Maudslay Motor Company
The Maudslay Motor Company was a British vehicle maker based in Coventry. It was founded in 1902 and continued until 1948 when it was taken over by the Associated Equipment Company, the company was founded by Cyril Charles Maudslay, great grandson of the eminent engineer Henry Maudslay to make marine internal combustion engines. He was joined by his cousin Reginald Walter Maudslay who soon left to found the Standard Motor Company, the engines did not sell very well, and in 1902 they made their first engine intended for a car which was fitted to chain-drive chassis. The three-cylinder engine, designed by Alexander Craig was a unit with a single overhead camshaft. It was fitted with a three-cylinder engine developing 85 bhp at 450rpm, with cylinders of 9inch bore, transmission was via a 2-speed change gear. The locomotive weighed 12 tons, and was provided with a 8 hp auxiliary engine which was used to start the main engine and this was the first commercially successful petrol locomotive in the world.
The three-cylinder engine was followed in 1903 by a six-cylinder version, for 1904 a range of cars was on offer, including one with a 9. 6-litre version of the six-cylinder engine. The cars were among the most expensive on the British market, as well as cars the company made commercial vehicles with the first double decker bus produced in 1905 and a range of trucks varying from small two-cylinder models to six ton models. In 1912 Maudslay supplied a 40 hp engine to power an early petrol-electric railcar, a side-valve engine was introduced in 1914. Private car production stopped with the outbreak of war, five- and six-ton lorries had been supplied to the British War Office in 1913, and these, along with a three-ton model, became the main product during hostilities. In addition, aircraft undercarriages were made, as well as reconditioning work carried out on radial engines, production of complete engines was started in 1918. Despite the advent of peace in 1918, private car building was not resumed, apart from an example of an advanced sports car.
Heavy goods vehicles were the line and some were modified for passenger carrying. A breakthrough came in 1924, when a coach chassis was introduced. A significant product was the SF40 front-engined coach chassis, with front axle. It achieved quite successful sales figures until the advent of World War II, all civilian vehicle production stopped in 1939, and the company turned out general service vehicles and aircraft components. In 1941, virtually all production was transferred to a new works at Great Alne, some production remained in Coventry, and when the factory was bombed in the Coventry Blitz several people were killed there. The Great Alne works would be known as Castle Maudslay, automotive production remains at this site for many years
Albion Automotive of Scotstoun, Glasgow is a former Scottish automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer. It is currently involved in the manufacture and supply of Automotive component systems, from WW1 to the 1950s, Albion had rivalled Foden for the reliability and ruggedness of their trucks. Albion was incorporated into Leyland Motors in 1951, and merely became a badge for their smaller lines, the badge was dropped by British Leyland in 1980. Today the company is a subsidiary of American Axle & Manufacturing and it is Scotlands best known name in the motor industry. Albions were renowned for their slogan Sure as the Sunrise, the factory was originally on the first floor of a building in Finnieston Street and had only seven employees. In 1903 the company moved to new premises in Scotstoun, the Albion Motor Car Company Ltd was renamed Albion Motors in 1930. In 1951, Leyland Motors took over, after the British Leyland Motor Corporation was founded in 1968, production continued with the Albion Chieftain, Clydesdale & Reiver trucks and the Albion Viking bus models.
Production of these was moved to the Leyland plant at Bathgate in 1980. In 1969, the took over the neighbouring Coventry Ordnance Works on South Street. Leyland dropped the Albion name when the name was changed to Leyland. A management buy-out in 1993 brought Albion Automotive as it was known back into Scottish ownership. A new owner, the American Axle & Manufacturing Company of Detroit, Michigan, in 1900 they built their first motor car, a rustic-looking dogcart made of varnished wood and powered by a flat-twin 8hp engine with gear-change by Patent Combination Clutches and solid tyres. In 1903 Albion introduced a 3115 cc 16 hp vertical-twin, followed in 1906 by a 24 hp four, one of the specialities the company offered was solid-tired shooting-brakes. During World War 1 they built for the War Office large quantities of 3 ton trucks powered by a 32 hp engine using chain drive to the rear wheels, after the war many of these were converted for use as charabancs. Trucks and buses were manufactured in the Scotstoun works until 1980, the buses were exported to Asia, East Africa, Australia and South Africa.
