 1 October 1643 Frederick wed Sophie Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the daughter of George, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, who had an energetic, passionate and he was an enthusiastic collector of books and his collection became the foundation for the Copenhagen Royal Library. In his youth, Frederick became the instrument of his fathers political schemes in the Holy Roman Empire and he was granted administration of the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, and named coadjutor of the Bishopric of Halberstadt.
Thus, from an age, he had considerable experience as an administrator. At the age of eighteen, he was the commandant of the Bremian fortress of Stade. During the Torstenson War of 1643–45, Frederick lost control of his possessions within the empire and he was appointed commander in the royal shares in the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein by his father. His command was not successful, chiefly owing to his quarrels with the Earl-Marshal Anders Bille and this was Fredericks first collision with the Danish nobility, who afterwards regarded him with extreme distrust. The death of his elder brother Christian in June 1647 opened the possibility for Frederick to be elected heir apparent to the Danish throne, this issue was still unsettled when Christian IV died on 28 February 1648. After long deliberation among the Danish Estates and in the Rigsraadet, on 6 July, Frederick received the homage of his subjects, and he was crowned on 23 November. The Haandfæstning included provisions curtailing the already diminished royal prerogative in favour of increased influence for the Rigsraadet, in the first years of his reign, the Rigsraadet was the main power center of Danish politics
Battle of Wojnicz
The battle ended in Swedish victory. In the early stages of the Siege of Krakow, Polish royal units of Hetman Lanckoronski decided to abandon the city, together with king Jan Kazimierz, the Poles headed eastwards, to Tarnów. At some point, the king with the court turned southwards, to Nowy Wisnicz and Nowy Sacz. Swedish king Charles Gustav, who commanded the siege of Krakow, decided to chase the Poles, Charles Gustav had app.5,000 soldiers, mostly infantry, while Polish units were more numerous, including the hussars under Stanislaw Koniecpolski. The Poles camped among the hills in the vicinity of the town of Wojnicz, due to poor visibility, the Swedes sent two cavalry regiments for reconnaissance purposes. The regiments clashed with Polish cavalry, which was sent for the same purpose, the skirmish turned into a full-scale battle, which took place in the Polish camp, among tents. Charles Gustav quickly sent reinforcements, attacking wings of the Polish cavalry, under pressure of disciplined Swedish musketeers and their firepower, the hussars, who were elite force of the Polish army, had to retreat behind the Dunajec.
The battle, yet another Polish failure resonated profoundly across the Commonwealth, in nearby Tarnow, where the Poles fled, thousands of soldiers switched sides and joined Charles Gustav. Among them were Dymitr Wisniowiecki, Aleksander Koniecpolski and Jan Sobieski, the future king, kungliga hästgardet or Müllers Reiter 2. Dismounted Dragoon and Commanded Musketeers 5, ridderhielms Reiter A. Lanckoronski -2,600 kosack cavalry B. Wisniowiecki -400 hussars and C, Koniecpolski -2,600 kosack cavalry D. Denhoff -460 dismounted dragoon in a fortified camp Polish Hussars - Hetman St. Lanckoronskis Banner Wlad. Myszkowskis Banner Adam Dzialynskis Banner Kosack Cavalry - Approximately 70 banners Dragoon - Col. Henr, denhoffs Regiment Hetman Lanckoronskis Banner Alexander Koniecpolskis Banner http, //www. northernwars. com/woynicz. html
Battle of Copenhagen (1807)
The Second Battle of Copenhagen was a British bombardment of the Danish capital, Copenhagen in order to capture or destroy the Dano-Norwegian fleet, during the Napoleonic Wars. The incident led to the outbreak of the Anglo-Russian War of 1807, britains first response to Napoleons Continental system was to launch a major naval attack on the weakest link in Napoleons coalition, Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was under heavy French and Russian pressure to pledge its fleet to Napoleon. In September 1807, the Royal Navy bombarded Copenhagen, seizing the Danish fleet, a consequence of the attack was that Denmark did join the war on the side of France, but without a fleet it had little to offer. The attack gave rise to the term to Copenhagenize, the majority of the Danish army, under the Crown Prince, was at this time defending the southern border against possible attack from the French. There was concern in Britain that Napoleon might try to force Denmark to close the Baltic Sea to British ships, perhaps by marching French troops into Zealand, the British thought that after Prussia had been defeated in December 1806, Denmarks independence looked increasingly under threat from France.
George Cannings predecessor as Foreign Secretary, Lord Howick, had tried unsuccessfully to persuade Denmark into an alliance with Britain. He refused to publish the source because he said it would endanger their lives, some reports suggested that the Danes had secretly agreed to this. The Cabinet decided on 18 July to send Francis Jackson on a mission to Copenhagen to persuade Denmark to give its fleet to Britain. That same day, the Admiralty issued an order for more than 50 ships to sail for service under Admiral James Gambier. On 19 July, Lord Castlereagh, the Secretary of State for War, the fact that he has openly avowed such intention in an interview with the E of R is brought to this country in such a way as it cannot be doubted. Under such circumstances it would be madness, it would be idiotic. to wait for an overt act, the British assembled a force of 25,000 troops, and the vanguard sailed on 30 July, Jackson set out the next day. On 31 July, Napoleon ordered Talleyrand to tell Denmark to prepare for war against Britain or else Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte would invade Holstein, neither Talleyrand nor Jackson persuaded the Danes to end their neutrality, so Jackson went back to the British fleet assembled in the Sound on 15 August.
