Aššur known as Ashur and Qal'at Sherqat, was the capital of the Old Assyrian Empire, the Middle Assyrian Empire, for a time, of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The remains of the city lie on the western bank of the Tigris River, north of the confluence with its tributary, the Little Zab, in what is now Iraq, more in the al-Shirqat District of the Saladin Governorate. Occupation of the city itself continued for 4,000 years, from c. 2600 BC to the mid-14th century AD, when the forces of Timur massacred its population. The site is a World Heritage Site, having been added to that organisation's list of sites in danger in 2003 following the conflict that erupted following the 2003 invasion of Iraq and as a result of a proposed dam which would flood some of the site. Assur lies 65 kilometres south of 100 km south of Nineveh. Exploration of the site of Assur began in 1898 by German archaeologists. Excavations began in 1900 by Friedrich Delitzsch, were continued in 1903–1913 by a team from the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft led by Robert Koldewey and by Walter Andrae.
More than 16,000 clay tablets with cuneiform texts were discovered. Many of the objects found made their way to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. More Ashur was excavated by B. Hrouda for the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich and the Bavarian Ministry of Culture in 1990. During the same period, in 1988 and 1989, the site was being worked by R. Dittmann on behalf of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Aššur is the name of the city, of the land ruled by the city, of its tutelary deity from which the natives took their name, as did the entire nation of Assyria which encompassed what is today northern Iraq, north east Syria and south east Turkey. Today the Assyrians are still found throughout the Middle East in Iraq, Syria and the Diaspora in the western world. Assur is the origin of the names Syria and terms for Syriac Christians, these being Indo-European derivations of Assyria, for many centuries applying only to Assyria and the Assyrians before being applied to the Levant and its inhabitants by the Seleucid Empire in the 3rd century BC.
Archaeology reveals the site of the city was occupied by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. This was still the Sumerian period, before Assyria emerged in the 25th to 21st century BC; the oldest remains of the city were discovered in the foundations of the Ishtar temple, as well as at the Old Palace. In the subsequent period, the city was ruled by kings from the Akkadian Empire. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, the city was ruled by Assyrian governors subject to the Sumerians. By the time the Neo-Sumerian Ur-III dynasty collapsed at the hands of the Elamites around the end of the 21st century BC according to the Middle Chronology and mid-20th century according to the Short Chronology following increasing raids by Gutians and Amorites; the native Akkadian-speaking Assyrian kings were now free while Sumer fell under the yoke of the Amorites. The Assyrian king Ushpia who reigned around the 21st century BC is credited with dedicating the first temple of the god Ashur in his home city, although this comes from a inscription from Shalmaneser I in the 13th century.
The temple dates to the original settlement of the site when the people of Ashur established their nation under the patronage of the city's god. Soon after in around 2000 BC, Puzur-Ashur I founded a new dynasty, with his successors such as Ilushuma, Erishum I and Sargon I leaving inscriptions regarding the building of temples to Ashur and Ishtar in the city. Prosperity and independence produced the first significant fortifications in this period; as the region enjoyed relative peace and stability, trade between Mesopotamia and Anatolia increased, the city of Ashur benefited from its strategic location. Merchants would dispatch their merchandise via caravan into Anatolia and trade at Assyrian colonies in Anatolia, the primary one being at Karum Kanesh. With Shamshi-Adad I's capital at Assur, he magnified the city's power and influence beyond the Tigris river valley, establishing what some regard as the first Assyrian Empire. In this era, the Great Royal Palace was built, the temple of Assur was expanded and enlarged with a ziggurat.
However, this empire met its end when Hammurabi, the Amorite king of Babylon conquered and incorporated the city into his short lived empire following the death of Ishme-Dagan I around 1756 BC, while the next three Assyrian kings were viewed as vassals. Not long after, the native king Adasi expelled the Babylonians and Amorites from Assur and Assyria as a whole around 1720 BC, although little is known of his successors. Evidence of further building activity is known from a few centuries during the reign of a native king Puzur-Ashur III, when the city was refortified and the southern districts incorporated into the main city defenses. Temples to the moon god Sin and the sun god Shamash were built and dedicated through the 15th century BC; the city was subsequently subjugated by the king of Mitanni, Shaushtatar in the late 15th century, taking the gold and silver doors of the temple to his capital, Washukanni, as spoils. Ashur-uballit I emulated his ancestor Adasi and overthrew the Mitanni empire in 1365 BC.
The Assyrians reaped the benefits of this triumph by taking control of the eastern portion of the Mitanni Empire, also annexing Hittite, Babylonian and Hurrian territory. The following centuries witnessed the restoration of the old temples and palaces of Assur, the city once
Rosston is a small farming and ranching community in southwestern Cooke County, United States. It lies along FM 922 along Clear Creek, midway between Forestburg in Montague County and Era in Cooke County. In 2000, Rosston reported a population of 110; the community boasts a general store, a volunteer fire department, two church buildings, several residences, as well as a wealth of agricultural enterprises. Just east of the town, there is the Liberman Broadcasting Tower Era, one of earth's tallest structures, as of May 2007 was the tallest structure in Texas; the tower is named for its proximity to Era, though it is much closer to Leo. Anglo settlement began as early as the Texas Revolution in Cooke County, drawing many to establish homesteads and ranches in the Rosston vicinity. In 1865, the area of present-day Rosston was settled; the scattered community was promptly raided by tribes from Indian Territory in what would become the last raid of Indians on white settlers in Cooke County. Settlers from Grayson County established Rosstown in 1870.
