Assumption of Mary

The Assumption of Mary into Heaven is, according to the beliefs of the Catholic Church and Oriental Orthodoxy, the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life. In the churches that observe it, the Assumption is a major feast day celebrated on 15 August. In many countries, the feast is marked as a Holy Day of Obligation in the Roman Catholic Church; the Catholic Church teaches as dogma that the Virgin Mary "having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory". This doctrine was dogmatically defined by Pope Pius XII on 1 November 1950, in the apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus by exercising papal infallibility. While the Catholic Church and Eastern Orthodox Church believe in the Dormition of the Mother of God, whether Mary had a physical death has not been dogmatically defined. In Munificentissimus Deus Pope Pius XII pointed to the Book of Genesis as scriptural support for the dogma in terms of Mary's victory over sin and death through her intimate association with "the new Adam" as reflected in 1 Corinthians 15:54: "then shall come to pass the saying, written, Death is swallowed up in victory".

The New Testament contains no explicit narrative about the death or Dormition, nor of the Assumption of Mary, but several scriptural passages have been theologically interpreted to describe the ultimate fate in this and the afterworld of the Mother of Jesus. Various apocryphal documents do contain narrations of the event; the Assumption was defined as dogma by the Catholic Church in 1950, when Pope Pius XII defined it ex cathedra in his Apostolic Constitution Munificentissimus Deus. The Catholic Church itself interprets chapter 12 of the Book of Revelation as referring to it; the earliest known narrative is the so-called Liber Requiei Mariae, which survives intact only in an Ethiopic translation. Composed by the 4th century, this Christian apocryphal narrative may be as early as the 3rd century. Quite early are the different traditions of the "Six Books" Dormition narratives; the earliest versions of this apocryphon are preserved in several Syriac manuscripts of the 5th and 6th centuries, although the text itself belongs to the 4th century.

Apocrypha based on these earlier texts include the De Obitu S. Dominae, attributed to St. John, a work from around the turn of the 6th century, a summary of the "Six Books" narrative; the story appears in De Transitu Virginis, a late 5th-century work ascribed to St. Melito of Sardis that presents a theologically redacted summary of the traditions in the Liber Requiei Mariae; the Transitus Mariae tells the story of the apostles being transported by white clouds to the deathbed of Mary, each from the town where he was preaching at the hour. The Decretum Gelasianum in the 490s declared some transitus Mariae literature apocryphal. An Armenian letter attributed to Dionysus the Areopagite mentioned the supposed event, although this was written sometime after the 6th century. John of Damascus, from this period, is the first church authority to advocate the doctrine under his own name, his contemporaries, Gregory of Tours and Modestus of Jerusalem, helped promote the concept to the wider church. In some versions of the story, the event is said to have taken place in Ephesus, in the House of the Virgin Mary.

This is a localized tradition. The earliest traditions say. By the 7th century, a variation emerged, according to which one of the apostles identified as St Thomas, was not present at the death of Mary but his late arrival precipitates a reopening of Mary's tomb, found to be empty except for her grave clothes. In a tradition, Mary drops her girdle down to the apostle from heaven as testament to the event; this incident is depicted in many paintings of the Assumption. Teaching of the Assumption of Mary became widespread across the Christian world, having been celebrated as early as the 5th century and having been established in the East by Emperor Maurice around AD 600. St. John Damascene records the following: St. Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the Council of Chalcedon, made known to the Emperor Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess the body of the Mother of God, that Mary died in the presence of all the Apostles, but that her tomb, when opened upon the request of St. Thomas, was found empty.

The Assumption of Mary was celebrated in the West under Pope Sergius I in the 8th century and Pope Leo IV confirmed the feast as official. Theological debate about the Assumption continued, following the Reformation, but the people celebrated the Assumption as part of the cult of Mary that flourished from the Middle Ages. In 1950 Pope Pius XII defined it as dogma for the Catholic Church. Catholic theologian Ludwig Ott stated, "The idea of the bodily assumption of Mary is first expressed in certain transitus-narratives of the fifth and sixth centuries.... The first Church author to speak of the bodily assumption of Mary, in association with an apocryphal transitus of the B. M. V. is St. Gregory of Tours." The Catholic writer Eamon Duffy states that "there is no historical evidence whatever for it." However, the Catholic Church has never asserted nor denied that its teaching is based on the apocryphal accounts. The Church documents are silent on this matter and instead rely upon other sources and arguments as the basis for the doctrine.

Psychologist Carl Jung, interested in archetypes

Harry Gibbons Migratory Bird Sanctuary

The Harry Gibbons Migratory Bird Sanctuary is a migratory bird sanctuary in Kivalliq Region, Canada. It is located in western Southampton Island in Bay of Gods Mercy; the Sanctuary was established 1 January 1959, consisting of 149,500 hectares. Of its 1,224 km2 in overall size, 78 km2 is a marine area with marine and subtidal components; the sanctuary was named after Harry Gibbons Ohnainewk, a local Inuit hunter and guide whose journals provided valuable weather data on wind. It is one of two bird sanctuaries on the island, the other being the East Bay Migratory Bird Sanctuary, situated 87 mi to the northeast. Along with its wetlands, the Boas River is a Canadian Important Bird Area; the Harry Gibbons MBS takes up the western portion of the IBA


Bhagwantgad Fort is a fort located 18 km from Malvan, in Sindhudurg district, of Maharashtra. This fort is located on the northern bank of Gad Kalaval creek; the fort is covered with dense vegetation. This fort was built by Pant Pratinidhi to check the activities of Sawants of Sawantwadi; the Bavdekar had built this fort after the Sawant's had built fort Bharatgad in the village Masure on the southern bank of Kalaval creek. This fort was under the control of Chhatrapati of Kolhapur. However, in few years this fort was brought under the control of sawants of Sawantwadi. In 1748 Tulaji Angre, the son of Kanhoji Angre tried to capture the fort but, was unsuccessful due to strong resistance from the fort commandant for 18 months. On 29 March 1818, the 4th rifles of East India company under the leadership of captain Gray and Pierson captured this fort. After the garrison noticed that the British troops had crossed the creek, they abandoned the fort; the nearest town is Malvan, 526 km from Mumbai. The base village of the fort is Masure.

The Bharatgad and Bhadwantgad forts can be visited in a single day. There are good hotels at Malvan, now tea and snacks are available in small hotels on the way to Masure. Small boats are available from the village Kawamasure to cross the Kalaval creek; the gates and bastion are in a ruined state. The only structure in good condition is Siddheshwar temple, it takes about an hour to visit all places on the fort. List of forts in Maharashtra List of forts in India Sawantwadi State Marathi People Maratha Navy List of Maratha dynasties and states Maratha War of Independence Battles involving the Maratha Empire Maratha Army Maratha titles Military history of India List of people involved in the Maratha Empire