Almost all Albion buses were given names beginning with V, these models being the Victor, Viking, Valkyrie, WD. CX24 Tank transporter Chieftain Clansman Claymore Clydesdale Reiver Albion made the Claymore with the 4 speed gearbox, The Reiver was a six wheeler. The Chieftain had a 6 speed gearbox, 6th being a gear, with a worm. The earliest buses were built on the A10 truck chassis with two being delivered to West Bromwich in 1914, newcastle upon Tyne took double deckers around this time, but Albion did not produce a purpose-built double deck chassis until 1931
Leyland Motors Limited was a British vehicle manufacturer of lorries and trolleybuses. It gave its name to the British Leyland Motor Corporation formed when it merged with British Motor Holdings, British Leyland changed its name to simply BL, in 1986 to Rover Group. Leyland Motors has a history dating from 1896, when the Sumner and Spurrier families founded the Lancashire Steam Motor Company in the town of Leyland in North West England. Their first products included steam lawn mowers, the companys first vehicle was a 1. 5-ton-capacity steam powered van. This was followed by a number of steam wagons using a vertical fire-tube boiler. By 1905 they had begun to build petrol-engined wagons. The Lancashire Steam Motor Company was renamed Leyland Motors in 1907 when they took over Coulthards of Preston and they built a second factory in the neighbouring town of Chorley which still remains today as the headquarters of the LEX leasing and parts company. In 1920, Leyland Motors produced the Leyland 8 luxury touring car, parry-Thomas was killed in an attempt on the land speed record when the car overturned.
Rumours that a chain drive broke were found to be incorrect when the car was disinterred late in the 20th century as the chains were intact, at the other extreme, they produced the Trojan Utility Car in the Kingston upon Thames factory at Ham from 1922 to 1928. Three generations of Spurriers controlled Leyland Motors from its foundation until the retirement of Sir Henry Spurrier in 1964, Sir Henry inherited control of Leyland Motors from his father in 1942, and successfully guided its growth during the postwar years. Whilst the Spurrier family were in control the company enjoyed excellent labour relations—reputedly never losing a days production through industrial action, during the war, Leyland Motors along with most vehicle manufacturers was involved in war production. Leyland built the Cromwell tank at its works from 1943 as well as medium/large trucks such as the Leyland Hippo, after the war, Leyland Motors continued military manufacture with the Centurion tank. In 1946, AEC and Leyland Motors worked to form the British United Traction Ltd, in 1955, through an equity agreement, manufacture of commercial vehicles under licence from Leyland Motors commenced in Madras, India at the new Ashok factory.
The products were branded as Ashok Leyland, donald Stokes, previously Sales Director, was appointed managing director of Leyland Motors Limited in September 1962 originally a Leyland student apprentice he had grown up with the company. In 1968 Leyland Motor Corporation Limited merged with British Motor Holdings to form the British Leyland Motor Corporation, BMH brought with it into the new organisation more famous British goods vehicle and bus and coach marques, including Daimler, Guy, BMC, Austin and Morris. The Leyland diesel engines were used in Finnish Sisu and Vanaja lorries and buses in 1960s, the BLMC group was difficult to manage because of the many companies under its control, often making similar products. This, and other reasons, led to difficulties and in December 1974 British Leyland had to receive a guarantee from the British government. This division was split into Leyland Bus and Leyland Trucks in 1981, Leyland Trucks depended on British sales as well as export markets, mainly commonwealth and ex-commonwealth markets
Airport crash tender
An airport crash tender is a specialised fire engine designed for use in aircraft rescue and firefighting at aerodromes and military air bases. Airport crash tenders are extremely powerful machines and they can be mounted on 4x4, 6x6 or even 8x8 wheeled chassis. In order to decrease their radius, the 8x8 wheeled unit may have all 4 wheels at the front of the vehicle involved in turning the truck. Newer airport crash tenders incorporate twin agent nozzles/injection systems to inject a stream of Purple-K dry chemical into the AFFF foam stream knocking-down the fire faster, some have Halotron tanks with handlines for situations that require a clean agent to be utilized. These features give the airport crash tenders a capability to reach an airplane rapidly, some tenders have an elevated extended extinguishing arm, giving a possibility to raise a water/foam cannon into the height of approx. 10 –20 meters, that can puncture through superficial structures of an aeroplane to fight a fire inside the fuselage, the International Civil Aviation Organization has given standards and recommended practices on rescue fire fighting categories of civil aerodromes.
National aviation authorities may have given even further requirements on aerodrome rescue, the rescue fire services are based on a critical aircraft based on a statistical analysis of movements on the airport. The aerodrome category is based on the size of the biggest aircraft taking a movement on the aerodrome. In addition, the number of movements of the aircraft is calculated. There are minimum category levels based on e. g. the number of seats in the critical aircraft, depending on the airport category, the standards determine the minimum number of rescue fire-fighting vehicles. The end of each runway has to be achieved in a time of two minutes, and any part of the movement area has to be achieved in a response time not exceeding three minutes. Airport rescue and firefighting services operate many specialist vehicles to provide cover at airports. They include, 1) Crash tenders 2) Domestic type fire appliances, Domestic appliances are similar in function and appearance to fire appliances operated by county fire services / departments.
They are not as large or as heavy as airport crash tenders, the units are ordinarily used to respond to fire incidents in airport terminal buildings but respond to aircraft incidents. The appliances carry Breathing Apparatus, rescue equipment, firefighting media, ladders, 3) First attack or rapid intervention vehicles. RIVs are normally smaller, nimble fire appliances capable of quick acceleration and they carry less equipment than Domestic and Crash Tenders but arrive first on scene at aircraft incidents to begin rescue and firefighting operations whilst heavier / larger units approach. Oshkosh Striker - specific model of Crash Tender manufactured by the Oshkosh Corporation Water salute
AEC Armoured Car
AEC Armoured Car is the name of a series of heavy armoured cars built by the Associated Equipment Company during the Second World War. AEC of Southall, was a manufacturer of truck and bus chassis and its Matador artillery tractor was used for towing medium field, AEC tried to build an armoured car with fire power and protection comparable to those of contemporary tanks. The first version carried a Valentine Mk II turret with 2 pounder gun, subsequent versions received a 6 pounder or a 75 mm gun. The vehicle carried two guns, smoke grenades discharger and No.19 radio set. The Mk I was first used in combat in the North African Campaign late in 1942, the Mk II and Mk III took part in the fighting in Europe with British and British Indian Army units, often together with the Staghound. The vehicle remained in service after the end of the war until replaced by the Alvis Saladin, the Lebanese Army used the car at least until 1976. Mk I, original version with turret from a Valentine tank,129 built, Mk II, heavier turret with a 6 pounder gun, redesigned front hull,158 hp diesel engine.
Mk III, Close Support Armoured Car a Mk II with 6 pounder replaced with the QF75 mm gun, AA, Crusader AA turret with twin Oerlikon cannon capable of high elevation to engage enemy aircraft. Did not enter due to Allied air superiority in Northern Europe. George Forty - World War Two Armoured Fighting Vehicles and Self-Propelled Artillery, Osprey Publishing 1996, moschanskiy - Armored vehicles of the Great Britain 1939-1945 part 2, Modelist-Konstruktor, Bronekollektsiya 1999-02. Britains Associated Equipment Company Armored Cars at wwiivehicles. com Tank2. ru Battlefront. co. nz
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
The AEC Routemaster is a front-engined double-decker bus that was designed by London Transport and built by the Associated Equipment Company and Park Royal Vehicles. The first prototype was completed in September 1954 and the last one was delivered in 1968, the layout of the vehicle was traditional for the time, with a half-cab, front-mounted engine and open rear platform, although the coach version was fitted with rear platform doors. Forward entrance vehicles with platform doors were produced as was a unique front-entrance prototype with the engine mounted transversely at the rear. The first London bus route to be operated by the Routemaster was route 2, on 8 February 1956, the same bus, with a revised front end, appeared at the Lord Mayors Show in November 1956. Most Routemasters were built for London Transport, although numbers were built for British European Airways. A total of 2,876 Routemasters were built, of which 1,280 are still in existence, in modern UK public transport bus operation, the old-fashioned features of the standard Routemaster were both praised and criticised.
Despite the retirement of the version, the Routemaster has retained iconic status. In 2006, the Routemaster was voted one of Britains top 10 design icons which included Concorde, Supermarine Spitfire, London tube map, World Wide Web, in the late 2000s work began on a New Routemaster bus inspired by the Routemasters traditional design. It entered service in February 2012, the Routemaster was developed between 1947 and 1956 by a team directed by AAM Durrant and Colin Curtis, with vehicle styling by Douglas Scott. The resulting vehicle seated 64 passengers, despite being three-quarters of a ton lighter than buses in the RT family, the first task on delivery to service was to replace Londons trolleybuses, which had themselves replaced trams, and to begin to replace the older types of diesel bus. The Routemaster was designed by London Transport and constructed at Park Royal Vehicles, both companies were owned by Associated Commercial Vehicles, which was taken over by Leyland Motors in 1962. It was a design and used lightweight aluminium along with techniques developed in aircraft production during World War II.
As well as a novel, weight-saving integral design, it introduced for the first time on a bus independent front suspension, power steering, a fully automatic gearbox and power-hydraulic braking. This surprised some early drivers, who found the chassis unexpectedly light and nimble compared with older designs, footage of RM200 undergoing the skid test at Chiswick was included in the 1971 film On the Buses. The Routemaster was a departure from the traditional chassis/body construction method and it was one of the first integral buses, with a combination of an A steel sub-frame and a rear B steel sub-frame, connected by an aluminium body. The gearbox was mounted on the underside of the structure with shafts to the engine. Later pre-war London trolleybuses, had previously adopted chassisless construction, London Transport placed four prototype Routemasters in service between 1956 and 1958. The first two were built at the London Transport works at Chiswick, the third by Weymann at Addlestone and the fourth, the third and fourth had Leyland engines
Walthamstow is the principal town of the London Borough of Waltham Forest in North East London, England. It is located 7.5 miles northeast from Charing Cross, Walthamstow is a large town, situated between the North Circular Road to the north, Lee Valley and the Walthamstow Reservoirs to the west, and Epping Forest to the east. The town centre consists of Walthamstow Market, the longest single street market in Europe, Walthamstow is recorded c.1075 as Wilcumestowe and in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Wilcumestou. King John visited Shern Hall in 1213, the building survived until 1896, at one point Walthamstow was just a culmination of five small villages, and affairs were discussed at Vestry House, acting as the first town hall. In 1870 it had grown to the size of a small suburb, until the 19th century it was largely rural, with a small village centre and a number of large estates. The main route through the district was the aforementioned Hoe Street, there were various smaller lanes, crossing the town.