The namesake Ross family owned a general store, cotton gin, mill to serve the farmers of the area. A post office opened in 1872 and the town became Rosston; the Butterfield Overland Mail route passed near Rosston, operating between Gainesville in Cooke County and Jacksboro in Jack County, Texas. Rosston, like many other small Texas towns, was bypassed by railway lines and slipped into relative obscurity in the 20th Century, but one local claim to fame is that notorious outlaw Sam Bass used Rosston as a hideout, the town celebrates Sam Bass Day every year on the third Saturday in July
The Western Pennsylvania Hospital referred to as "West Penn Hospital", is located at 4800 Friendship Avenue in the Bloomfield neighborhood of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 317-bed hospital is part of the Allegheny Health Network, it serves as a Clinical Campus of Temple University School of Medicine, offering medical education, including a large number of residency and fellowship programs, as well as its own nursing program on campus. Founded on March 18, 1848, as Pittsburgh's first chartered public hospital, West Penn was built Pittsburgh's 12th ward, on a hillside overlooking the city's Strip District and adjacent to what is now Polish Hill; the four-story, 120-patient hospital opened in spring 1853, after five years of design and funding setbacks. During its early years, many of the patients were those injured by industrial accidents in Pittsburgh's mills and rail yards. Others had mental illness, in 1862, West Penn opened the Dixmont Hospital on a steep bluff overlooking the Ohio River, about eight miles downriver from West Penn.
That hospital, the first specialized mental health facility in Western Pennsylvania, remained under West Penn's ownership until 1907. Eight years after the opening of West Penn Hospital, the American Civil War began, West Penn became a primary triage center serving Union Forces; because of its size, because it was a public hospital not bound by religious affiliations, the United States government commandeered West Penn Hospital in 1862, making alterations to it and turning it into a military hospital for the next three years.. By the end of the Civil War in 1865, some 3,000 soldiers had been treated at West Penn; the West Penn Medical College, founded by West Penn surgeons and doctors, opened in October 1885, with a class of 55 students. It was the region's first medical school. By the turn of the 20th Century, the original hospital was outdated, the hospital's board agreed to build a new hospital in Pittsburgh's Bloomfield neighborhood, about a mile to the east; the cornerstone was laid in 1909, on New Year's Day, 1912, the new West Penn Hospital opened, 219 patients in the hospital's care were moved to the new hospital.
The six-story, X-shaped hospital was able to accommodate up to 500 patients, featured modern operating rooms, X-ray machines. In 1919, the hospital purchased another property on Friendship Avenue and by 1923 had opened a "Residence and Training School", now the West Penn School of Nursing; the building houses nurse educators and students as well as the Simulation Teaching, Academic Research Center. In 1950, West Penn added a new obstetrical wing, an intensive care unit came in 1958, by the 1960s, another substantial expansion was underway. Both Mellon Pavilion and the hospital's renowned Burn Care Unit opened in 1970, a heliport was added in 1971, the East Tower, which specialized in diagnostic and critical care, opened in 1981. A nine-story patient care tower was added in 1995, topped by a copper dome visible for miles; the late 1990s and early 2000s resulted in several changes to West Penn's governance structure. Following the fall of AHERF and its historic 1998 bond default, West Penn Hospital agreed to rescue AGH and its affiliates through a merger.
As alternative to bankruptcy liquidation, AGH, Allegheny Valley and Canonsburg “were transferred to the West Penn system in 1999 in exchange for a $25 million payment to the creditors, who agreed to release from liability for all claims.” That new system was known as the West Penn Allegheny Health System. In 2010, as parent company West Penn Allegheny Health System was experiencing severe cash shortages and financial difficulties, WPAHS leadership agreed to close West Penn's emergency room as a cost-saving measure, it closed on Jan. 1, 2010, remained closed until February 2012, after WPAHS had reached an agreement in principle with Highmark Inc. regarding the acquisition of the hospital system. That agreement was announced in June 2011, without the affiliation and capital infusion from Highmark, had “another investor not materialized, WPAHS was preparing a budget that would have included the autumn closure of West Penn Hospital,” according to the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. West Penn became a part of Allegheny Health Network in 2013.
Today, West Penn Hospital is a 317-bed academic medical center. West Penn was the first hospital in southwestern Pennsylvania to receive the prestigious Magnet Recognition Program award for nursing excellence American Nurses Credentialing Center, in 2006, it is the first in the region to be re-designated for a third consecutive time. Allegheny General Hospital Allegheny Health Network Official website Allegheny Health Network website West Penn School of Nursing website American Nurses Credentialing Center website STAR Center website WPH History at Pitt website