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Aston Martin

Aston Martin Lagonda Global Holdings plc is a British independent manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger, their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982, it has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents, making them a global automobile brand. The company is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. In 2003 it received the Queen's Award for Enterprise for outstanding contribution to international trade; the company has gone bankrupt seven times in its history. Aston Martin operates on three sites; the headquarters and main production of its sports cars and grand tourers are in a 22-hectare facility in Gaydon, England, on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres.

The 36-hectare factory in St. Athan, Wales is the production site of the company's first-ever SUV the DBX and future Lagonda models, the old plant in Newport Pagnell now serves as the home of the Aston Martin Works classic car department. Aston Martin has announced plans to turn itself into a global luxury brand, is branching out into projects including speed boats, bicycles and real estate development submarines and aircraft on a licensing basis. Aston Martin had a troubled history after the third quarter of the 20th century but has enjoyed long periods of success and stability. "In the first century we went bankrupt seven times", CEO Andy Palmer told Automotive News Europe. "The second century is about making sure, not the case." Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, the pair decided to make their own vehicles.

The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta Fraschini. They acquired premises at Henniker Mews in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of the first World War, Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford joined the Army Service Corps. After the war they found new premises at Abingdon Road and designed a new car. Bamford left in 1920 and Bamford & Martin was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, which went on to set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16-valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record-breaking: chassis number 1914 developed as the Green Pea. 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations. Bamford & Martin went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Dorothea, Lady Charnwood who put her son John Benson on the board.

Bamford & Martin got into financial difficulty again in 1925 and Martin was forced to sell the company. That year, Bill Renwick, Augustus Bertelli and investors including Lady Charnwood took control of the business, they renamed it Aston Martin Motors and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited Hanworth works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead-cam four-cylinder engine using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, which they had tested in an Enfield-Allday chassis; the only "Renwick and Bertelli" motor car made, it was known as "Buzzbox" and still survives. The pair had planned to sell their engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that Aston Martin was no longer in production realised they could capitalise on its reputation to jump-start the production of a new car. Between 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was both technical director and designer of all new Aston Martins, since known as "Bertelli cars", they included the 1½-litre "T-type", "International", "Le Mans", "MKII" and its racing derivative, the "Ulster", the 2-litre 15/98 and its racing derivative, the "Speed Model".

Most were open two-seater sports cars bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico, with a small number of long-chassis four-seater tourers and saloons produced. Bertelli was a competent driver keen to race his cars, one of few owner/manufacturer/drivers; the "LM" team cars were successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans. Financial problems reappeared in 1932. Aston Martin was rescued for a year by Lance Prideaux Brune before passing it on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, Aston Martin decided to concentrate on road cars, producing just 700 until World War II halted work. Production shifted to aircraft components during the war. In 1947, old-established owned Huddersfield gear and machine tools manufacturer David Brown Limited bought Aston Martin putting it under control of its Tractor Group. David Brown became Aston Martin's latest saviour, he acquired without its factory Lagonda's business for its 2.6-litre W. O. Bentley-designed engine. Lagonda moved operations to Newport Pagnell and shared engines and workshops.

Aston Martin began to build the classic "

Eliza Cook (physician)

Dr. Eliza Cook was Nevada's first woman doctor. Cook was born on February 5, 1856 in Salt Lake City, she received her Medical Degree in 1884 from Cooper Medical College in San Francisco, her Nevada medical license in April 1899, the first year that they were issued by the state, she was a member of the American Woman Suffrage Association and the Women's Christian Temperance Union. She served as Vice President of the Nevada Equal Suffrage Association. Never married, she resided in Mottsville, Carson Valley, Douglas County. Cook died on October 2, 1947

Arrowsmith v. Commissioner

Arrowsmith v. Commissioner, 344 U. S. 6, is a United States Supreme Court case regarding taxation. The case involves taxpayers who liquidated a corporation in 1937; the taxpayers reported the income from the liquidation as long-term capital gains, thus obtaining a preferential tax rate. Subsequent to the liquidation in 1944, the taxpayers were required to pay a judgment arising from the affairs of the liquidated corporation; the taxpayers classified this payment as an ordinary business loss, which would allow them to take a greater deduction for the loss than would be permitted for a capital loss. The "Arrowsmith Doctrine" is a principle of United States Federal Income tax law that holds that financial restorations associated with prior income items take the same tax "flavor" as the prior income items; the Commissioner of Internal Revenue characterized the payment of the judgment as part of the original liquidation transaction, therefore the loss was a capital loss and not an ordinary business loss.

The Tax Court found it to be an ordinary business loss. The Second Circuit Court of Appeals held it to be a capital loss; the U. S. Supreme Court held that it was a capital loss. Allowing the income from the liquidation to be taxed as a capital gain, while allowing loss payments out of that income to be deducted as an ordinary business expense would result in a windfall for the taxpayers, they would gain a double benefit by paying a lower tax on capital gain income, but would be able to offset high-rate income by using the ordinary loss deduction. The taxpayers principally relied on the well-settled rule. However, the Supreme Court held treating the proceeds of the liquidation did not violate this rule, as it in no way attempts to reopen or amend the tax filings from 1937-1940; this case was decided prior to the enactment of Sec. 1341 of the Internal Revenue Code, however that statute would not have changed the outcome in this particular case. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 344 Farer, Tom J..

"Corporate Liquidations: Transmuting Ordinary Income into Capital Gains". Harvard Law Review. 75: 527–547. Doi:10.2307/1338392. JSTOR 1338392. Schenk, Deborah H.. "Arrowsmith and Its Progeny: Tax Characterization by Reference to Past Events". Rutgers Law Review. 33: 317. ISSN 0036-0465. Storey, R. W.. "Transferees of Liquidated Corporations—Their Tax Liability". Journal of Public Law. 2: 220. ISSN 0022-4014. Text of Arrowsmith v. Commissioner, 344 U. S. 6 is available from: CourtListener Findlaw Google Scholar Justia Library of Congress