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Asteraceae or Compositae, is a large and widespread family of flowering plants. The family includes over 32,000 accepted species, in over 1,900 genera in 13 subfamilies. In terms of numbers of species, the Asteraceae are rivaled only by the Orchidaceae. Which of the two families is the larger is unclear, because of the uncertainty about how many extant species each family includes. Nearly all Asteraceae bear their flowers in dense heads surrounded by involucral bracts; when viewed from a distance, each capitulum may have the appearance of being a single flower. Enlarged outer flowers in the capitula may resemble petals, the involucral bracts may look like a calyx; the name Asteraceae comes from the type genus Aster, from the Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, meaning star, refers to the star-like form of the inflorescence. Compositae is an older name that refers to the "composite" nature of the capitula, which consist of many individual flowers. Most members of Asteraceae are annual or perennial herbs, but a significant number are shrubs, vines, or trees.

The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, with species ranging from subpolar to tropical regions, colonizing a wide variety of habitats. The largest proportion of the species occur in the arid and semiarid regions of subtropical and lower temperate latitudes; the Asteraceae may represent as much as 10% of autochthonous flora in many regions of the world. Asteraceae is an economically important family, providing products such as cooking oils, leaf vegetables like lettuce, sunflower seeds, sweetening agents, coffee substitutes and herbal teas. Several genera are of horticultural importance, including pot marigold, various daisies, chrysanthemums, dahlias and heleniums. Asteraceae are important in herbal medicine, including Grindelia and many others. On the other hand, many Asteraceae are considered weeds in various circumstances. Of these, many are invasive species in particular regions having been introduced by human agency. Examples include various tumbleweeds, ragweeds and dandelion. Dandelion, as a case in point, was introduced into North America by European settlers who used the young leaves as a salad green.

The study of this family is known as synantherology. The name Asteraceae comes to international scientific vocabulary from New Latin, from Aster, the type genus, + -aceae, a standardized suffix for plant family names in modern taxonomy; the genus name comes from the Classical Latin word aster, "star", which came from Ancient Greek ἀστήρ, "star". The earlier name, Compositae means "composite" and refers to the characteristic inflorescence, a special type of pseudanthium found in only a few other angiosperm families; the vernacular name daisy applied to members of this family, is derived from the Old English name of the daisy: dæġes ēaġe, meaning "day's eye". This is because the petals close at dusk. Asteraceae species have a cosmopolitan distribution, are found everywhere except Antarctica and the extreme Arctic, they are numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Compositae, the original name for Asteraceae, were first described in 1792 by the German botanist Paul Dietrich Giseke. Traditionally, two subfamilies were recognised: Cichorioideae.

The latter has been shown to be extensively paraphyletic, has now been divided into 12 subfamilies, but the former still stands. The phylogenetic tree presented below is based on Panero & Funk updated in 2014, now includes the monotypic Famatinanthoideae; the diamond denotes a poorly supported node, the dot a poorly supported node. The four subfamilies Asteroideae, Cichorioideae and Mutisioideae contain 99% of the species diversity of the whole family; because of the morphological complexity exhibited by this family, agreeing on generic circumscriptions has been difficult for taxonomists. As a result, several of these genera have required multiple revisions. Members of the Asteraceae are herbaceous plants, but some shrubs and trees do exist, they are easy to distinguish from other plants because of their characteristic inflorescence and other shared characteristics. However, determining genera and species of some groups such as Hieracium is notoriously difficult. Members of the Asteraceae produce taproots, but sometimes they possess fibrous root systems.

Stems are herbaceous aerial branched cylindrical with glandular hairs erect but can be prostrate to ascending. Some species have underground stems in the form of rhizomes; these can be woody depending on the species. The leaves and the stems often contain secretory canals with resin or latex; the leaves can be opposite, or whorled. They may be simple, but are deeply lobed or otherwise incised conduplicate or revolute; the margins can be entire or toothed. In plants of the family Asteraceae, what appears to be a single flower is a cluster of much smaller flowers; the overall appearance of the cluster, as a single flower, functions in attracting pollinators in the same way as the struc


Redonda is an uninhabited Caribbean island a part of Antigua and Barbuda, in the Leeward Islands, West Indies. The island is about 1.6 kilometres long, 0.5 kilometres wide, is 296 metres high at its highest point. This small island lies between the islands of Nevis and Montserrat, 56.2 kilometres southwest of Antigua. Redonda is closer to Montserrat than to any other island. Redonda is home to vast numbers of sea birds, the island was an important source of guano before artificial fertilisers started to be mass-produced. Guano-mining operations started in the 1860s and ceased after the start of World War I. During these mining operations a few buildings and other installations were put in place on the island, some physical remnants of that phase in its history are still visible. "Redonda" is the female form of the Spanish language adjective meaning "round". In 1493, on his second voyage to the New World, Christopher Columbus discovered the island and named it "Santa María la Redonda"; the island of Redonda became part of Antigua and Barbuda in 1967.

At a distance, Redonda appears as if it were one large rock. It is the remnant of an ancient extinct volcano; the land rises from sea level as sheer cliffs on the leeward side. At the top of the island there is a flat but tilted area of grassland which slopes to the east. There is no source of fresh water other than rain. Judging by the name he gave the island, to Columbus the island appeared to be rounded, at least in profile. In reality the island is long and narrow, reaches a height of 1,000 feet; the actual land area of the island is hard to estimate because of the extreme steepness of the slopes, but it is calculated to be somewhere between 1.6 square kilometres and 2.6 square kilometres. Redonda is uninhabited; the difficult topography, the lack of a safe place to land a boat, the absence of any freshwater source other than rainfall makes the island inhospitable to humans. A herd of feral goats and thousands of rats were cleared from the island in 2017. Christopher Columbus discovered Redonda in 1493 on his second journey.

He did not land there. He named the island Santa María la Redonda, meaning Saint Mary the Round, reflecting the island's apparent profile when viewed from the side; because the island is a rock of just over a square kilometre, it did not represent any interest for the powers involved in the colonization of the Americas and, for centuries, it was a refuge for pirates. In the 1860s, the island became a British possession. During the decades after the 1860s, the rich guano deposits of Redonda were mined for fertiliser, with an annual yield of up to 7,000 tons. Only during this time was the island inhabited by workers. After the guano mining, aluminium phosphate for gunpowder production was mined. A cableway was constructed to transport material down to the loading pier on the coast. In 1914, during the First World War, the mining operations ceased, most workers left the island. Maintenance workers remained on the island until 1929, when a hurricane destroyed all the remaining facilities; the island has remained uninhabited since then.

Two stone huts still stand from the time. Although the closest island to Redonda is Montserrat, the second closest is Nevis, in 1967 Redonda became a dependency of the more distant Antigua, now part of Antigua and Barbuda. Scientists from the Montserrat Volcano Observatory visit the island in a helicopter periodically. Animals endemic to the island include the Redonda ground dragon, the Redonda anole and an unnamed species of dwarf gecko; the island is a breeding colony for multiple species of seabirds. Redonda is the setting of the myth of the "Kingdom of Redonda". M. P. Shiel, an author of fantasy novels, claimed that in the year of his birth, 1865, his father Matthew Dowdy Shiell, from Montserrat, decided to celebrate his first male child by arranging for the boy to be crowned King of Redonda at the age of 15, in a ceremony purportedly carried out on the small island by a bishop. Shiel first mentioned the idea of the "Kingdom of Redonda" in a promotional leaflet for his books. Since the title has been "passed down", continues to the present day.

For a period of time the "Royal" lineage of Redonda had a more or less literary theme, with the title being given to writers, such as John Gawsworth and Jon Wynne-Tyson. Wynne-Tyson, his successor the Spanish novelist Javier Marias, rival contenders for the Redondan title, such as Gawsworth, William L. Gates and Bob Williamson, were featured in a BBC Radio 4 documentary, Redonda: The Island with Too Many Kings, broadcast in May 2007. Rodondo Island, in Bass Strait between Australia and Tasmania, named for its resemblance to Redonda This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress Country Studies website This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website Antigua and Barbuda Museum "Redonda Island". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920

Bruce Sewell

Bruce Sewell was Apple’s general counsel and senior vice president of Legal and Government Affairs, reporting to CEO Tim Cook. Sewell served on the company’s executive team and oversaw all legal matters, including corporate governance, intellectual property and securities compliance, as well as government affairs. Sewell received his J. D. from George Washington University in 1986, a Bachelor of Science degree from the University of Lancaster, in the United Kingdom, in 1979. He was admitted to the California Bar in 1986 and to the Washington D. C. Bar in 1987, he is admitted to practice before the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit. Sewell was a partner in the litigation firm of Brown & Bain P. C, he joined Intel in 1995 as a senior attorney assigned to counsel various business groups in areas such as antitrust compliance and intellectual property. In 2001, Sewell was promoted to vice president and deputy general counsel, managing Intel’s litigation portfolio, handled corporate transactions including M&A activities.

At Intel, he was responsible for leading all of Intel’s legal, corporate affairs and corporate social responsibility programs, managing attorneys and policy professionals located in over 30 countries around the world. Sewell joined Apple from Intel Corporation in September 2009. On December 8th, 2017, Apple’s leadership page replaced his role with Katherine Adams, a newly appointed member of the team

Hells Canyon massacre

The Hells Canyon massacre was a massacre where thirty-four Chinese goldminers were ambushed and murdered in May 1887. In 2005, the area was renamed Chinese Massacre Cove, a memorial was placed there in 2012 in three languages, Chinese and Nez Perce. Two groups of Chinese miners, led by Chea Po and Lee She, departed Lewiston in October 1886 and headed upriver along the Snake into Oregon's Hells Canyon to search for gold. Chea's group stopped on the Oregon side of the Snake, near Robinson Gulch and the cove where Deep Creek empties into the Snake. Lee's group continued upriver to Salt Creek. Chea Po had chosen a location just upstream of Dug Bar, a ford used by horse and cattle thieves to cross the Snake. Dug Bar was named for a thief who had used the area to graze his horses. Douglas was killed in 1883, a gang led by Bruce Evans, known locally as "Old Blue", began using Douglas's abandoned cabin in the spring of 1887 1⁄2 mile downstream from Chea Po's camp; the gang consisted of Evans, J. T. Canfield, C.

O. LaRue, Frank Vaughn, Carl Hughes, Hiram Maynard and Robert McMillan, a fifteen-year-old boy. In late May 1887 the gang of seven white horse gang members robbed and mutilated between 10 and 34 Chinese employees of the Sam Yup Company for their gold. Estimates of the value of gold stolen range from $4,000 to $50,000. According to a contemporaneous news article, the gold dust was given to Canfield for safekeeping, but he double-crossed the rest of the gang and fled the county; the brutality of the Snake River atrocity was unexcelled, whether by whites or Indians, in all the anti-Chinese violence of the American West. After the first day's onslaught at Robinson Gulch, the killers wrecked and burned the camp and threw the mutilated corpses into the Snake River; the bodies of the other Chinese received similar treatment. Since it was the high-water stage of the spring runoff, the dead Chinese were not found for months afterwards along the lower river. Robert McMillan made a deathbed confession to his father Hugh recounting details of the massacre, which were published in 1891.

According to Hugh McMillan, the Chinese miners were ambushed by a party consisting of Robert McMillan, Bruce Evans, J. T. Canfield, Max Larue, Frank Vaughn in late April 1887. Hiram Maynard and Carl Hughes did not participate in the ambush. Canfield and Larue first attacked the camp of thirteen Chinese from the bluffs overlooking the cove, driving them towards Evans and Vaughn, who were in the path of their retreat. Twelve Chinese were killed in the initial fusillade the remaining man had "his brains beaten out", retrieving $5,500 in gold dust; the next day, eight more Chinese returned to the camp by boat, where the gang shot and killed them, throwing the 21 bodies into the Snake River. The gang stole the boat and traveled 4 miles to the next Chinese camp, where they killed 13 more and retrieved $50,000 in gold. Hugh McMillan stated that Robert was only present for the first day's events, but the gang had discussed the next day's plans before Robert left the others. According to a modern account, Vaughn stayed behind to prepare dinner while the other six rode to ambush the miners.

McMillan minded the horses. Their surprise attack was successful, all ten of the miners at the camp were killed, the last with a rock after the gang had run out of ammunition; the gang restocked their ammunition. The bodies of some murder victims began washing ashore soon afterward, swept downstream to places as far away as Lime Point, Log Cabin Island, Penawawa, Washington; each body bore unmistakable markings of great violence. K. Vincent, a federal official who investigated the crime wrote "every one was shot, cut up and stripped and thrown in the River." Lee She's group went to visit Chea Po's group at Robinson Gulch in early June 1887, found three bodies in the deserted, ransacked camp. A news article published in July 1887 called the corpses a "severe warning to Chinese miners" and blamed the victims: "More than it was the whites who look with an evil eye upon Chinese intrusion in American mines; the American miner kicks hard at the Chinese miner." Other local Chinese Americans believed that all Chinese miners along the Snake had been killed once the mutilated bodies began to surface.

"a thorough investigation" described in a July 17, 1887 article concluded the Chinese had been murdered by rival Chinese miners, since the victims had been "shot in the back and mutilated by cleavers, a weapon in general use by the Chinese." George S. Craig owned the Douglas cabin and discovered numerous skeletons in the area when he returned to winter his stock in the fall of 1887. Frank Vaughn confessed to the crime in 1888 and his testimony led to the indictment of the other six gang members on March 23, 1888. In follow-up testimony given on April 16, Vaughn blamed Evans, LaRue for the massacre, said that he, Maynard, McMillan had not participated. Vaughn himself was arrested on April 18. By the time he was arrested the entire gang had left


In legal terms, a plea is an answer to a claim made by someone in a criminal case under common law using the adversarial system. Colloquially, a plea has come to mean the assertion by a defendant at arraignment, or otherwise in response to a criminal charge, whether that person pleaded or pled guilty, not guilty, nolo contendere, no case to answer, or Alford plea; the concept of the plea is one of the major differences between criminal procedure under common law and procedure under the civil law system. Under common law, a defendant who pleads guilty is automatically convicted and the remainder of the trial is used to determine the sentence; this produces a system known as plea bargaining, in which defendants may plead guilty in exchange for a more lenient punishment. In civil law jurisdictions, a confession by the defendant is treated like any other piece of evidence, a full confession does not prevent a full trial from occurring or relieve the prosecutor from having to present a case to the court.

The most common types of plea are "guilty" and "not guilty". Pleading guilty results in a more lenient punishment for the defendant. In a plea bargain a defendant makes a deal with the prosecution or court to plead guilty in exchange for a more lenient punishment, or for related charges against them to be dropped. A "blind plea" is a guilty plea entered with no plea agreement in place. Plea bargains are common in the United States. Other countries use a more limited form of plea bargaining. In the United Kingdom and Germany, guidelines state that only the timing of the guilty plea can affect the reduction in the punishment, with an earlier plea resulting in a greater reduction. In the United States, a nolo contendere plea is when the defendant submits a plea that neither admits nor denies the offense, it has the same immediate effect of a guilty plea, in that the trial avoids determining the defendant's guilt. These are pleas, they are so called because, rather than being an answer to the question of guilt or innocence, they are a claim that the matter of guilt or innocence should not be considered.

They are: autrefois convict - where under the doctrine of double jeopardy, he has convicted or acquitted of the same charge and hence cannot be tried again. Plea of pardon - where he has been pardoned for the offense. A defendant who refuses to enter a plea is interpreted as giving a plea of not guilty. If a defendant attempts to enter an unorthodox plea, this will be interpreted as a plea of not guilty. One example of this is a defendant accused of a crime committed while protesting nuclear power, who gave his plea as "I plead for the beauty that surrounds us"; until 1772, English law stated that if a defendant refused to plead guilty or not guilty, the trial was delayed from taking place. Some of these defendants were subjected to peine forte et dure until he or she entered a plea, although some died; the last recorded instance of this was in 1741. A defendant who enters a plea of guilty must do so, in the phraseology of a 1938 Supreme Court case, Johnson v. Zerbst, "knowingly and intelligently".

The burden is on the prosecution to prove that all waivers of the defendant's rights complied with due process standards. Accordingly, in cases of all but the most minor offences, the court or the prosecution will engage in a plea colloquy wherein they ask the defendant a series of rote questions about the defendant's knowledge of his rights and the voluntariness of the plea; the hearing on the guilty plea is transcribed by a court reporter and the transcript is made a part of the permanent record of the case in order to preserve the conviction's validity from being challenged at some future time. "Voluntary" has been described as "an elusive term which has come to mean not induced by'improper' inducements, such as bribing or physical violence, but not including the inducements associated with charge and sentence bargaining." "Intelligent" has been described as "also an elusive term, meaning that the defendant knows his rights, the nature of the charge to which he is pleading, the consequences of his plea."Virtually all jurisdictions hold that defense counsel need not discuss with defendants the collateral consequences of pleading guilty, such as consecutive sentencing or treatment as an aggravating circumstance in an ongoing capital prosecution.

However, the Supreme Court recognized an important exception in Padilla v. Kentucky, in which the Court held that defense counsel is obligated to inform defendants of the potential immigration consequences of a guilty plea, thus a defendant, not advised of immigration consequences may have an ineffective assistance of counsel argument. In the U. S. federal system, the court must satisfy itself that there is a factual basis for the guilty plea. However, this safeguard may not be effective, because the parties, having reached a plea agreement, may be reluctant to reveal any information that could disturb the agreement; when a plea agreement has been made, the judge's factual basis inquiry is perfunctory, the standard for finding that the plea is factually based is low. Other special pleas used in criminal cases include the plea of mental incompetence, cha


Kilpauk is a semi residential area located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. The distance from Chennai's city center to Kilpauk is about 6 km; the region is situated off the Poonamallee High Road in the west. Adjacent areas of Kilpauk include Chetpet, Anna Nagar and Purasawalkam; the nearest railway station for Kilpauk is the one at Chetpet. This railway station lies to the south of Kilpauk and not more than a kilometre away. There are two metro stations which connects to Kilpauk, they are Nehru Kilpauk; the Chennai Airport is about 18 km from Kilpauk. This place was a cantonment area for British troops before India's independence. Today this locality is known as "Little Korea" due to the Korean population residing in this area; the neighbourhood has a historical water-treatment plant. On the other end, to the west, is the Institute of Mental Health, one of the oldest mental asyla in the continent, visited by Queen Elizabeth the second. Kilpauk Garden Kelly's Corner Aspiran Garden Secretariat Colony Seth P D Hinduja Sindhi Model Senior Secondary School C S I Bain school Bhavan's Rajaji Vidyashram Chinmaya Vidyalaya Kola Saraswati and Rukmani Vidyalaya changed as Ramachandra MES Razeena Matriculation Higher Secondary SchoolBoth the Directorate of Medical Education and Government Kilpauk Medical College are located on EVR Periyar Salai.

Kilpauk is well known for engineering college head offices, including Rajalakshmi Institutions and Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology