University of Manchester
The University of Manchester is a public research university in Manchester, formed in 2004 by the merger of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology and the Victoria University of Manchester. The University of Manchester is a red brick university, a product of the civic university movement of the late 19th century; the main campus is south of Manchester city centre on Oxford Road. In 2016/17, the university had 40,490 students and 10,400 staff, making it the second largest university in the UK, the largest single-site university; the university had a consolidated income of £1 billion in 2017–18, of which £298.7 million was from research grants and contracts. It has the fourth-largest endowment of any university in the UK, after the universities of Cambridge and Edinburgh, it is a member of the worldwide Universities Research Association, the Russell Group of British research universities and the N8 Group. For 2018–19, the University of Manchester was ranked 29th in the world and 6th in the UK by QS World University Rankings.
In 2017 it was ranked 38th in the world and 6th in the UK by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 55th in the world and 8th in the UK by Times Higher Education World University Rankings and 59th in the world by U. S. News and World Report. Manchester was ranked 15th in the UK amongst multi-faculty institutions for the quality of its research and 5th for its Research Power in the 2014 Research Excellence Framework; the university owns and operates major cultural assets such as the Manchester Museum, Whitworth Art Gallery, John Rylands Library and Jodrell Bank Observatory and its Grade I listed Lovell Telescope. The University of Manchester has 25 Nobel laureates among its past and present students and staff, the fourth-highest number of any single university in the United Kingdom. Four Nobel laureates are among its staff – more than any other British university; the University of Manchester traces its roots to the formation of the Mechanics' Institute in 1824, its heritage is linked to Manchester's pride in being the world's first industrial city.
The English chemist John Dalton, together with Manchester businessmen and industrialists, established the Mechanics' Institute to ensure that workers could learn the basic principles of science. John Owens, a textile merchant, left a bequest of £96,942 in 1846 to found a college to educate men on non-sectarian lines, his trustees established Owens College in 1851 in a house on the corner of Quay Street and Byrom Street, the home of the philanthropist Richard Cobden, subsequently housed Manchester County Court. The locomotive designer, Charles Beyer became a governor of the college and was the largest single donor to the college extension fund, which raised the money to move to a new site and construct the main building now known as the John Owens building, he campaigned and helped fund the engineering chair, the first applied science department in the north of England. He left the college the equivalent of £10 million in his will in 1876, at a time when it was in great financial difficulty.
Beyer funded the total cost of construction of the Beyer building to house the biology and geology departments. His will funded Engineering chairs and the Beyer Professor of Applied mathematics; the university has a rich German heritage. The Owens College Extension Movement based their plans after a tour of German universities and polytechnics. Manchester mill owner, Thomas Ashton, chairman of the extension movement had studied at Heidelberg University. Sir Henry Roscoe studied at Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen and they collaborated for many years on research projects. Roscoe promoted the German style of research led teaching that became the role model for the redbrick universities. Charles Beyer studied at Dresden Academy Polytechnic. There were many Germans on the staff, including Carl Schorlemmer, Britain's first chair in organic chemistry, Arthur Schuster, professor of Physics. There was a German chapel on the campus. In 1873 the college moved to new premises on Oxford Road, Chorlton-on-Medlock and from 1880 it was a constituent college of the federal Victoria University.
The university was established and granted a Royal Charter in 1880 becoming England's first civic university. By 1905, the institutions were active forces; the Municipal College of Technology, forerunner of UMIST, was the Victoria University of Manchester's Faculty of Technology while continuing in parallel as a technical college offering advanced courses of study. Although UMIST achieved independent university status in 1955, the universities continued to work together. However, in the late-20th century, formal connections between the university and UMIST diminished and in 1994 most of the remaining institutional ties were severed as new legislation allowed UMIST to become an autonomous university with powers to award its own degrees. A decade the development was reversed; the Victoria University of Manchester and the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology agreed to merge into a single institution in March 2003. Before the merger, Victoria University of Manchester and UMIST counted 23 Nobel Prize winners amongst their former staff and students, with two further Nobel laureates being subsequently added.
Manchester has traditionally been strong in the sciences. Notable scientists as
A trade union called a labour union or labor union, is an association of workers in a particular trade, industry, or company created for the purpose of securing improvement in pay, working conditions or social and political status through collective bargaining and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by creation of a monopoly of the workers. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members and negotiates labour contracts with employers; the most common purpose of these associations or unions is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment". This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring and promotion of workers, workplace safety and policies. Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers, a cross-section of workers from various trades, or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry; the agreements negotiated by a union are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers.
Trade unions traditionally have a constitution which details the governance of their bargaining unit and have governance at various levels of government depending on the industry that binds them to their negotiations and functioning. Originating in Great Britain, trade unions became popular in many countries during the Industrial Revolution. Trade unions may be composed of individual workers, past workers, apprentices or the unemployed. Trade union density, or the percentage of workers belonging to a trade union, is highest in the Nordic countries. Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association on wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment." Karl Marx described trade unions thus: "The value of labour-power constitutes the conscious and explicit foundation of the trade unions, whose importance for the working class can scarcely be overestimated.
The trade unions aim at nothing less than to prevent the reduction of wages below the level, traditionally maintained in the various branches of industry. That is to say, they wish to prevent the price of labour-power from falling below its value". A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."Yet historian R. A. Leeson, in United we Stand, said: Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies... the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all'labouring men and women' for a'different order of things'. Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Oddfellows, friendly societies, other fraternal organizations.
The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners. In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: We hear, it has been said, of the combination of masters, though of those of workmen, but whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labor above their actual rate When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combination of servants and journeymen. As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries, although Smith argued that it should remain illegal to fix wages or prices by employees or employers. There were severe penalties for including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power resulting in a body of labour law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions.
The origins of trade unions can be traced back to 18th century Britain, where the rapid expansion of industrial society taking place drew women, rural workers and immigrants into the work force in large numbers and in new roles. They encountered a large hostility in their early existence from employers and government groups; this pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings, would be an important arena for the development of trade unions. Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed, as the masters of the guilds employed workers who were not allowed to organize. Trade unions and collective bargaining were outlawed from no than the middle of the 14th century when the Ordinance of Labourers was enacted in the Kingdom of England but their way of thinking was the one that endured dur
University of Haifa
The University of Haifa is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel. The university was founded in 1963 by the mayor of its host city, Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the University of Haifa was founded in 1963 by Haifa mayor Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Haifa University is located on Mount Carmel. In 1972, the University of Haifa declared its independence and became the sixth academic institution in Israel and the fourth university. About 18,100 undergraduate and graduate students study in the university a wide variety of topics, specializing in social sciences, humanities and education; the University is broadly divided into six Faculties: Humanities, Social Sciences, Law and Science Education, Social Welfare and Health Studies, Education. There is the Graduate School of Management, The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences and the Continuing Education and Extension Studies.
Beyond the objective of a first-rate higher education, the University of Haifa aims to provide equal educational opportunities to all, in particular to encourage mutual understanding and cooperation between the Jewish and Arab populations on and off campus. The university is a home for students from all sectors of Israeli society - Jews, Christians, Druze and secular students and many students from all over the world who study in the international school; the University of Haifa is home to the Hecht Museum of archeology and art, several research centers and institutes, including the Evolution Institute, Center for the Study of the Information Society, Center for the Study of National Security, Tourism Research Center, more. The University hosts a large IBM research center on its campus. In its first year 472 students attended the University. Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences were offered in the following departments: Biblical Studies, Hebrew Literature and Language, Jewish History, General History, French Literature and Language, English Literature and Language, Arabic Literature and Language, Geography and Political Science.
The academic staff included 50 of them Haifa residents. In 1967, the University of Haifa awarded diplomas to its first 75 graduates, three-quarters of whom intended to be teachers; the first home of the University of Haifa was in Erdstein House in the Hadar HaCarmel section of Haifa, but it soon became too crowded. The University moved to Merkaz HaCarmel, was housed in the building that now serves the Municipal High School No. 5. In 1966, the University moved to the top of the present location of its main campus; the University's first building, the "Multi-Purpose Building", was constructed in 1966. It contained classrooms, laboratories, a library with 110,000 books, a cafeteria. Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer planned the campus to include all the University's facilities in one complex. More additional buildings have been built nearby. Niemeyer did not complete the detailed design phase. Gilad retreated from Niemeyer's design, but retained the character of the main building, the Eshkol Building, named for the ex-prime minister Levi Eshkol.
The Eshkol Building was the highest building in the city of Haifa until 2002. The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences is a division of the University of Haifa that focuses on the study of the Mediterranean Sea, it is home to the Caesarea Center, its own diving facility that supports the Israeli Antiques Authority in Caesaria. It focuses on three complementary fields: Marine Biology Marine Geosciences Maritime Civilizations Yitzhak Aharonovich, Israeli parliamentarian, Minister of Internal Security Gabi Ashkenazi, IDF Chief of Staff Ashraf Barhom, Israeli Arab actor Ronen Bergman, investigative journalist and author Inna Braverman, founder Eco Wave Power Meir Dagan, director of the Mossad Abdulwahab Darawshe, Israeli Arab parliamentarian Yaakov Edri, Israeli parliamentarian, held several cabinet portfolios Benjamin Gantz, IDF Chief of General Staff Carine Goren, Israeli pastry chef, cookbook author, television baking show host Gabriel Hallevy professor of law Dan Harel, IDF general, CEO of the Israeli Ministry of Transportation Maya Kalle-Bentzur, Israeli Olympic runner and long jumper Ram Karmi, architect Idan Ofer, London-based Israeli business magnate and philanthropist Igor Polovets, Owner of the RPI Group of Companies, including RPI International and RPI Eastern Europe Moran Samuel, Israeli rower and basketball player, Bronze medalist at 2016 Rio Paralympic Games Bernardo Sorj, sociologist Yochanan Vollach, president of Maccabi Haifa, CEO A. B.
Yehoshua, novelist and playwright Gad Barzilai Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi Nitza Ben-Dov David Bukay Shay Bushinsky Aharon Dolgopolsky Doron Kliger Eli Lancman Ronit Matalon Eviatar Nevo, Evolutionary Biologist, Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences USA Ronny Reich Daniel Schueftan Brenda Shaffer Camelia Suleiman and academic Arnon Sofer Yuval Steinitz philosopher, the current finance minister of Israel. Avigdor Stematsky, painter Edward Trifonov, molecular biophysicist, a founder of Israeli bioinformatics Natan Zach, poet List of universities in Israel Bucerius Institute for Research of Contemporary German History and Society The University of Haifa homepage
Diana Warwick, Baroness Warwick of Undercliffe
Diana Mary Warwick, Baroness Warwick of Undercliffe is a Labour member of the House of Lords. Warwick was educated at Bedford College, University of London, BSc Sociology, 1967, now part of Royal Holloway, University of London, she is former Chair of the Human Tissue Authority. She is Chair of International Students House, London, she was Chief Executive of Universities UK for 14 years. She was General Secretary of the Association of University Teachers from 1983 to 1992 and Chief Executive of the Westminster Foundation for Democracy from 1992 to 1995 and Chair of Voluntary Service Overseas. On 10 July 1999 she was created a life peer as Baroness Warwick of Undercliffe, of Undercliffe in the County of West Yorkshire
A pension is a fund into which a sum of money is added during an employee's employment years, from which payments are drawn to support the person's retirement from work in the form of periodic payments. A pension may be a "defined benefit plan" where a fixed sum is paid to a person, or a "defined contribution plan" under which a fixed sum is invested and becomes available at retirement age. Pensions should not be confused with severance pay; the terms "retirement plan" and "superannuation" tend to refer to a pension granted upon retirement of the individual. Retirement plans may be set up by employers, insurance companies, the government or other institutions such as employer associations or trade unions. Called retirement plans in the United States, they are known as pension schemes in the United Kingdom and Ireland and superannuation plans in Australia and New Zealand. Retirement pensions are in the form of a guaranteed life annuity, thus insuring against the risk of longevity. A pension created by an employer for the benefit of an employee is referred to as an occupational or employer pension.
Labor unions, the government, or other organizations may fund pensions. Occupational pensions are a form of deferred compensation advantageous to employee and employer for tax reasons. Many pensions contain an additional insurance aspect, since they will pay benefits to survivors or disabled beneficiaries. Other vehicles may provide a similar stream of payments; the common use of the term pension is to describe the payments a person receives upon retirement under pre-determined legal or contractual terms. A recipient of a retirement pension is known as a retiree. A retirement plan is an arrangement to provide people with an income during retirement when they are no longer earning a steady income from employment. Retirement plans require both the employer and employee to contribute money to a fund during their employment in order to receive defined benefits upon retirement, it is a tax deferred savings vehicle that allows for the tax-free accumulation of a fund for use as a retirement income. Funding can be provided in other ways, such as from labor unions, government agencies, or self-funded schemes.
Pension plans are therefore a form of "deferred compensation". A SSAS is a type of employment-based Pension in the UK; some countries grant pensions to military veterans. Military pensions are overseen by the government. Ad hoc committees may be formed to investigate specific tasks, such as the U. S. Commission on Veterans' Pensions in 1955–56. Pensions may extend past the death of the veteran himself, continuing to be paid to the widow. Many countries have created funds for their citizens and residents to provide income when they retire; this requires payments throughout the citizen's working life in order to qualify for benefits on. A basic state pension is a "contribution based" benefit, depends on an individual's contribution history. For examples, see National Insurance in the UK, or Social Security in the United States of America. Many countries have put in place a "social pension"; these are tax-funded non-contributory cash transfers paid to older people. Over 80 countries have social pensions.
Some are universal benefits, given to all older people regardless of income, assets or employment record. Examples of universal pensions include New Zealand Superannuation and the Basic Retirement Pension of Mauritius. Most social pensions, are means-tested, such as Supplemental Security Income in the United States of America or the "older person's grant" in South Africa; some pension plans will provide for members in the event they suffer a disability. This may take the form of early entry into a retirement plan for a disabled member below the normal retirement age. Retirement plans may be classified as defined benefit or defined contribution according to how the benefits are determined. A defined benefit plan guarantees a certain payout at retirement, according to a fixed formula which depends on the member's salary and the number of years' membership in the plan. A defined contribution plan will provide a payout at retirement, dependent upon the amount of money contributed and the performance of the investment vehicles utilized.
Hence, with a defined contribution plan the risk and responsibility lies with the employee that the funding will be sufficient through retirement, whereas with the defined benefit plan the risk and responsibility lies with the employer or plan managers. Some types of retirement plans, such as cash balance plans, combine features of both defined benefit and defined contribution plans, they are referred to as hybrid plans. Such plan designs have become popular in the US since the 1990s. Examples include Cash Pension Equity plans. A traditional defined benefit plan is a plan in which the benefit on retirement is determined by a set formula, rather than depending on investment returns. Government pensions such as Social Security in the United States are a type of defined benefit pension plan. Traditionally, defined benefit plans for employers have been administered by institutions which exist for that purpose, by large businesses, or, for government workers, by the government itself. A traditional form
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun