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Assistive technology

Assistive technology is assistive and rehabilitative devices for people with disabilities or the elderly population. People who have disabilities have difficulty performing activities of daily living independently, or with assistance. ADLs are self-care activities that include toileting, eating, dressing and personal device care. Assistive technology can ameliorate the effects of disabilities that limit the ability to perform ADLs. Assistive technology promotes greater independence by enabling people to perform tasks they were unable to accomplish, or had great difficulty accomplishing, by providing enhancements to, or changing methods of interacting with, the technology needed to accomplish such tasks. For example, wheelchairs provide independent mobility for those who cannot walk, while assistive eating devices can enable people who cannot feed themselves to do so. Due to assistive technology, people with disabilities have an opportunity of a more positive and easygoing lifestyle, with an increase in "social participation," "security and control," and a greater chance to "reduce institutional costs without increasing household expenses."

Adaptive technology and assistive technology are different. Assistive technology is something, used to help individuals with disabilities, while adaptive technology covers items that are designed for people with disabilities and would be used by a non-disabled person. In other words, assistive technology is any object or system that helps people with disabilities, while adaptive technology is designed for people with disabilities. Adaptive technology is a subset of assistive technology. Adaptive technology refers to electronic and information technology access. Occupational therapy is a healthcare profession that specializes in maintaining or improving the quality of life for individuals that experience challenges when independently performing life's occupations. According to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework: Domain and Process, occupations include areas related to all basic and instrumental activities of daily living and sleep, work, play and social participation. Occupational therapists have the specialized skill of employing assistive technology in the improvement and maintenance of optimal, functional participation in occupations.

The application of AT enables an individual to adapt aspects of the environment, that may otherwise be challenging, to the user in order to optimize functional participation in those occupations. As a result, occupational therapists may educate and promote the use of AT to improve the quality of life for their clients. Wheelchairs are devices that can be manually propelled or electrically propelled, that include a seating system and are designed to be a substitute for the normal mobility that most people have. Wheelchairs and other mobility devices allow people to perform mobility-related activities of daily living which include feeding, dressing and bathing; the devices come in a number of variations where they can be propelled either by hand or by motors where the occupant uses electrical controls to manage motors and seating control actuators through a joystick, sip-and-puff control, head switches or other input devices. There are handles behind the seat for someone else to do the pushing or input devices for caregivers.

Wheelchairs are used by people for whom walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. People with both sitting and walking disability need to use a wheelchair or walker. Newer advancements in wheelchair design include prototypes that enable wheelchairs to climb stairs, or propel using segway technology. Patient transfer devices allow patients with impaired mobility to be moved by caregivers between beds, commodes, chairs, shower benches, swimming pools, other patient support systems; the most common devices are Patient lifts, Transfer benches, stretcher or convertible chairs, sit-to-stand lifts, air bearing inflatable mattresses, sliding boards. Dependent patients who cannot assist their caregiver in moving them require a Patient lift which though invented in 1955 and in common use since the early 1960s is still considered the state-of-the-art transfer device by OSHA and the American Nursing Association. A walker or walking frame or Rollator is a tool for disabled people who need additional support to maintain balance or stability while walking.

It consists of a frame, about waist high twelve inches deep and wider than the user. Walkers are available in other sizes, such as for children, or for heavy people. Modern walkers are height-adjustable; the front two legs of the walker may or may not have wheels attached depending on the strength and abilities of the person using it. It is common to see caster wheels or glides on the back legs of a walker with wheels on the front. A prosthesis, prosthetic, or prosthetic limb is a device, it is part of the field of biomechatronics, the science of using mechanical devices with human muscle and nervous systems to assist or enhance motor control lost by trauma, disease, or defect. Prostheses are used to

Vladimir Belokurov

Vladimir Vyacheslavovich Belokurov was a Soviet Russian film and theater actor and teacher. He won the Stalin Prize of the second degree. Valery Chkalov as Valery Chkalov Zhukovsky as Sergey Chaplygin Belinsky as Barsukov The Great Warrior Skanderbeg A Weary Road as Latkin Dead Souls as Chichikov Resurrection as Maslennikov Striped Trip as boatswain Flower on the Stone as father of Christina Queen of the Gas Station as Medved Across the Cemetery as Sazon Ivanovich Kulik The Elusive Avengers The New Adventures of the Elusive Avengers as bandit, named "holy father-philosopher" Crime and Punishment innkeeper The Crown of the Russian Empire, or Once Again the Elusive Avengers as bandit, named "holy father-philosopher" Vladimir Belokurov on IMDb