The British published a proclamation demanding the deposit of the Danish fleet, on 12 August, the 32-gun Danish frigate Frederiksværn sailed for Norway from Elsinor. Admiral Lord Gambier sent the 74-gun third rate Defence and the 22-gun sixth rate Comus after her, Comus was much faster than Defence in the light winds and so outdistanced her. On 15 August, Comus caught Frederiksværn off Marstrand and captured her, the British took her into service as Frederikscoarn. 1/95th, 2/95th KGL Division, Major General van Drechel 1st Brigade, Colonel du Plat, 2nd Brigade, Colonel von Drieburg, 3rd, 4th, 5th Line Batts. 3rd Brigade, Colonel von Barsse, 1st and 2nd Line Batts, 4th Brigade, Colonel von Alten, 1st and 2nd Light Batts
Charles X Gustav of Sweden
Charles X Gustav, Carl Gustav, was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death. He was the son of John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg, after his fathers death he succeeded him as Pfalzgraf. He was married to Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp, who bore his son and successor and he led Sweden during the Second Northern War, enlarging the Swedish Empire. By his predecessor Christina, he was considered de facto Duke of Eyland before ascending to the Swedish throne and his numbering as Charles X derives from a 16th-century invention. The Swedish king Charles IX chose his numeral after studying a fictitious history of Sweden and this king was the fourth actual King Charles, but has never been called Charles IV. In his early childhood raised in the Swedish court alongside Queen Christina he received an excellent civil education, Charles X learned the art of war under Lennart Torstenson, being present at the second Battle of Breitenfeld and at Jankowitz. In 1648 he gained the appointment of commander of the Swedish forces in Germany, as the recognized heir to the throne, his position on his return to Sweden was dangerous because of the growing discontent with the queen.
He therefore withdrew to the isle of Öland until the abdication of Christina on 5 June 1654 called him to the throne, Charles Gustav was crowned on 7 Jun 1654, the day after Christina abdicated. The beginning of Charles Xs reign concentrated on the healing of domestic discords, on the recommendation of his predecessor, he contracted a political marriage on 24 October 1654 with Hedwig Eleonora, the daughter of Frederick III, Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. He was hoping to secure a future ally against Denmark, the Riksdag which assembled at Stockholm in March 1655, duly considered the two great pressing national questions and the restitution of the alienated crown lands. In 1659 he proclaimed severe punishment for anyone hunting in the game reserve in Ottenby, Öland, Sweden. On 10 July 1655, Charles X left Sweden to engage in a war against the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, by the time war was declared he had at his disposal 50,000 men and 50 warships. Hostilities had already begun with the occupation of Dünaburg in Polish Livonia by the Swedes on 1 July 1655, on 25 July the Polish noble levy army capitulated, and the voivodeships of Poznań and Kalisz placed themselves under the protection of the Swedish King.
Thereupon the Swedes entered Warsaw without opposition and occupied the whole of Greater Poland, the Polish king, John II Casimir of Poland of the House of Vasa, eventually fled to Silesia after his armies had suffered defeats. A great number of Polish nobles and their personal armies joined the Swedes, many Poles saw Charles X Gustav as a strong monarch who could be a more effective leader than John II Casimir. Meanwhile, Charles X Gustav pressed on towards Kraków, which the Swedes captured after a two months siege, the fall of Kraków followed a capitulation of the Polish Royal armies, but before the end of the year a reaction began in Poland herself. On 18 November 1655 the Swedes invested the fortress-monastery of Częstochowa and this success elicited popular enthusiasm in Poland and gave rise to a nationalistic and religious rhetoric concerning the war and Charles X. He was depicted as tactless and his mercenaries barbaric and his refusal to legalize his position by summoning the Polish diet and his negotiations for the partition of the very state he affected to befriend, awoke a nationalistic spirit in the country
Siege of Riga (1656)
Siege of Riga by the Russian Army under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich was the main event of the Russo-Swedish War. The fortifications of Riga consisted of a wall with ditch and 5 bastions around the old town, in 1652 Swedes had started construction of a new wall with 12 bastions around suburbs, but by 1656 the work had not been completed. Von Thurn was either killed, or captured in the action, the Swedes evacuated the suburbs and withdrew to the old town. A few days later, the army under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich arrived on the ships on the Duna River. The Russian army occupied three camps, two on the east bank of the Duna in Rigas suburbs, and a Corps under Ordyn-Nashokin on the west bank of the Duna, opposite the Kobrun entrenchment. In the aftermath of this reverse, the Swedes recaptured much of Ingria, took the Pskov Monastery of the Caves, the events of the siege were recorded in an engraving by Adam Perelli that was first published in 1697 in Samuel Puffendorfs work, Konung Carl X Gustafs Bragder
March Across the Belts
The risky but vastly successful crossing was a crushing blow to Denmark, and led to the Treaty of Roskilde that year, which handed Scania to Sweden. During the Second Northern War, King Charles X Gustav of Sweden was bogged down in his war with Poland, King Frederick III of Denmark provided a way out of Poland when he declared war on Sweden. The Swedish army could now march from Poland without it looking like a rout, the Swedish army marched to the western and central parts of Denmark from Poland, without returning to Sweden, to avoid fighting its way through then-Danish Scania. Forced marches of several tens of kilometers a day, brought 6,000 Swedish soldiers to Jutland, the Swedish army was not large, but the soldiers were some of the best equipped and best trained troops in Europe. The army swept away the Danish resistance, the remaining Danish did not risk a battle with the Swedes. On 25 August 1657, the Swedish army stood before the newly completed Danish fortress Fredriksodde on Jutlands east coast, the fortress had a complement of about 8,000 men.
This fortress did not exist in 1645, Fredriksodde was besieged by general Karl Gustav Wrangel for two months, and stormed on the night of 24 October. Few Swedes perished and 6,000 Danes were captured, in addition, the Swedish army now had all of the Jutland armys supplies. All of Jutland was soon under Swedish control and Charles X started preparations for an attack against the Danish islands, in the middle of December the weather shifted, turning into the coldest winter in memory. The seawater between the islands froze, making a ship-borne assault impossible, engineer Erik Dahlberg was dispatched by the king to ascertain whether the ice would support the weight of the Swedish cavalry and artillery. Dahlberg reported that a crossing over the ice was feasible, early in the morning of 30 January 1658, the army was lined up to cross the Little Belt to reach Funen. The army consisted of about 9,000 cavalrymen and 3,000 foot soldiers, the ice warped under the weight of the soldiers, on occasions water reached up to the mens knees.
Close to the shore of Funen a skirmish broke out with about 3,000 Danish defenders, but these were brushed aside quickly, now investigations were made to find the best way over the ice that covered the Great Belt in order to reach Zealand. Again Erik Dahlberg led the investigation, and he advised taking the route via Langeland and Lolland rather than the more direct route across the Belt. The night of 5 February the king set off with the cavalry across the ice, the infantry and the artillery followed the next day. Thus, on 8 February, the Swedish host was safely on Zealand, the Danes, who had thought the Swedes would start their offensive in the spring at the earliest and yielded. Negotiations were started and on 26 February the Treaty of Roskilde was signed by the two parties, the March Across the Belts was a risky but successful gamble which turned out to be entirely to King Charles X Gustavs benefit. The news of the spread quickly, it was an achievement that drew admiration all over Europe
Battle of Warsaw (1656)
The Battle of Warsaw was a battle which took place near Warsaw on July 28–July 301656, between the armies of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Sweden and Brandenburg. It was a battle in the Second Northern War between Poland and Sweden in the period 1655–1660, known as The Deluge. According to Hajo Holborn, it marked the beginning of Prussian military history, in the battle, a smaller Swedish-Brandenburg force gained victory over a Polish-Lithuanian force superior in numbers, though in the long term the victory achieved little. Polish-Lithuanian losses were insignificant, since the Polish noble levy promptly retreated from the battlefield, Second in command of Brandenburgs forces was Otto Christoph von Sparr. John II Casimir ferried his army across the Vistula River and met the approaching Swedish-Brandenburg force on its right bank, Charles X had initially hoped to destroy the Lithuanian and Tatar forces before they joined up with the remainder of the Commonwealth army, but this plan failed.
Some officers of Brandenburg considered the Polish-Lithuanian forces to be overwhelming in numbers, Charles marched his allied army down the right bank of the Vistula on 28 July and assaulted the Polish army. However, the Polish infantry had dug into a corridor along the river bank. Charles, wheeling left, moved his army to the Polish right, through the Białołęka Forest onto a narrow plain. Aleksander Polbinskis 800 hussars drove into the three lines of cavalry, guarding the flanks of Charles infantry, the hussars broke through the first line but were stopped by the second line of Uppland and Smaland regiments. The Cossack cavalry, the pancerna, did not participate in the attack, seeing that the Swede-Brandenburg allies held their ground, John II Casimir withdrew his army across the Vistula bridge, covered by his cavalry. The Swede and Brandenburg allies occupied the plain and the Polish-Lithuanian cavalry escaped along the Vistula. John Casimir quickly regrouped at Lublin, the Battle of Warsaw is commemorated on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, with the inscription Warszawa 30 V-1 VII, 28-30 VII1656.
The German Way of War, From the Thirty Years War to the Third Reich, ISBN 0-7006-1410-9. Cichowski & A. Szulczynski, Husaria, MON Leszek Podhorodecki, Rapier i koncerz, Książka i Wiedza Battle of Warsaw 1656
Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities.
Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen