A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a ocean. Tributaries and the main stem river drain the surrounding drainage basin of its surface water and groundwater, leading the water out into an ocean. A confluence, where two or more bodies of water meet together refers to the joining of tributaries; the opposite to a tributary is a distributary, a river or stream that branches off from and flows away from the main stream. Distributaries are most found in river deltas. "Right tributary" and "left tributary" are terms stating the orientation of the tributary relative to the flow of the main stem river. These terms are defined from the perspective of looking downstream. In the United States, where tributaries sometimes have the same name as the river into which they feed, they are called forks; these are designated by compass direction. For example, the American River receives flow from its North and South forks.
The Chicago River's North Branch has the East and Middle Fork. Forks are sometimes left. Here, the "handedness" is from the point of view of an observer facing upstream. For instance, Steer Creek has a left tributary, called Right Fork Steer Creek. Tributaries are sometimes listed starting with those nearest to the source of the river and ending with those nearest to the mouth of the river; the Strahler Stream Order examines the arrangement of tributaries in a hierarchy of first, second and higher orders, with the first-order tributary being the least in size. For example, a second-order tributary would be the result of two or more first-order tributaries combining to form the second-order tributary. Another method is to list tributaries from mouth to source, in the form of a tree structure, stored as a tree data structure. A gallery of major river basins with tributaries Estuary
Trenton, New Jersey
Trenton is the capital city of the U. S. state of New Jersey and the county seat of Mercer County. It served as the capital of the United States in 1784; the city's metropolitan area is grouped with the New York metropolitan area by the United States Census Bureau, but it directly borders the Philadelphia metropolitan area and is part of the Philadelphia Combined Statistical Area and the Federal Communications Commission's Philadelphia Designated Market Area. As of the 2010 United States Census, Trenton had a population of 84,913, making it the state's tenth most populous municipality; the Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 84,034 in 2014. Trenton dates back at least to June 3, 1719, when mention was made of a constable being appointed for Trenton while the area was still part of Hunterdon County. Boundaries were recorded for Trenton Township as of March 2, 1720. A courthouse and jail were constructed in Trenton around 1720, the Freeholders of Hunterdon County met annually in Trenton.
Trenton became New Jersey's capital as of November 25, 1790, the City of Trenton was formed within Trenton Township on November 13, 1792. Trenton Township was incorporated as one of New Jersey's initial groups of 104 townships by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 21, 1798. On February 22, 1834, portions of Trenton Township were taken to form Ewing Township; the remaining portion of Trenton Township was absorbed by the City of Trenton on April 10, 1837. A series of annexations took place over a 50-year period, with the city absorbing South Trenton borough, portions of Nottingham Township, both the Borough of Chambersburg Township, Millham Township, as well as Wilbur Borough. Portions of Ewing Township and Hamilton Township were annexed to Trenton on March 23, 1900; the first settlement which would become Trenton was established by Quakers in 1679, in the region called the Falls of the Delaware, led by Mahlon Stacy from Handsworth, England. Quakers were being persecuted in England at this time and North America provided an opportunity to exercise their religious freedom.
By 1719, the town adopted the name "Trent-towne", after William Trent, one of its leading landholders who purchased much of the surrounding land from Stacy's family. This name was shortened to "Trenton". During the American Revolutionary War, the city was the site of the Battle of Trenton, George Washington's first military victory. On December 25–26, 1776, Washington and his army, after crossing the icy Delaware River to Trenton, defeated the Hessian troops garrisoned there. After the war, the Confederation Congress met in Trenton in November and December 1784. While the city was preferred by New England and other northern states as a permanent capital for the new country, the southern states prevailed in their choice of a location south of the Mason–Dixon line. Trenton became the state capital in 1790, but prior to that year the New Jersey Legislature met here; the city was incorporated in 1792. During the War of 1812, the United States Army's primary hospital was at a site on Broad Street. Throughout the 19th century, Trenton grew as European immigrants came to work in its pottery and wire rope mills.