Cellular compartment

Cellular compartments in cell biology comprise all of the closed parts within the cytosol of a eukaryotic cell surrounded by a single or double lipid layer membrane. These compartments are but not always, defined as membrane enclosed regions; the formation of cellular compartments is called compartmentalization. Both organelles, the mitochondria and chloroplasts, are compartments that are believed to be of endosymbiotic origin. Other compartments such as peroxisomes, the endoplasmic reticulum, the cell nucleus or the Golgi apparatus are not of endosymbiotic origin. Smaller elements like vesicles, sometimes microtubules can be counted as compartments, it was thought. But the discovery of carboxysomes and many other metabolosomes revealed that prokaryotic cells are capable of making compartmentalized structures, albeit these are in most cases not surrounded by a lipid bilayer, but of pure proteinaceous built. In general there are 4 main cellular compartments, they are: The nuclear compartment comprising the nucleus The intercisternal space which comprises the space between the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum Organelles The cytosol Compartments have three main roles.

One is to establish physical boundaries for biological processes that enables the cell to carry out different metabolic activities at the same time. This may include keeping other molecules outside. Within the membrane-bound compartments, different intracellular pH, different enzyme systems, other differences are isolated from other organelles and cytosol. With mitochondria, the cytosol has an oxidizing environment which converts NADH to NAD+. With these cases, the compartmentalization is physical. Another is to generate a specific micro-environment to spatially or temporally regulate a biological process; as an example, a yeast vacuole is acidified by proton transporters on the membrane. A third role is to establish specific locations or cellular addresses for which processes should occur. For example, a transcription factor may be directed to a nucleus, where it can promote transcription of certain genes. In terms of protein synthesis, the necessary organelles are near one another; the nucleolus within the nuclear envelope is the location of ribosome synthesis.

The destination of synthesized ribosomes for protein translation is rough endoplasmic reticulum, connected to and shares the same membrane with the nucleus. The Golgi body is near the rough ER for packaging and redistributing. Intracellular compartmentalization allows specific sites of related eukaryotic cell functions isolated from other processes and therefore efficient. Cellular compartments are defined by membrane enclosure; these membranes provide physical barriers to biomolecules. Transport across these barriers is controlled in order to maintain the optimal concentration of biomolecules within and outside of the compartment. Media related to Cell compartmentation at Wikimedia Commons

Waste sorting

Waste sorting is the process by which waste is separated into different elements. Waste sorting can occur manually at the household and collected through curbside collection schemes, or automatically separated in materials recovery facilities or mechanical biological treatment systems. Hand sorting was the first method used in the history of waste sorting. Waste can be sorted in a civic amenity site. "Waste segregation" means dividing waste into wet. Dry waste includes wood and related products and glass. Wet waste refers to organic waste generated by eating establishments and are heavy in weight due to dampness. Waste can be segregeconomic concern. Waste is separated; the way that waste is sorted must reflect local disposal systems. The following categories are common: Paper Cardboard Glass Plastics Textiles Wood, rubber Scrap metal Compost Special/hazardous waste Residual wasteOrganic waste can be segregated for disposal: Leftover food which has had any contact with meat can be collected separately to prevent the spread of bacteria.

Meat and bone can be retrieved by bodies responsible for animal waste. If other leftovers are sent, for example, to local farmers, they can be sterilised before being fed to the animals. Peels and scrapings from fruit and vegetables can be composted along with other degradable matter. Other waste can be included for composting, such as cut flowers, coffee grounds, rotting fruit, tea bags and nutshells, paper towels. Chip pan oil, used fats, vegetable oil and the content of fat filters can be collected by companies able to re-use them. Local authority waste departments can provide relevant addresses; this can be achieved by providing recycling bins. In Germany, regulations exist that provide mandatory quotas for the waste sorting of packaging waste and recyclable materials such as glass bottles. In Denpasar, Indonesia, a pilot project using an automated collecting machine of plastic bottles or aluminium cans with voucher reward has been implemented in a market. In India, waste segregation is said to be a mess due to accumulation of waste.

India is developing waste sorting methods due to the force from government. This segregation is sorted by dry waste, which includes plastic and glass as well as wet waste, which includes discarded food material, it is predicted that such segregation laws will be increased by 2030. Media related to Waste sorting at Wikimedia Commons

Nunivak Island

Nunivak Island is a permafrost-covered volcanic island lying about 30 miles offshore from the delta of the Yukon and Kuskokwim rivers in the US state of Alaska, at a latitude of about 60° N. The island is 1,631.97 square miles in area, making it the second-largest island in the Bering Sea and eighth-largest island in the United States. It is 106 kilometers wide, it has a population of 191 persons as of the 2010 census, down from 210 in 2000. The island's entire population lived in the north coast city of Mekoryuk. Nunivak has only one permanent settlement, with about 200 residents. In the 1880 United States Census, Ivan Petrof recorded 702 residents in nine villages on the island. An epidemic in 1900 decimated the population of the island. Emigration keeps the population small. Of the noted persons who have visited Nunivak are photographer Edward S. Curtis, Anne Makepeace, anthropologist Margaret Lantis, the artist Muriel Hannah. Noted conservationist and outdoorsman Steven Rinella aired an episode of his television show Meat Eater in 2015 where he experienced a muskox hunt and explored the history and culture of the island and its people.

Nearly all the permanent residents of Nunivak are Cup'it Eskimo, whose traditional language is a dialect of Central Alaskan Yup'ik known as Cup'ig or Nunivak Cup'ig. Cup'ig is the first language for many older islanders and is enjoying a dedicated revival among younger islanders as well, although nearly all Nuniwarmiut speak English; the people of Nunivak Island still depend to a large degree on subsistence hunting, commercial fishing and industrial work on the mainland. Nunivak Island is volcanic in origin; the island is dotted with four maars. Much of its surface consists of widespread, thin flows of pahoehoe lava from small shield volcanoes, which spread over sedimentary rock of the Cretaceous period. Volcanic eruptions took place during 5 periods of activity beginning 6.1 million years ago. Most of the volcanic field was formed during the two most recent eruptive periods during the Pleistocene ending about 300,000 years ago; because of the history of volcanic activity, it is considered part of the Bering Sea Volcanic Province.

The Ibkilwit Lava Bed is located on Nunivak Island. Tundra is the main landscape feature. More than 40 rivers drain the tundra upland. Brackish lagoons ring the eastern and southern shores, steep volcanic cliffs dominate the northwest shores. At least 89 migratory seabird and waterfowl species have seasonal homes on Nunivak Island, including several endangered and threatened species. Dense summer breeding rookeries are found in inland tundra lakes. Prehistorically, Nunivak was home to a modest herd of caribou, but these were exterminated after the introduction of firearms in the late 19th or early 20th century. United States Fish and Wildlife introduced reindeer and musk ox onto the island in the 1930s and 1940s. Large herds of these animals are maintained by the local Native Corporation of Mekoryuk. Most of the island is part of the Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, administered by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service; the art of Nunivak Island has its roots in the ancient past. The oldest known sculpture is thousands of years old.

In the ancient times masks were made to trade for goods needed to survive. Masks were intended for festivities and traditional healing; this type of mask represents the life surrounding Nunivak Island. The walrus is. And, in turn, man depends on the walrus for survival; these are two of the traditional animals that were hunted by the men of the village in order to provide for their families. The walrus is, it held much of the necessities of living in the Bering Sea. The skin of the walrus was used for waterproofing kayaks, the soles of mukluks, the intestine was used as waterproof rain gear that were of great necessity in earlier times; the bones were used as tools, the ivory for spear heads, harpoon heads and carvings were made for trade. The loon pelts were transformed into beautiful winter coats that were waterproof. Nunivak Island first reported on the 1880 U. S. Census as an unincorporated island, with 400 Yupik residents. In 1890, the villages on the island reported separately, it next reported in 1910 for the entire island through to 1940.

Since 1950, any settlements on the island have reported separately again, though all residents now reside in Mekoryuk as of 2000 and 2010. Nunathloogagamiutbingoi Dunes Nunivak Eskimo Margaret Lantis in Handbook of North American Indians v5 Arctic pp 209–223. Government Printing Office, Washington. Copyright 1984 Smithsonian institution. Nunivak Island Eskimo technology and material culture VanStone, James W. Fieldiana: Anthropology, new series, no.12 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History. In copyright, digitized with the permission of the Chicago Field Museum; this notes. The social culture of the Nunivak Eskimo. Margaret Lantis. Transactions, American Philosophical Society Charles C. Hughes. Review of "Eskimo Childhood and Interpersonal Relationships: Nunivak Biographies and Genealogies" by Margaret Lantis American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 63, No

Battle of Halmyros

The Battle of Halmyros, known by earlier scholars as the Battle of the Cephissus or Battle of Orchomenos, was fought on 15 March 1311, between the forces of the Frankish Duchy of Athens and its vassals under Walter of Brienne against the mercenaries of the Catalan Company, resulting in a decisive victory for the Catalans. Engaged in conflict with their original employers, the Byzantine Empire, the Catalan Company had traversed the southern Balkans and arrived in southern Greece in 1309; the new Duke of Athens, Walter of Brienne, hired them to attack the Greek ruler of neighbouring Thessaly. Although the Catalans conquered much of the region for him, Walter refused to pay them and prepared to forcibly expel them from their gains; the two armies met at Halmyros in southern Thessaly. The Catalans were outnumbered and weakened by the reluctance of their Turkish auxiliaries to fight; the Company did have the advantage of selecting the battleground, positioning themselves behind marshy terrain, which they further inundated.

On the Athenian side, many of the most important lords of Frankish Greece were present and Walter, a prideful man and confident in the prowess of his heavy cavalry, proceeded to charge headlong against the Catalan line. The marsh impeded the Frankish attack and the Catalan infantry stood firm; the Turks re-joined the Frankish army was routed. As a result of the battle, the Catalans took over the leaderless Duchy of Athens. Following the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, much of Greece came under the rule of Frankish Crusader principalities; the most notable of them were the Kingdom of Thessalonica, the Principality of Achaea, the Duchy of Athens, with its capital at Thebes. Thessalonica proved short-lived and fell to the resurgent Greeks, but the other Frankish principalities persevered and prospered for most of the 13th century. In his landmark 1909 history of Frankish Greece, the medievalist William Miller writes of the Duchy of Athens that "under the dominion of the dukes of the house of de la Roche, trade prospered, manufactures flourished, the splendours of the Theban court impressed foreigners accustomed to the pomps and pageants of much greater states."

On 5 October 1308, Guy II, died childless. His succession was disputed, but in mid-1309, the High Court of Achaea chose his cousin, the Burgundian noble Walter of Brienne, as successor. At that time the Greek world was in turmoil owing to the actions of the Catalan Company, a group of mercenaries, veterans of the War of the Sicilian Vespers hired by the Byzantine Empire against the Turks in Asia Minor. Mutual suspicion and quarrels led to war with the Byzantines; the last leader of the Company, Bernat de Rocafort, had envisaged the restoration of the Kingdom of Thessalonica with himself at its head, had entered into negotiations for a marriage alliance with Guy II. Nothing came of these negotiations, as Rocafort's despotic rule led to his deposition. After that, the Company was ruled by a committee of four, assisted by a twelve-member council; the arrival of the Company's 8,000 men in Thessaly caused concern to its Greek ruler, John II Doukas. Having just exploited the death of Guy II to repudiate the overlordship of the Dukes of Athens, John turned to Byzantium and the other Greek principality, the Despotate of Epirus, for aid.

Defeated by the Greeks, the Catalans agreed to pass peacefully through Thessaly towards the Frankish principalities of southern Greece. Walter of Brienne had fought the Catalans in Italy during the War of the Vespers, spoke their language, had gained their respect. Using this familiarity, he now hired the Company for six months against the Greeks, at the high price of four ounces of gold for every heavy cavalryman, two for every light cavalryman, one for every infantryman, to be paid every month, with two months' payment in advance. Turning back, the Catalans captured the town of Domokos and some thirty other fortresses, plundered the rich plain of Thessaly, forcing the Greek states to come to terms with Walter; this brought Walter accolades and financial rewards from Pope Clement V, but the Duke now declined to honour his bargain with the Catalans and provide the remaining four months' pay. Walter picked the best 200 horsemen and 300 Almogavar infantry from the Company, paid them their arrears and gave them land so they would remain in his service, while ordering the rest to hand over their conquests and depart.

The Catalans offered to recognize him as their lord if they were allowed to keep some of the land they had taken to establish themselves but Walter rejected their proposal and prepared to expel them by force. The Duke of Athens assembled a large army, comprising his feudatories—among the most prominent were Albert Pallavicini, Margrave of Bodonitsa, Thomas III d'Autremencourt, Lord of Salona and Marshal of Achaea, the barons of Euboea, Boniface of Verona, George I Ghisi, John of Maisy—as well as reinforcements sent from the other principalities of Frankish Greece. A number of sources report in various degree of detail on the events before and during the battle: chapter 240 of the chronicle of Ramon Muntaner.