An assembly line is a manufacturing process in which parts are added as the semi-finished assembly moves from workstation to workstation where the parts are added in sequence until the final assembly is produced. By mechanically moving the parts to the assembly work and moving the semi-finished assembly from work station to work station, a finished product can be assembled faster and with less labor than by having workers carry parts to a stationary piece for assembly. Assembly lines are common methods of assembling complex items such as automobiles and other transportation equipment, household appliances and electronic goods. Assembly lines are designed for the sequential organization of workers, tools or machines, parts; the motion of workers is minimized to the extent possible. All parts or assemblies are handled either by conveyors or motorized vehicles such as fork lifts, or gravity, with no manual trucking. Heavy lifting is done by machines such as overhead forklifts; each worker performs one simple operation.
According to Henry Ford: The principles of assembly are these: Place the tools and the men in the sequence of the operation so that each component part shall travel the least possible distance while in the process of finishing. Use work slides or some other form of carrier so that when a workman completes his operation, he drops the part always in the same place—which place must always be the most convenient place to his hand—and if possible have gravity carry the part to the next workman for his own. Use sliding assembling lines by which the parts to be assembled are delivered at convenient distances. Designing assembly lines is a well-established mathematical challenge, referred to as assembly line balancing problem; the aim is to assign a set of tasks which need to be performed on the workpiece to a sequence of workstations. Each task requires a given task duration for completion; the assignment of tasks to stations is limited by two constraints: a precedence graph which indicates what other tasks need to be completed before a particular tasks can be initiated and a cycle time which restricts the sum of task durations which can be completed at each workstation before the workpiece is moved to the next station by they conveyor belt.
Major planning problems for operating assembly lines include supply chain integration, inventory control and production scheduling. Consider the assembly of a car: assume that certain steps in the assembly line are to install the engine, install the hood, install the wheels. In traditional production, only one car would be assembled at a time. If engine installation takes 20 minutes, hood installation takes five minutes, wheels installation takes 10 minutes a car can be produced every 35 minutes. In an assembly line, car assembly is split between several stations; when a station is finished with a car, it passes it on to the next. By having three stations, three cars can be operated on at the same time, each at a different stage of assembly. After finishing its work on the first car, the engine installation crew can begin working on the second car. While the engine installation crew works on the second car, the first car can be moved to the hood station and fitted with a hood to the wheels station and be fitted with wheels.
After the engine has been installed on the second car, the second car moves to the hood assembly. At the same time, the third car moves to the engine assembly; when the third car's engine has been mounted, it can be moved to the hood station. Assuming no loss of time when moving a car from one station to another, the longest stage on the assembly line determines the throughput so a car can be produced every 20 minutes, once the first car taking 35 minutes has been produced. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufactured products were made individually by hand. A single craftsman or team of craftsmen would create each part of a product, they would use their tools such as files and knives to create the individual parts. They would assemble them into the final product, making cut-and-try changes in the parts until they fit and could work together. Division of labor was practiced in China where state run monopolies mass-produced metal agricultural implements, china and weapons centuries before it appeared in Europe on the eve of the Industrial Revolution.
Adam Smith discussed the division of labour in the manufacture of pins at length in his book The Wealth of Nations. The Venetian Arsenal, dating to about 1104, operated similar to a production line. Ships were fitted by the various shops they passed. At the peak of its efficiency in the early 16th century, the Arsenal employed some 16,000 people who could produce nearly one ship each day, could fit out and provision a newly built galley with standardized parts on an assembly-line basis. Although the Arsenal lasted until the early Industrial Revolution, production line methods did not become common then; the Industrial Revolution led to a proliferation of invention. Many industries, notably textiles, firearms and watches, horse-drawn vehicles, railway locomotives, sewing machines, bicycles, saw expeditious improvement in materials handling and assembly during the 19th century, although modern concepts such as industrial engineering and logistics had not yet been named; the a
Marielle Franco was a Brazilian politician and human rights activist. After earning a master's degree in public administration from the Fluminense Federal University, she served as a city councillor of the Municipal Chamber of Rio de Janeiro for the Socialism and Liberty Party from January 2017 until her death. On 14 March 2018, while in a car after delivering a speech and her driver were shot multiple times and killed by two murderers in another vehicle, North in Rio de Janeiro. Franco had been an outspoken critic of police brutality and extrajudicial killings, as well as the February 2018 federal intervention by Brazilian president Michel Temer in the state of Rio de Janeiro which resulted in the deployment of the army in police operations. In March 2019, two former police officers were arrested and charged with the murder of Marielle Franco. Franco was raised in Maré, a slum in northern Rio de Janeiro, where she resided for most of her life, began to work to contribute to the household income in 1990 when she was 11 years old.
Marielle gave birth to her only child in 1998 when she was 19 years old. Franco raised her daughter without the father's help and worked as a pre-school teacher on a minimum wage. In 2000, she began her pre-university studies. Following the death of a friend from a stray bullet in 2000, Franco began working in human rights activism. In 2002, she entered the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro on a scholarship and continued working and raising her daughter as she worked towards a degree in social sciences, she subsequently earned a master's degree in public administration from the Fluminense Federal University. Her master's thesis concerns the law enforcement program to retake control of Rio's favelas from gangs. Beginning in 2007, Franco worked as a consultant for the state representative Marcelo Freixo, she coordinated the state legislature's Committee for the Defense of Human Rights and Citizenship, she worked for civil society organizations, including the Brazil Foundation and the Maré Center for Solidarity Studies and Action.
In 2016, Franco ran for a seat on the Rio de Janeiro city council in the municipal elections. As a black woman and single mother from the favelas, Franco positioned herself as a representative and defender of poor black women and people from the favelas. With over 46,500 votes, Franco was one of the 51 representatives elected, receiving the fifth highest vote total out of more than 1,500 candidates; as a city council member, Franco fought against gender violence, for reproductive rights, for the rights of favela residents. She chaired the Women's Defense Commission and formed part of a four-person committee that monitored the federal intervention in Rio de Janeiro. Working with the Rio de Janeiro Lesbian Front, Franco presented a bill to create a day of lesbian visibility in Rio de Janeiro in August 2017, but the bill was defeated by a vote of 19-17. On 13 March 2018, Franco spoke out on Twitter against the police violence in Rio de Janeiro: “Another homicide of a young man that could be credited to the police.
Matheus Melo was leaving church. "How many others will have to die for this war to end?" The next day, Franco attended a round-table discussion titled "Young Black Women Moving Structures". Less than two hours after leaving the round-table and her driver, Anderson Pedro Gomes, were fatally shot by two men who were driving another car; the men fired nine shots at them, four of which struck Franco – three in the head and one in the neck. Franco's press officer was injured, but survived. Marcelo Freixo, a Rio de Janeiro legislative assembly member from PSOL who came to the scene shortly after hearing of her killing, determined that the bullets had been directed at her in a clear execution. According to the Rio de Janeiro police, the direction of the nine shots supports the hypothesis that Franco was assassinated; the bullets that killed Franco are from a batch bought by the federal police in Brasília in 2006. In January 2019, police arrested Ronald Paulo Alves Pereira and issued a warrant for Adriano Magalhães da Nóbrega, both suspects in Franco's assassination.
Each suspect received honors from president Jair Bolsonaro's son Flávio Bolsonaro in the early 2000s. Nóbrega's wife and mother were still being employed in Flávio Bolsonaro's office in 2018. In March 2019, police arrested two suspects, former members of the military police tied to a vigilante militia, for the murder. Prior to their arrest, both suspects had pictures taken with now President Jair Bolsonaro, one was his neighbor at a luxury apartment complex in Rio. In November 2019, a number of Brazilian media outlets reported that police was investigating possible ties of President Bolsonaro's second son, Carlos, to the case. Thousands took to the streets in coordinated protests across Brazil, both Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch condemned her killing. Journalist Glenn Greenwald, whose husband David Miranda is a fellow City Council member and was a close personal friend of Franco's, listed what he referred to as the "most important subjects to cover" regarding Franco's assassination stating: Her
Kentucky Knife Fight was an American rock band from St. Louis, Missouri. Active since 2005, the band had been a congruent force alongside Pokey LaFarge, So Many Dynamos and Sleepy Kitty in bringing national attention to a re-emerging St. Louis music scene, their sound is classified as Noir Blues, combining pre-rock elements of blues, dark-bluegrass, jazz with punk and twang influences. Kentucky Knife Fight was formed by original members Jason Holler, Nate Jones, Jason "Mr. Cool" Koenig, "Handsome" James Baker during their time at Southern Illinois U of Edwardsville. Holler and Koenig met as high school classmates in Quincy, IL and reunited in 2005 while both attending SIUE. While at a small concert together at the historic Stagger Inn... Again in Edwardsville, IL, the two watched the southern Illinois dark-bluegrass band The Woodbox Gang. After the concert and Koenig decided to start a band that would infuse Americana roots, dark narrative themes, the garage and proto-punk influences that were enjoying a resurgence in the mid-2000s.
Employing James Baker on drums and Nate Jones on guitar, the 4-piece began holding songwriting sessions to write original material. On April 22, 2005, using small practice amps and borrowed PA gear, the unnamed 4-piece group performed two original songs at an open mic night held at the Stagger Inn. In 2005, the group added David Wiatrolik, a classmate of Koenig's in the SIUE music department, to the band as a second guitar and banjo player. In January, 2010, David Wiatrolik announced. After a final performance at Edwardsville's Stagger Inn on May 6, 2010, Curtis J Brewer became the newest member, taking over as the band's second guitarist and banjo player. In February, 2010, Jason Koenig contacted Brewer about filling in for an April, 22 show opening for Th' Legendary Shack Shakers that the band had committed to before learning of Wiatrolik's exiting plan. Brewer, a musician and educator in the St. Louis area, agreed to play the show. At the first rehearsal with Brewer, the group was impressed enough with Brewer learning all of their songs, asked if he was interested in playing in Kentucky Knife Fight full-time.
The first performance with Brewer on guitar and banjo was April 17, 2010, at Vintage Vinyl for Record Store Day. Their first official show with the current lineup was on April 22, 2010 opening for Th' Legendary Shack Shakers at The Firebird. Filming for their first official music video began in February 2011; the videos theme and concept was created by Holler and directed by Ryan Frank of St. Louis' First Punch Film Productions. St. Louis Magazine, while interviewing Holler in 2013, wrote that "... The result, Holler feels, captured the “dark and moody” feel the group wanted, with Holler cast as a cabdriver, ferrying various St. Louis characters through a loving night; the song was subsequently used for the entire opening-credit sequence of the film 23 Minutes to Sunrise, directed by St. Louisan Jay Kanzler and starring Eric Roberts." On August 4, 2012, Kentucky Knife Fight performed in St. Louis for the release of the Misshapen Love / Love the Lonely vinyl 7" single. On March 2, 2013, Kentucky Knife Fight released their full-length album Hush Hush to a sold-out crowd at the famed St. Louis concert venue, Off Broadway.
The concert was released for free online streaming. The band toured relentlessly after the release of "Hush Hush," but announced plans in September 2014 to end the band. Kentucky Knife Fight gave their last performance in front of a sold-out crowd on Saturday, November 22, 2014 at the St. Louis venue Off Broadway. Band Members Jason Holler - vocals, harmonica Curtis J Brewer - guitar, vocals Nate Jones - guitar, vocals Jason "Mr. Cool" Koenig - bass, vocals James Baker - drums, percussion Nathan Jatcko - keyboards, organ David Wiatrolik - guitar, vocals Alongside indie-rock cohorts The Blind Eyes, Kentucky Knife Fight performed for the 2010, 2011, & 2012 New Year's Eve blowout event at famed St. Louis venue Off Broadway; the sold-out shows featured original sets from both bands and a super-group set of cover songs performed throughout the night. Kentucky Knife Fight performed for the SXSW 2011 & 2012 day parties for 88.1 KDHX at Jovita's in Austin, TX, alongside acts such as Nikka Costa, Joe Pug, JC & the Uptown Sound and Nikki Lane.
In 2011, 2012, 2013, Kentucky Knife Fight was selected as featured act for the MidPoint Music Festival in Cincinnati, OH. The group performed in November 2012 as direct support for Rev. Horton Heat at Springfield, IL's 900 capacity concert venue, Donnie's Homespun, their song "Love the Lonely" was licensed for the opening credits of the full-length motion picture 23 Minutes to Sunrise. In August, 2013, Kentucky Knife Fight performed as direct support for Lucero for a sold-out crowd on day 2 of the Open Highway Festival Kentucky Knife Fight was selected as one of three St. Louis bands to perform for the 2013 Loufest Music Festival held in Forest Park on September 7 & 8, 2013; the festival featured acts such as Wilco, The Killers, The National, The Alabama Shakes, Jim James, more. Bloomington, IN musical group Murder by Death hosted Kentucky Knife Fight as direct support on a Mid-West tour in September 2013. Dallax, Tx musical group Old 97's hosted Kentucky Knife Fight as direct support on a North US tour in June 2014.
Kentucky Knife Fight performed their farewell show on November 22, 2014 at the St. Louis venue Off Broadway; the sold-out show featured original sets from support acts (and long-time touring contempora