Aston Martin DBR1
The Aston Martin DBR1 was a sports racing car built by Aston Martin starting in 1956, intended for the World Sportscar Championship as well as non-championship sportscar races at the time. It is most famous as the victor of the 195924 Hours of Le Mans and it is one of only three cars in the 1950s to win both the World Sports Car Championship and Le Mans 24 Hours in the same year. In addition the six World Sports Car Championship victories was a record for any car in the 1950s and remained a record in the championship until surpassed by the Ferrari 250TR. Following changes to the rules for racing, entrants no longer had to use cars which were road legal, or based on road legal cars. Therefore, with the ability to create a sportscar from a slate for 1956, Aston Martin created the DBR1. The body evolved from the DB3Ss shape, featuring a lower profile. Most notable was that the back of the front wheel well was no longer left open, the DBR1 featured full bodywork with a large triangular vent on the side, a design trait which would become standard on all future Aston Martins.
Debuting at the non championship 195624 Hours of Le Mans, DBR1/1 was upgraded with the newer 3. 0-litre engine, and joined by the identical DBR1/2. Together at the Spa Sportscar Race, Aston Martin took the top two spots, with Tony Brooks winning over Roy Salvadori, the DBR1s made their World Sportscar Championship debut in the fourth round, the 1000km Nürburgring. Salvadori and Les Leston finished sixth in the race in DBR1/1. Unfortunately these hopes were dashed at the 195724 Hours of Le Mans when both DBR1s failed to finish, the failure at Le Mans meant that any hopes of the World Championship had gone and Aston Martin missed the final two rounds in Sweden and Venezuela. For 1958, DBR1/3 was completed and Aston Martin now had three cars with which to compete, the World Sports Car Championship was now restricted to cars of no more than 3-litres and the teams DBR2 model with its 3. 7-litre engine was ineligible. David Brown therefore chose to concentrate on the Championship with the DBR1, the team did not enter the opening round in Buenos Aires which was won by Ferrari, deciding instead to race at the following round, the 12 Hours of Sebring.
Neither DBR1 managed to finish, both suffering gearbox failure, although in the hands of Moss it was the fastest car in the race, unfortunately the bad luck returned at Le Mans, with all three DBR1s failing to finish again. However Ferrari had chosen not to compete having already won the championship and this victory allowed Aston Martin to finish second in the constructors championship behind Ferrari. Returning again for 1959, Aston Martin had completed two more chassis, DBR1/4 and DBR1/5, the first car was actually a conversion from a DBR3, while DBR1/5 was a spare chassis sold to privateer Graham Whitehead. This latter car was the only DBR1 to be sold to a privateer during the 1956-9 period when the team campaigned with them. With four chassis, Aston Martin would again concentrate on the World Sportscar Championship, Aston Martin completed a hatrick of victories as the sole factory entry again won the 1000km Nürburgring, with Moss and Jack Fairman driving
David Brown Ltd.
David Brown Engineering Limited is an English engineering company, principally engaged in the manufacture of gears and gearboxes. Their major gear manufacturing plant is in Swan Lane, Huddersfield and it is named after the companys founder, David Brown, though it is more closely associated with his grandson, Sir David Brown. Founded in 1860 as a manufacturing company by 1873 David Brown had begun to concentrate on gear systems. The company moved in 1902 to Park Works at Huddersfield, where the firm is based today and its foundry makes steel and non-ferrous castings. Including motor vehicles, ships as well as a range of British industry. In 1951 the Huddersfield and Tractor groups freehold land and buildings at Huddersfield, another 260,000 square feet of floor space were held under lease. Gearing manufactured by David Brown Ltd. and powered by electric motors manufactured by Brook Crompton Motors, in 1913 they established a joint venture in America with Timken for Radicon worm drive units. By the end of World War I the workforce had increased from 200 to 1000 as they started building propulsion units for warships, by 1921 the company was the largest worm gear manufacturer in the world.
In 1930 the company took over P. R. Jackson Ltd, another firm of gear manufacturers. Percys eldest son became managing director in 1931 following Percys death in June that year, W S Roe was appointed joint managing director with David but he died in April 1933. The firm formed another joint venture with Richardson Gears Ltd of Footscray. In 1934 the company moved into an old Silk Mill on a site at Meltham, Brown started building tractors with Harry Ferguson there in 1936. The first vehicle to use system was the Churchill tank, and it was subsequently used on the Centurion tank. Personally controlled since its inception by David Brown the first venture into tractor production was in a joint project with Harry Ferguson in 1936 building the Ferguson-Brown tractor. David Brown became one of the biggest British tractor manufactures in the post war period, with a manufacturing plant at Meltham. The company broke new ground which others were only to follow later, the Ferguson-Brown had a lot of innovative features, including the use of cast alloy for many the components, which was light but prone to damage.
The Ferguson-Brown used a Coventry Climax engine for the first 350 tractors, Browns developed their own engine which was fitted to subsequent production. Total production was 1350 +1 built from parts in 1940 after production finished and Ferguson disagreed over tractor design details in the late 30s, which led David Brown to design his own version, the VAK1, in secret
A manual transmission, known as a manual gearbox, stick shift, n-speed manual, standard, MT, or in colloquial U. S. English, a stick, is a type of transmission used in motor vehicle applications. The number of gear ratios is often expressed for automatic transmissions as well. Manual transmissions often feature a clutch and a movable gear stick. This type of transmission is called a sequential manual transmission. In a manual transmission, the flywheel is attached to the engines crankshaft, the clutch disk is in between the pressure plate and the flywheel, and is held against the flywheel under pressure from the pressure plate. When the engine is running and the clutch is engaged, the flywheel spins the clutch plate, as the clutch pedal is depressed, the throw out bearing is activated, which causes the pressure plate to stop applying pressure to the clutch disk. This makes the clutch plate stop receiving power from the engine, when the clutch pedal is released, the throw out bearing is deactivated, and the clutch disk is again held against the flywheel, allowing it to start receiving power from the engine.
Manual transmissions are characterized by gear ratios that are selectable by locking selected gear pairs to the shaft inside the transmission. Conversely, most automatic transmissions feature epicyclic gearing controlled by brake bands and/or clutch packs to select gear ratio, automatic transmissions that allow the driver to manually select the current gear are called manumatics. A manual-style transmission operated by computer is called an automated transmission rather than an automatic. Operating aforementioned transmissions often use the pattern of shifter movement with a single or multiple switches to engage the next sequence of gear selection. The earliest form of a transmission is thought to have been invented by Louis-René Panhard. This type of transmission offered multiple gear ratios and, in most cases and these transmissions are called sliding mesh transmissions or sometimes crash boxes, because of the difficulty in changing gears and the loud grinding sound that often accompanied.
Newer manual transmissions on cars have all gears mesh at all times and are referred to as constant-mesh transmissions, in both types, a particular gear combination can only be engaged when the two parts to engage are at the same speed. To shift to a gear, the transmission is put in neutral. The vehicle slows while in neutral and that slows other transmission parts, so the time in neutral depends on the grade, for both upshifts and downshifts, the clutch is released while in neutral. Some drivers use the only for starting from a stop. Even though automobile and light truck transmissions are now almost universally synchronized, transmissions for trucks and machinery, motorcycles
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
Sir John Arthur Jack Brabham, AO, OBE was an Australian racing driver who was Formula One champion in 1959,1960, and 1966. He was a founder of the Brabham racing team and race car constructor that bore his name, Brabham was a Royal Australian Air Force flight mechanic and ran a small engineering workshop before he started racing midget cars in 1948. His successes with midgets in Australian and New Zealand road racing led to his going to Britain to further his racing career. There he became part of the Cooper Car Companys racing team and he contributed to the design of the mid-engined cars that Cooper introduced to Formula One and the Indianapolis 500, and won the Formula One world championship in 1959 and 1960. In 1962 he established his own Brabham marque with fellow Australian Ron Tauranac, in the 1966 Formula One season Brabham became the first – and still the only – man to win the Formula One world championship driving one of his own cars. He was the last surviving World Champion of the 1950s, John Arthur Jack Brabham was born on 2 April 1926 in Hurstville, New South Wales, a commuter town outside Sydney.
Brabham was involved with cars and mechanics from an early age, at the age of 12, he learned to drive the family car and the trucks of his fathers grocery business. Brabham attended technical college, studying metalwork and technical drawing, Brabhams early career continued the engineering theme. At the age of 15 he left school to work, combining a job at a garage with an evening course in mechanical engineering. Brabham soon branched out into his own business selling motorbikes, which he bought and repaired for sale, One month after his 18th birthday on 19 May 1944 Brabham enlisted into the Royal Australian Air Force. He was based at RAAF Station Williamtown, where he maintained Bristol Beaufighters at No.5 Operational Training Unit, on his 20th birthday,2 April 1946, Brabham was discharged from the RAAF with the rank of leading aircraftman. He started a service and machining business in a workshop built by his uncle on a plot of land behind his grandfathers house. Brabham started racing after an American friend, Johnny Schonberg, persuaded him to watch a car race.
Midget racing was a category for small open-wheel cars racing on dirt ovals and it was popular in Australia, attracting crowds of up to 40,000. Brabham records that he was not taken with the idea of driving, being convinced that the drivers were all lunatics, at first Schonberg drove the homemade device, powered by a modified JAP motorcycle engine built by Brabham in his workshop. In 1948, Schonbergs wife persuaded him to racing and on his suggestion Brabham took over. He almost immediately found that he had a knack for the sport, Brabham has since said that it was terrific driver training. You had to have quick reflexes, in effect you lived—or possibly died—on them, due to the time required to prepare the car, the sport became his living
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
Reginald Reg Parnell was a racing driver and team manager from Derby, England. He participated in seven Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one podium, Parnell, as both a driver and a team manager, had a considerable influence on post-war British motorsport until his premature death in 1964. Parnell raced at Brooklands and was banned following an accident with Kay Petre which ended her racing career, before the war he bought up racing cars. Once the hostilities had ceased he sold them to form the basis of post-war racing entries and he raced a whole host of cars before turning to management and taking Aston Martin into Formula 1. Parnell went on to run the Yeoman Credit Racing team with the help of his son Tim who raced in Formula 1 himself, Parnell came from a family which ran a garage business in Derby. In 1933, he was a spectator when Donington Park held its first motor race, by 1935, he bought an old 2-litre Bugatti single-seater for just £25. It broke its rear axle in the paddock at its first meeting, Parnell had secured wins at both Brooklands and Donington Park, but in 1937 he lost his licence following a practice accident for the 500 Mile race, at Brooklands.
He misjudged a move on Kay Petre, when he lost control of the MG, crashing into her Austin 7 from behind. She crashed badly and was seriously injured, although she put the incident down to ‘bad luck’, the RAC revoked Parnell’s racing license for two years. This meant that he was unable to race, the ban meant in effect that, during 1938, Parnell found himself unable to race his cars, he soon discovered that lending the cars to other drivers was an excellent way of being involved in racing. His abilities as a manager were probably developed during this period. With his licence restored in 1939, Parnell was back with 4. 9-litre Bugatti-engined single-seater and he was particularly successful with this BHW at Donington Park. Meanwhile, he started to construct his own car for voiturette, known as the Challenger, however with the outbreak of World War II, the best years of his career were wasted. During the war years, Parnell finished the Challenger and built up a collection of racing machinery. He sold race cars, with famous and less famous racing machines passing through his hands.
This did not prevent Parnell from driving as soon as the war ended and he returned to racing as soon as he could in 1946 in a variety of machinery, most notably a Maserati 4CLT, an ERA A-type alongside several Delages and Rileys. As for the Challenger, it was sold and this proved to be a poor year for mechanical reliability, although in his Maserati 4CLM, he did finished second behind Prince Bira in the Ulster Trophy, faround the street of Dundrod. There was only one motor racing held on English soil in 1946, and this took place at Gransden Lodge, with Parnell winning the main race of the event
A chassis consists of an internal vehicle frame that supports an artificial object in its construction and use, can provide protection for some internal parts. An example of a chassis is the underpart of a motor vehicle, if the running gear such as wheels and transmission, and sometimes even the drivers seat, are included, the assembly is described as a rolling chassis. In the case of vehicles, the rolling chassis means the frame plus the running gear like engine, drive shaft, differential. An under body, which is not necessary for integrity of the structure, is built on the chassis to complete the vehicle. For commercial vehicles, a rolling chassis consists of an assembly of all the parts of a truck to be ready for operation on the road. The design of a car chassis will be different than one for commercial vehicles because of the heavier loads. Commercial vehicle manufacturers sell chassis only and chassis, as well as chassis cab versions that can be outfitted with specialized bodies and these include motor homes, fire engines, box trucks, etc.
In particular applications, such as buses, a government agency like National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in the U. S. defines the design standards of chassis. An armoured fighting vehicles hull serves as the chassis and comprises the part of the AFV that includes the tracks, drivers seat. This describes the hull, although common usage might include the upper hull to mean the AFV without the turret. The hull serves as a basis for platforms on tanks, armoured carriers, combat engineering vehicles. In an electronic device, the chassis consists of a frame or other supporting structure on which the circuit boards. In the absence of a frame, the chassis refers to the circuit boards and components themselves. The combination of chassis and outer covering is called an enclosure. Vietnam Studies, Department of the Army, Washington, D. C.1978
De Dion tube
A de Dion tube is an automobile suspension technology. It is a form of non-independent suspension and is a considerable improvement over the swing axle, Hotchkiss drive. Because it plays no part in transmitting power to the drive wheels, De Dion suspension uses universal joints at both the wheel hubs and differential, and uses a solid tubular beam to hold the opposite wheels in parallel. Unlike an anti-roll bar, a de Dion tube is not directly connected to the chassis nor is it intended to flex, in suspension geometry it is a beam axle suspension. The de Dion tube was named after Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, the tube, was invented around 1894 by co-founder Charles Trépardoux for use on the companys steam tricycles. Advantages, Reduced unsprung weight compared to the Hotchkiss drive, since the differential, unlike most fully independent suspension there are no camber changes on axle loading and unloading. Fixing the camber of both wheels at 0° assists in obtaining good traction from wide tires and tends to reduce wheel hop under high power operations compared to an independent suspension, the choice of shock absorbers and springs is made easier.
The two wheels may be aligned, allowing for independent camber and track alignment. Disadvantages, A pair of CV or universal joints is required for each wheel, adding complexity and weight. If coil springs are used, a location link is required, plus additional torque links on each side or a combination of lower trailing links. None of these links are required if leaf springs are used. The torque links are not required if the setup uses inboard brakes, like in the Pegaso 1502, Rover P6, sympathetic camber changes on opposite wheels are seen on single-wheel suspension compression, just as in a Hotchkiss drive or live axle. This is not important for operation on improved surfaces but is critical for rough road or off road use. Alfa Romeo is probably the most famous adopter of technology, using it on the Alfa Romeo Alfetta, GT, GTV, GTV6, Alfa 6,90, 75/Milano. A recent vehicle to use this suspension coupled with leaf springs was the Ford Ranger EV, the American built MV-1 van by VPG uses this suspension in the rear with leaf springs and is just starting production in spring 2010.
4WD variants of the Honda Fit use a De Dion style suspension in lieu of a torsion bar, benefits include simplicity, compactness and a relatively low liftover height for the cargo bed. Forged steel axles were used instead of tubes, setright, L. J. K. De Dion axle, The First Step to Independence, in Ward, executive editor. World of Automobiles, Volume 5, pp. 515–516
Roy Francesco Salvadori was a British racing driver and team manager. He was born in Dovercourt, Essex, to parents of Italian descent and he graduated to Formula One by 1952 and competed regularly until 1962 for a succession of teams including Cooper, Vanwall, BRM, Aston Martin and Connaught. Also a competitor in other formulae, he won the 195924 Heures du Mans in an Aston Martin with co-driver Carroll Shelby, in 47 starts he achieved one F1 Championship podium finish—third place at the RAC British Grand Prix—and won non-championship races in Australia, New Zealand and England. In 1961 he was lying second in the United States Grand Prix when his Coopers engine failed, at the end of 1962 he retired from F1, and he stopped racing altogether a couple of years to concentrate on the motor trade. He returned to the sport in 1966 to manage the Cooper-Maserati squad for two seasons, and eventually retired to Monaco. It was with this car, he raced in the 1947 Grand Prix des Frontières, despite this, Salvasdori still cruised home to record an impressive fifth place.
He decided to pursue a career, and drove a number of different makes as his career progressed. He was in critical condition after suffering a skull and other severe injuries. He came so close enough to death, he was given the last rites, through he wasnt alone in that, he became known as King of the Airfields. Certainly, he piled up the wins at Silverstone, roy race with all the tough nut tenacity benefitting of a man who made good in the second-hand car trade in the immediate post-war England. He twice won the Oulton Parks International Gold Cup – and there were plenty of adjacent trees to hit there, plus there was a lake to plunge into, which he did once abroad a Jaguar Mk. II3.8 saloon. Nor was the Mulsanne Straight at night a place for the inaccurate or nervous – and he scored his most notable success at Le Mans and he would continue to race the Ferrari, winning the Joe Fry Memorial Trophy. For the 1953 season, Salvadori joined the Connaught team and competed in five Grands Prix with the Connaught A type, however, he did secured a number of non-championship victories during the season.
However, he remained active in domestic motor sport and in sports cars for Aston Martin. Ever since his Championship debut in 1952, Salvadori would experience retirement after retirement, out of the ten races contested between 1953 and 1956, he would retire early in every single one of them. But this all change in 1957, when he signed with Cooper achieving only one place at RAC British Grand Prix. However,1958 was his most successful season, finishing fourth in the World Drivers Championship for Cooper, behind Mike Hawthorn, Stirling Moss, over the course of the season, he would earn two podium finishes, including a second place in the Großer Preis von Deutschland. However he was not retained by Cooper for 1959 but drove a privately entered Cooper, the Aston Martin was a traditional front engined car, which was soon outclassed by the Cooper rear engined concept
1953 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 195324 Hours of Le Mans was the 21st Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 13 and 14 June 1953, at the Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans. It was the round of the F. I. A. British drivers Tony Rolt and Duncan Hamilton won the race one of three factory-entered Jaguar C-Types, the first cars ever to race at Le Mans with disc brakes. It drew together the great races in Europe and North America. The Le Mans race was the round in the championship after the 12 Hours of Sebring. This year marked the first use of a radar-‘gun’ to measure speeds across a flying kilometre on the Hunaudières Straight, of the 69 entrants and reserves, nineteen different marques were present. There were an unprecedented 56 works-entered cars officially represented, with half in the main S-8000, S-5000 and S-3000 classes. Mercedes-Benz did not return to defend their title – they were preparing new cars for both the F1 and Sports Car championships. Drivers included all three F1 World Champions to date and over 30 other current and up-and-coming Grand Prix racers, the Italian teams had built new cars for the season and all had strong driver line-ups.
Ferrari entered a lightweight 375 MM Berlinetta powered by the companys big 330 bhp 4.5 litre V12 engine built for a challenge at Indianapolis, plus two 340 bhp 4.1 litre 340 MMs. Ascari and Luigi Villoresi were to share the lightweight coupé, while brothers Paolo and Gianni Marzotto and Giuseppe Farina, a fourth 340 MM Spyder was entered by American Ferrari agent Luigi Chinetti for himself, with Anglo-American Tom Cole as his co-driver. Such was the quality of the entry list that six other Ferraris could not make the starting list. Alfa Romeo was back at Le Mans for the first time since the war and fielded the beautiful new 6C/3000CM powered by a 3. 5L S6 engine for Fangio and Onofre Marimón and Consalvo Sanesi and Piero Carini. The third car was driven by Mercedes-Benz works-drivers Karl Kling and Fritz Riess who had their manager, Alfred Neubauer. Lancia this year stepped up to the big class with three new D.20 Coupés, having just won the non-Championship Targa Florio with a 3. 0L V6 engine, team manager Vittorio Jano instead decided to install supercharged 2. 7L engines.
This proved to be a mistake as the increase in power increased unreliability and gave away over 20 kph top speed to the rival Jaguars. GP-racers Louis Chiron and Robert Manzon, Piero Taruffi and Umberto Maglioli were in the team, with José Froilán González, Jaguar returned with their C-Types and after the debacle of the previous year, were determined not to repeat those mistakes, having undertaken a lot of development work. Team manager ‘Lofty’ England employed the driver pairings as 1952, with Peter Walker and Stirling Moss, Peter Whitehead and Ian Stewart
Auto racing is a sport involving the racing of automobiles for competition. Almost as soon as automobiles had been invented, races of various sorts were organised, by the 1930s specialist racing cars had developed. There are now numerous different categories, each with different rules and it was won by the carriage of Isaac Watt Boulton. Internal combustion auto racing events began soon after the construction of the first successful gasoline-fueled automobiles, the first organized contest was on April 28,1887, by the chief editor of Paris publication Le Vélocipède, Monsieur Fossier. It ran 2 kilometres from Neuilly Bridge to the Bois de Boulogne, on July 22,1894, the Parisian magazine Le Petit Journal organized what is considered to be the worlds first motoring competition, from Paris to Rouen. One hundred and two competitors paid a 10-franc entrance fee, the first American automobile race is generally held to be the Thanksgiving Day Chicago Times-Herald race of November 28,1895. Press coverage of the event first aroused significant American interest in the automobile, brooklands, in Surrey, was the first purpose-built motor racing venue, opening in June 1907.
It featured a 4.43 km concrete track with high-speed banked corners, One of the oldest existing purpose-built automobile racing circuits in the United States, still in use, is the 2. 5-mile -long Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana. It is the largest capacity venue of any variety worldwide, with a top capacity of some 257. NASCAR was founded by Bill France, Sr. on February 21,1948, the first NASCAR Strictly Stock race ever was held on June 19,1949, at Daytona Beach, Florida. From 1962, sports cars temporarily took a seat to GT cars. From 1972 through 2003, NASCARs premier series was called the Winston Cup Series, the changes that resulted from RJRs involvement, as well as the reduction of the schedule from 48 to 31 races a year, established 1972 as the beginning of NASCARs modern era. The IMSA GT Series evolved into the American Le Mans Series, the European races eventually became the closely related Le Mans Series, both of which mix prototypes and GTs. The best-known variety of racing, Formula One, which hosts the famous Monaco Grand Prix.
In single-seater, the wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front, in Europe and Asia, open-wheeled racing is commonly referred to as Formula, with appropriate hierarchical suffixes. In North America, the Formula terminology is not followed, the sport is usually arranged to follow an international format, a regional format, and/or a domestic, or country-specific, format. In North America, the used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar though less sophisticated than F1 cars. The series most famous race is the Indianapolis 500, the other major international single-seater racing series is GP2