In 1837, with the population now too large for government by council, a new mayoral government was adopted, with by-laws that remain in operation to this day. The Trenton Six were a group of black men arrested for murdering a white man with a soda bottle, they were arrested without warrants, denied lawyers, sentenced to death based on what were described as coerced confessions. With the involvement of the Communist Party and the NAACP, there were several appeals, resulting in a total of four trials; the accused men were released. The incident was the subject of the book Jersey Justice: The Story of the Trenton Six, written by Cathy Knepper; the Trenton Riots of 1968 were a major civil disturbance that took place during the week following the assassination of civil rights leader Martin Luther King in Memphis on April 4. Race riots broke out nationwide following the murder of the civil rights activist. More than 200 Trenton businesses in Downtown, were ransacked and burned. More than 300 people, most of them young black men, were arrested on charges ranging from assault and arson to looting and violating the mayor's emergency curfew.
In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns and cuts suffered while fighting raging blazes or for injuries inflicted by rioters. Citizens of Trenton's urban core pulled false alarms and would throw bricks at firefighters responding to the alarm boxes; this experience, along with similar experiences in other major cities ended the use of open-cab fire engines. As an interim measure, the Trenton Fire Department fabricated temporary cab enclosures from steel deck plating until new equipment could be obtained; the losses incurred by downtown businesses were estimated by the city to be $7 million, but the total of insurance claims and settlements came to $2.5 million. Trenton's Battle Monument neighborhood was hardest hit. Since the 1950s, North Trenton had witnessed a steady exodus of middle-class residents, the riots spelled the end for North Trenton. By the 1970s, the region had become one of crime-ridden in the city. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 8.155 square miles, including 7.648 square miles of land and 0.507 square mile of water.
Several bridges across the Delaware River – the Trenton–Morrisville Toll Bridge, Lower Trenton Bridge
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Mercer Lake known as Lake Mercer, is a man-made lake within Mercer County Park in West Windsor, Mercer County, New Jersey, United States. The lake came into being with the 1975 construction of a dam to control flooding on the Assunpink Creek in nearby Trenton by the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service; the basin, now occupied by the lake, was excavated by crews building nearby Interstate 295 at no additional cost to taxpayers. The lake is the home of one of the US Olympic Rowing Team's training centers, it has played host to the 1988, 1992, 2004 and 2008 U. S. Olympic Team Trials for Rowing, in addition to USRowing National Team selection events, international regattas, both collegiate and junior national championship regattas; the infrastructure and topography of the racecourse meets FISA standards and PNRA has the equipment necessary to host the world's largest regattas. Mercer Lake is known for fishing. Mercer Lake is home to many fish, including Largemouth Bass, Pumpkinseed Sunfish, Yellow Perch, Shady and Alabama Turkey fish.
Although Mercer Lake is one of cleanest bodies of water in central New Jersey, it still faces problems with pollution from nearby golf courses and storm water runoff
General George Washington at Trenton
General George Washington at Trenton is a large full-length portrait in oil painted in 1792 by the American artist John Trumbull of General George Washington at Trenton, New Jersey, on the night of January 2, 1777, during the American Revolutionary War. This is the night after the Battle of the Assunpink Creek known as the Second Battle of Trenton, before the decisive victory at the Battle of Princeton the next day; the artist considered this portrait "the best of those which I painted." The portrait is on view at the Yale University Art Gallery in New Haven, Connecticut, an 1806 gift of the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut. It was commissioned by the city of Charleston, South Carolina, but was rejected by the city, resulting in Trumbull painting another version; the work was commissioned by the city of Charleston, South Carolina, in 1792 to commemorate President Washington's visit there in May 1791 during his Southern Tour. Trumbull had visited Charleston earlier, in February 1791, to paint portraits of several leaders, including Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Trumbull took the commission from William Loughton Smith, a representative of South Carolina and representing Charleston, con amore, to paint Washington "in the most sublime moment... the evening previous to the battle of Princeton". General George Washington is in a blue coat over gold waistcoat and pants, he holds a sword in his left hand. Behind him is Blueskin, his spirited, light-colored horse, restrained by a groom. Further in the distance is the bridge over the Assunpink Creek and nearby mill, along with artillery and campfires. After Smith rejected the painting, Trumbull painted a similar, but different version for the city, entitled Washington at the City of Charleston, it was now set at Charleston, with the city in the background, the Cooper River and boats in the middle ground, local plants in the foreground. Washington is shown as Smith wanted, "calm, peaceful." He wears gloves on both hands, holds a hat in his left hand, shown resting on his sword, while holding a walking stick with his right hand.
The painting is now on view in the Charleston City Hall. Trumbull painted a much smaller version, entitled George Washington before the Battle of Trenton, c. 1792–94 for his friend Charles Wilkes, a New York banker. It is similar with changes in the background and a bay horse, it is on view there. In 1794, Trumbull went to London as secretary of legation for John Jay during the negotiations of the Jay Treaty, he had made a small version of this portrait and supervised its engraving by Thomas Cheesman, entitled George Washington, in 1796. It was noted by historian Justin Winsor as the best engraving of Trumbull's paintings and was used as the basis for several other engravings. In 1845, William Warner Jr. engraved Gen. Washington. Alfred Daggett engraved a version, Washington at Trenton, New Jersey, January 2d, 1777, published in Historical Collections of New Jersey and Present by John W. Barber and Henry Howe in 1868. An engraving entitled, General Washington at the Bridge Over the Assunpink Creek, was published in the 1898 book, The Battles of Trenton and Princeton, by historian William S. Stryker.
Trumbull described the thinking of Washington after seeing the superiority of the enemy at Trenton:... he is supposed to have been meditating how to avoid the impending ruin. To re-cross the Delaware in the presence of such an enemy, was impossible. Historian and painter William Dunlap after viewing it in the Trumbull Gallery at Yale said: "This is, in many respects, a fine picture, painted in the artist's best days." The United States Post Office has issued several postage stamps of George Washington from the portrait detail in this painting. The first was issued in 1860 with a ninety-cent value; this stamp was revised and issued the next year, 1861. In 1931, the Battle of Yorktown commemorative with a two-cent value included this portrait. A stamp with a six-cent value was issued as part of the Washington Bicentennial stamps of 1932; the Army and Navy Commemorative Series included a stamp with one-cent value in 1936. On February 21, 1915, The New York Times published a full-page image of the painting with the caption "General Washington, painted from life by his staff officer and friend, Col. John Trumbull", in the Picture section, the first time in Rotogravure.
Battle of Trenton – known as the First Battle of Trenton Battle of the Assunpink Creek – known as the Second Battle of Trenton, fought one week Battle of Princeton – battle on the following day Washington at Verplanck's Point – an earlier full-length portrait of Washington by Trumbull "George Washington at the Battle of Trenton,". Inventory of American Sculpture, Smithsonian Institution Research Information System. Smithsonian American Art Museum. IAP 07260601. Owner: Yale University Art Gallery Salinger, Margaretta. "George Washington Before the Battle of Trenton". Masterpieces of American Painting in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Pp. 42–43
New Jersey Turnpike
The New Jersey Turnpike, known colloquially as "the Turnpike", is a system of controlled-access highways in New Jersey, maintained by the New Jersey Turnpike Authority. The 117.20-mile mainline's southern terminus is at the interchange with U. S. Route 130 and Route 49, where the split of Interstate 295 and US 40 occurs, near the border of Pennsville and Carneys Point townships in Salem County, one mile east of the Delaware Memorial Bridge, its northern terminus is at US 46 in Bergen County. Construction of the mainline from concept to completion took 23 months, from 1950 to 1952, it was opened to traffic in November 1951, between its southern terminus and exit 10. The turnpike is a major thoroughfare providing access to various localities in New Jersey, as well as Delaware and New York. According to the International Bridge and Turnpike Association, the turnpike is the nation's sixth-busiest toll road and is one of the most traveled highways in the United States; the northern part of the mainline turnpike, along with the entirety of its extensions and spurs, is part of the Interstate Highway System, designated as I-95 between exit 6 and its northern end.
South of exit 6, it has the unsigned Route 700 designation. There are three extensions and two spurs, including the Newark Bay Extension at exit 14, which carries I-78. All segments except for the I-95 Extension are tolled; the route is divided into four roadways between exit 6 and exit 14. The inner lanes are restricted to carrying only cars, with the outer lanes for cars and buses; the turnpike has 12-foot-wide lanes, 10-foot-wide shoulders and 13 rest areas named after notable New Jersey residents. The Interstate Highway System took some of its design guidelines from those for the turnpike; the turnpike is considered iconic in popular culture having been referenced in music and television. The mainline of the New Jersey Turnpike splits from I-295 in Carneys Point Township and runs along a north-northeast route to Ridgefield Park, where the road continues as I-95, it is designated Route 700, an unsigned route, from exit 1 to exit 6, as I-95 from exit 6 to exit 18. The number of lanes ranges from four lanes south of exit 4, six lanes between exit 4 and exit 6, 12 lanes between exit 6 and exit 11, 14 lanes between exit 11 and exit 14.
Before the advent of the Interstate Highway System, the entire Turnpike was designated by the New Jersey Department of Transportation as Route 700. The Pennsylvania Turnpike Extension was Route 700P, the Newark Bay Extension was Route 700N. None of these state highway designations have been signed; the turnpike begins within the median of I-295 at exit 1 along the border of Carneys Point and Pennsville Townships, where the northbound lanes of I-295 split to the southeast. Here, the turnpike is cosigned with US 40 and has three three northbound lanes and two southbound lanes. A northbound entrance from Old Pennsville-Auburn Road is provided near an NJDOT fuel station to the south of the highway. Soon afterwards, the turnpike crosses the Salem Canal, the northbound lanes of I-295 cross over the turnpike. Heading east, US 40 leaves the highway at an interchange with County Route 540. A mile north of this point is the Exit 1 Toll Plaza, where northbound drivers must obtain a ticket, southbound drivers must surrender their ticket and pay the proper toll.
Two Express E-ZPass lanes are provided in each direction. Paralleling I-295, the turnpike continues north/northeast through rural Salem County with two lanes in each direction before approaching the John Fenwick Service Area northbound and the Clara Barton Service Area southbound. After entering Gloucester County the turnpike reaches exit 2 for US 322 in Woolwich Township; the highway heads northeast past farmland before reaching residential development near Deptford Township. Approaching Bellmawr, the turnpike passes over Route 42 with no access, comes to exit 3 for Route 168. Still two lanes in each direction, the turnpike continues heading northeast and comes within yards of I-295. In Cherry Hill, the turnpike passes under Route 70 with no access, enters Mount Laurel and comes to exit 4 for Route 73. North of this point, the turnpike has three lanes in each direction. Still running within close proximity with I-295, the turnpike passes under Route 38 and comes to the northbound James Fenimore Cooper Service Area.
The road crosses over Rancocas Creek and passes to the northwest of Rancocas State Park. Here, the distance between I-295 and the turnpike increases, the turnpike reaches exit 5 for Burlington-Mount Holly Road. Northeast of here, the turnpike continues as a six-lane highway towards Mansfield. Beginning just south of exit 6, the turnpike splits into a "dual-dual" configuration similar to a local-express configuration; the outer lanes are open to all vehicles and the inner lanes are limited to cars only, unless signed otherwise because of unusual conditions. Starting in Mansfield Township, the turnpike has a total of 12 lanes, six in each direction. At exit 6, I-95 joins the turnpike. 2 miles north of here is exit 7, providing access to US 206. Continuing northeast, the Woodrow Wilson and Richard Stockton Service