Battle of Warka
Battle was fought for about two hours, ending in Polish victory. It was first Polish success in the field since Swedish invasion of Poland in early summer 1655. The Polish forces won the battle, after the Battle of Jaroslaw, which took place on March 15,1656, Swedish forces under king Charles X Gustav found themselves in a difficult situation. They needed reinforcements, so on March 16, the king ordered his brother, Adolph John, to send the army of Frederick VI, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, in the second half of March 1656, the margrave left Warsaw, with 2,500 reiters and dragoons. His mission was to relieve main Swedish army, together with the king himself, the margrave and his soldiers had to cross the dense Kozienice Wilderness, where Swedish units were constantly attacked by Polish guerillas. After a few days, Frederick VI received a message from Charles Gustav, the Swedish king realized that main Polish forces, which had trapped him in the area of Gorzyce, headed northwards, to face Frederick.
Polish hetmans Jerzy Lubomirski and Stefan Czarniecki were no longer in the area, Frederick VI obeyed royal order, and began a retreat, via Kozienice and Warka. When Polish forces reached Zwolen, after a march from Sandomierz. After both Swedish groups had joined, they crossed the Pilica, which lasted a whole night, at the same time, Polish forces under Lubomirski caught Swedish rear guard. The skirmish, which took place near Kozienice, ended with destruction of the Swedish unit. The survivors, who reached Frederick VI, told him about the danger, after leaving rear guard along the river, the Swedes formed a 4-kilometer long column, and began marching towards Warsaw. When Polish forces arrived, the column stretched from Piaseczno in the north to Warka in the south, Frederick VI did not feel threatened, as the Pilica was very wide after snowmelt, and there was no bridge available for Polish cavalry. The Poles, quickly found a ford, crossing the river near the village of Winiary, Polish forces were divided into three groups.
One of the groups, under Czarniecki, attacked Swedes guarding the partly destroyed bridge, after capturing the bridge, Polish engineers rebuilt it, which allowed three regiments to cross the Pilica. At the same time Lubomirski attacked the regiment of an officer named Ritter, since Swedish troops stood in front of the forest, it was impossible for the Poles to encircle them, and frontal attack was the only solution. First to attack was Lubmirski’s cavalry, but it was stopped by Swedish firepower. Soon, Lubomirski was reinforced by Czarniecki with three regiments. Altogether, the Poles had 8,000 soldiers, divided into ten regiments, Swedish defense was broken in the third attack, carried out by Polish hussars
Battle of the Sound
The naval Battle of the Sound took place on 8 November 1658 during the Second Northern War, near the Sound or Øresund, just north of the Danish capital, Copenhagen. Sweden had invaded Denmark and an army under Charles X of Sweden had Copenhagen itself under siege, the Dutch fleet was sent to prevent Sweden from gaining control of both sides of the Sound and thereby controlling access to the Baltic Sea as well as of its trade. The Dutch were grouped into three squadrons, while the Swedes separated their ships into four, the seven Danish ships with about 280 guns were unable to assist their Dutch allies because of adverse northern winds and could only watch. This was a reference to the English, whose powerful fleet had recently defeated the Dutch in the First Anglo-Dutch War, in the event, however. The Swedes attacked aggressively, but failed to gain the upper hand, the Dutch forced the Swedish fleet to end the blockade of the Danish capital, enabling its resupply by Dutch armed transport ships, which eventually forced Charles to abandon the siege entirely.
The Swedes lost five ships in the action compared to one Dutch ship, also, considering the slightly fewer losses of men in the Swedish army,1,200 compared to 1,400, the battle is considered a tactical draw. Strategically, however, it was an allied victory. Naval Wars in the Baltic 1522-1850 - R. C. Anderson Svenska slagfält - Lars Ericson, Martin Hårdstedt, Per Iko, Ingvar Sjöblom, Gunnar Åselius List of sailing warships
Battle of Chojnice (1656)
The Battle of Chojnice was a surprise nighttime attack followed by a run-and-chase battle during The Deluge. Towards the end of 1656, the Swedish army was blocking Polish King John Casimir in Gdańsk who was conducting negotiations with French King Louis XIVs envoy Antoine de Lumbres. Polish Queen Marie Louise Gonzaga wanted to join her husband there, Czarniecki came to Wolbórz where she was stationed and together they began the so-called Gdańsk expedition. On or about January 1,1657, Czarniecki with his division, army divisions of grand Crown hetman Stanisław Rewera Potocki and field crown hetman Stanisław Lanckoroński joined them at Chojnice about the same time. Polish cavalry companies settled in the countryside, occupying villages and being separated one from another by distance, need for fodder and food. Different sources give different renditions of the battle, Swedish army came up to Chojnice on the night of January 2,1657, and the first to attack was the Swedish vanguard under Rutger von Ascheberg, commanding almost 1,000 horsemen/reitars.
His command attacked immediately the following Polish formations, pułk of prince Konstanty Wiśniowiecki, Polish losses, listed for the battle, were sustained during that phase of the battle -according to des Noyers reports. Runaways from the Wisniowieckis command spread the alarm across the town of Chojnice. It gave ample time to other Polish units to assemble and meet the enemy on equal terms, ar some moment heavy night fighting reached the queens wagon train and she had to seek shelter, perhaps in the town itself. Once her majesty queen was safe she gave blessing to Czarniecki so he could come to the rescue of prince Wisniowiecki pulk. And perhaps other Polish army divisions came to give more coordinated response to the Swedish vanguard onslaught, perhaps at that moment quite victorious Swedish commander must have realized that he had stepped into the hornets nest and begun hasty retreat - according to des Noyers bride abattue. His retreat was towards the old Teutonic Knights fortress at Czŀuchów, in Swedish hands, Polish army sustained light casualties, less than 50 killed and wounded, and 9 taken prisoner, number of horses and wagons were taken in the initial surprise attack.
According to other sources, the Swedish cavalry troops of 950 men reached some villages outside Chojnice early on December 25,1656, in these villages, Polish troops had stopped for the night. After covering a bridge with straw to decrease the sound from the hoofs of the horses and they put houses on fire and slaughtered Polish soldiers that heavy with sleep came out. When the morning came, the Swedish force had killed more than 3,000 Polish soldiers, soon afterwards the main Swedish army reached the area and initiated a bombardment of Chojnice. After the surrender of Chojnice on 1 January 1657, the Swedish had reached their goal, as a token of his appreciation, king Charles Gustav gave Rutger von Ascheberg a rapier he had used in battle. Von Ascheberg received valuable jewellry and an estate in Prussia, from their camp at Kcynia near Nakło, Polish commanders and the queen haggled a bit about the pay for their soldiers, who had demanded it. Marie Louise Gonzaga decided to pay soldiers from her own sources, as a result and the queen went on to complete their Gdańsk Expedition and eventually joined their Polish king at Gdańsk unmolested
Battle of Copenhagen (1807)
The Second Battle of Copenhagen was a British bombardment of the Danish capital, Copenhagen in order to capture or destroy the Dano-Norwegian fleet, during the Napoleonic Wars. The incident led to the outbreak of the Anglo-Russian War of 1807, britains first response to Napoleons Continental system was to launch a major naval attack on the weakest link in Napoleons coalition, Denmark. Although ostensibly neutral, Denmark was under heavy French and Russian pressure to pledge its fleet to Napoleon. In September 1807, the Royal Navy bombarded Copenhagen, seizing the Danish fleet, a consequence of the attack was that Denmark did join the war on the side of France, but without a fleet it had little to offer. The attack gave rise to the term to Copenhagenize, the majority of the Danish army, under the Crown Prince, was at this time defending the southern border against possible attack from the French. There was concern in Britain that Napoleon might try to force Denmark to close the Baltic Sea to British ships, perhaps by marching French troops into Zealand, the British thought that after Prussia had been defeated in December 1806, Denmarks independence looked increasingly under threat from France.
George Cannings predecessor as Foreign Secretary, Lord Howick, had tried unsuccessfully to persuade Denmark into an alliance with Britain. He refused to publish the source because he said it would endanger their lives, some reports suggested that the Danes had secretly agreed to this. The Cabinet decided on 18 July to send Francis Jackson on a mission to Copenhagen to persuade Denmark to give its fleet to Britain. That same day, the Admiralty issued an order for more than 50 ships to sail for service under Admiral James Gambier. On 19 July, Lord Castlereagh, the Secretary of State for War, the fact that he has openly avowed such intention in an interview with the E of R is brought to this country in such a way as it cannot be doubted. Under such circumstances it would be madness, it would be idiotic. to wait for an overt act, the British assembled a force of 25,000 troops, and the vanguard sailed on 30 July, Jackson set out the next day. On 31 July, Napoleon ordered Talleyrand to tell Denmark to prepare for war against Britain or else Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte would invade Holstein, neither Talleyrand nor Jackson persuaded the Danes to end their neutrality, so Jackson went back to the British fleet assembled in the Sound on 15 August.
The British published a proclamation demanding the deposit of the Danish fleet, on 12 August, the 32-gun Danish frigate Frederiksværn sailed for Norway from Elsinor. Admiral Lord Gambier sent the 74-gun third rate Defence and the 22-gun sixth rate Comus after her, Comus was much faster than Defence in the light winds and so outdistanced her. On 15 August, Comus caught Frederiksværn off Marstrand and captured her, the British took her into service as Frederikscoarn. 1/95th, 2/95th KGL Division, Major General van Drechel 1st Brigade, Colonel du Plat, 2nd Brigade, Colonel von Drieburg, 3rd, 4th, 5th Line Batts. 3rd Brigade, Colonel von Barsse, 1st and 2nd Line Batts, 4th Brigade, Colonel von Alten, 1st and 2nd Light Batts
Second Northern War
The Second Northern War was fought between Sweden and its adversaries the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Brandenburg-Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy and Denmark–Norway. The Dutch Republic often intervened against Sweden, in 1655, Charles X Gustav of Sweden invaded and occupied western Poland–Lithuania, the eastern half of which was already occupied by Russia. The rapid Swedish advance became known in Poland as the Swedish Deluge, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania became a Swedish fief, the Polish–Lithuanian regular armies surrendered and the Polish king John II Casimir Vasa fled to the Habsburgs. Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia initially supported the estates in Royal Prussia, Russia took advantage of the Swedish setback, declared war on Sweden and pushed into Lithuania and Swedish Livonia. John II Vasa found an ally in Leopold I of Habsburg and this triggered Frederick III of Denmarks invasion of the Swedish mainland in the spring of 1657, in an attempt to settle old scores from the Torstenson War while Sweden was busy elsewhere.
Brandenburg left the alliance with Sweden when granted full sovereignty in the Duchy of Prussia by the Polish king in the treaties of Wehlau, Frederick IIIs war on Sweden gave Charles X Gustav a reason to abandon the Polish–Lithuanian deadlock and fight Denmark instead. In the Treaty of Roskilde, Denmark had to abandon all Danish provinces in what is now Southern Sweden, the anti-Swedish allies meanwhile neutralized the Transylvanian army and Polish forces ravaged Swedish Pomerania. In 1658 Charles X Gustav decided that instead of returning to the remaining Swedish strongholds in Poland–Lithuania and this time, Denmark withstood the attack and the anti-Swedish allies pursued Charles X Gustav to Jutland and Swedish Pomerania. Throughout 1659, Sweden was defending her strongholds in Denmark and on the southern Baltic shore, while little was gained by the allies and a peace was negotiated. When Charles X Gustav died in February 1660, his successor settled for the Treaty of Oliva with Poland–Lithuania and Brandenburg in April and the Treaty of Copenhagen with Denmark in May.
Sweden was to keep most of her gains from Roskilde, the Duchy of Prussia became a sovereign state, Sweden had already concluded a truce with Russia in 1658, which gave way to a final settlement in the Treaty of Cardis in 1661. In English language, German and Scandinavian historiography, these conflicts were traditionally referred to as First Northern War, the term Second Northern War, coined in Polish historiography, has lately been increasingly adopted by German and English language historiography. Another ambiguous term referring to the Second Northern War is the Little Northern War, in Poland, the term The Deluge is ambiguous, as it is sometimes used for a broader series of wars against Sweden, Russia and the Cossacks. In 1648, the Peace of Westphalia had ended the Thirty Years War, in the Torstenson War, a theater of the Thirty Years War, Sweden had defeated the former Baltic great power Denmark. Sweden had been at peace with Russia since the Treaty of Stolbovo had ended the Ingrian War in 1617, Sweden had remained in a state of war with the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth since the Polish–Swedish War, which was concluded by the repeatedly renewed truce.
As a consequence, the Commonwealth lacked a sufficient defense, seeing the great success on the Russian side, Sweden decided to intervene, among other reasons using the explanation that it was to protect the Protestant population in Poland. Having a close relationships with the Prince of Transylvania, Sweden had intentions to defeat the Catholic Poland, Sweden drew the rising Cossack Hetmanate to its side that stood in the strong opposition to the Polish government and promised military support if the Cossacks will break with the Russians. Bohdan Khmelnytsky sent an expedition headed by the Kiev colonel to Halychyna which soon turned back due to mutiny within its ranks, the leader of Hetmanate did not participate in actions due to poor health conditions
Battle of Wojnicz
The battle ended in Swedish victory. In the early stages of the Siege of Krakow, Polish royal units of Hetman Lanckoronski decided to abandon the city, together with king Jan Kazimierz, the Poles headed eastwards, to Tarnów. At some point, the king with the court turned southwards, to Nowy Wisnicz and Nowy Sacz. Swedish king Charles Gustav, who commanded the siege of Krakow, decided to chase the Poles, Charles Gustav had app.5,000 soldiers, mostly infantry, while Polish units were more numerous, including the hussars under Stanislaw Koniecpolski. The Poles camped among the hills in the vicinity of the town of Wojnicz, due to poor visibility, the Swedes sent two cavalry regiments for reconnaissance purposes. The regiments clashed with Polish cavalry, which was sent for the same purpose, the skirmish turned into a full-scale battle, which took place in the Polish camp, among tents. Charles Gustav quickly sent reinforcements, attacking wings of the Polish cavalry, under pressure of disciplined Swedish musketeers and their firepower, the hussars, who were elite force of the Polish army, had to retreat behind the Dunajec.
The battle, yet another Polish failure resonated profoundly across the Commonwealth, in nearby Tarnow, where the Poles fled, thousands of soldiers switched sides and joined Charles Gustav. Among them were Dymitr Wisniowiecki, Aleksander Koniecpolski and Jan Sobieski, the future king, kungliga hästgardet or Müllers Reiter 2. Dismounted Dragoon and Commanded Musketeers 5, ridderhielms Reiter A. Lanckoronski -2,600 kosack cavalry B. Wisniowiecki -400 hussars and C, Koniecpolski -2,600 kosack cavalry D. Denhoff -460 dismounted dragoon in a fortified camp Polish Hussars - Hetman St. Lanckoronskis Banner Wlad. Myszkowskis Banner Adam Dzialynskis Banner Kosack Cavalry - Approximately 70 banners Dragoon - Col. Henr, denhoffs Regiment Hetman Lanckoronskis Banner Alexander Koniecpolskis Banner http, //www. northernwars. com/woynicz. html
Battle of Nyborg
The battle was engaged on 14 November 1659 at Nyborg on the Danish island of Funen. Nyborg was the major conflict of the Dano-Swedish War of 1658 to 1660. Swedish Imperial Field Marshal Philip Florinus of Sulzbach, leading the vanquished Swedish forces, was forced to save his own life by fleeing under cover of night, the battle is considered one of the most important Danish victories of the war