The road now known as Forest Road was originally called Clay Street, further south, the High Street was named Marsh Street, and led from the original settlement out to the marshes. Shernhall Street is an ancient route, as is Wood Street, in the 1660s Sir William Batten, Surveyor of the Navy, and his wife Elizabeth Woodcocke had a house here where, according to Samuel Pepys, they lived like princes and cultivated a vineyard. With the advent of the railways and the ensuing suburbanisation in the late 19th century, Walthamstow experienced a growth in population. The Lighthouse Methodist Church which dates from 1893 which is situated on Markhouse Road, there is a lantern at the top of the tower, which contains a spiral staircase. The LGOC X-type and B-type buses were built at Blackhorse Lane from October 1908 onwards, the B-type is considered one of the first mass-production buses. The manufacturing operation became AEC, famous as the manufacturer of many of Londons buses, on 13 June 1909, A. V.
Roes aircraft took to the air from Walthamstow Marshes. It was the first all-British aircraft and was given the nickname of the Yellow Terror. Roe founded the Avro aircraft company, which built the acclaimed Avro Lancaster. From 1894 Walthamstow was a district and from 1929 a municipal borough in Essex. In 1931 the population of the borough, covering an area of 4,342 acres, other places in east London formerly of the county of Essex, such as Ilford and Romford were placed into London Boroughs along with Walthamstow. None of the district names or codes was changed at this time. Since the 2012 Summer Olympics, the town has become popular mostly as a result of gentrification
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Six-wheel drive is an all-wheel drive drivetrain configuration of three axles with at least two wheels on each axle capable of being driven simultaneously by the vehicles engine. Unlike four-wheel drive drivetrains, the configuration is largely confined to heavy-duty off-road and military vehicles, such as vehicles, armored vehicles. When such a vehicle only has six wheels by definition all are driven, when it has ten – with two pairs of ganged dual wheels on each rear axle as on a GMC CCKW – all are driven but the 6×6 designation remains. For most military applications where traction/mobility are considered more important than payload capability, heavy hauler and ballast tractor 6×6s have had a long history as prime movers both in the military, and commercially in logging and heavy equipment hauling both on- and off-road. Most six-wheel drive vehicles have an axle and two at the rear, or three evenly spaced in varying steering configurations. Depending on the role, the number of wheels varies between six and ten.
Oshkosh M911 Commercial Commercial 6×6 prime movers were made by Hayes Manufacturing, which produced heavy haul ballast tractors. The Freightliner Business Class M2 is a commercial medium-duty truck sold in the United States, conversions Six-by-six conversions of four-wheel drive trucks are made, such as the Australian Armys Perentie Land Rover Defender and Landcruiser Sherman), as are 6×4 versions. Concept car and limited production commercial examples include, fully custom chassis and drive-line. Twin front axle Covini C6W Ford Seattle-ite XXI Panther 6 Tyrrell P34 Twin rear axle Dodge T-Rex Ferrari 312T6 March 2-4-0 Mercedes-Benz G63 AMG 6x6 6x4 H-drive Driveline windup
A coach is originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a front and a seat inside and, for the driver. The term coach first came into use in the 15th century, there are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles, Kocs was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which spread across Europe. Therefore, the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, and it was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were reputedly introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, a coach with four horses is a coach-and-four. A coach together with the horses and attendants is a turnout, the bodies of early coaches, as of American Concord stagecoaches, were hung on leather straps.
In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension, a coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used originally as a seat for the coachman and for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial, the front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the perch or reach. A crossbar known as a bar supported the springs. Coaches were often decorated by using a sable brush called a liner. In the 19th century the term coach was applied to railway carriages, a park drag is known as a private coach as it was owned by private individuals for their own personal driving. A park drag has seats on its top and is driven to a team of four well-matched carriage horses. The principal ceremonial coaches in the United Kingdom are the Gold State Coach, Irish State Coach, the business of a coachman was to drive a coach. He was called a jarvey or jarvie, especially in Ireland, if he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, who was noted for his furious attacks in a chariot, or a Phaeton. A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach. A guard on a coach was called a shooter.
Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching, in driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip, usually provided with a long lash
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany