The Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato was introduced in October 1960 at the London Motor Show. It was a DB4 GT, lightened and improved by the Zagato factory in Italy, by Ercole Spada; the factory planned to produce 25 cars, but demand was not as strong as expected and production was reduced to 20. The popularity of the original DB4 GT Zagato resulted in two subsequent waves of cars based on DB4s being rendered into "Zagatos" through the cooperation of Aston Martin and the Zagato works in Italy, they are known as "Sanction II" and "Sanction III" cars. An unauthorised but lucrative private industry of modifying original DB4 GTs into "Zagato" replicas has arisen as well to meet market demand for high-quality Zagato recreations. Although the specification of the engine was changed and upgraded throughout their racing history, the Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato predominantly featured a 3.7-litre aluminium twin-spark straight 6-cylinder engine with a 9.7:1 compression ratio, higher than the DB4 GT engine. The engine produced 314 hp, had a 0 to 60 mph acceleration of just 6.1 seconds and a top speed of 154 mph.
Ercole Spada at Zagato transformed the DB4 GT into a smaller, more aerodynamic, super-lightweight car. Many steel components were replaced with the more lightweight and heat-resistant aluminium components. All non-essential elements disappeared, such as the bumpers. With the help of Perspex and aluminium components, more than 100 pounds was shed from the DB4 GT. Four of the original Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato's chassis, No.s 0191, 0193, 0182 and 0183, were built to a lightened DP207/209 specification for racing. The DP209 cars have a lower roofline, larger rear wings, a reshaped tail and a flatter, longer front end; the first major race using an Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato was around Easter in 1961 at Goodwood. Driven by Stirling Moss, the car finished 3rd, behind an Aston Martin DB4 GT and the winning Ferrari 250 GT; the most prominent DB4 GT Zagatos, affectionately known by the registration plates they share, 1 VEV and 2 VEV, which were both raced under John Ogier's Essex Racing Stable, with assistance from the Aston Martin factory.
Both the Zagatos raced in the 1961 24 Hours of Le Mans. However a repeat of the 1959 Le Mans victory was not to be, with both cars retiring. In July 1961 at a British Grand Prix Support race, the Zagato had its first victory with 2 VEV taking the last lap lead from a Jaguar E Type. 2 VEV was rebuilt to the lightweight DP209 specification. After a car accident in 1993, the car was returned to the 1962 specification. Chassis 0200 raced in the 1962 24 Hours of Le Mans. In 1988, four unutilised chassis numbers were put to use. With the approval of Aston Martin, four DB4 chassis were appropriately uprated to GT specifications; these chassis were sent to Zagato's Milan workshop to be bodied like the originals, with a smaller oval grille, without the stock DB4 GT's rear tail fins, with a smoothed out rear end. To familiarise the workforce with construction techniques of the 60s, an original DB4 GT Zagato was sent there to be dismantled; these "Works-Approved Replicas" were known as the "Sanction II" cars.
They were outwardly identical. Each of these cars sold for over $1,000,000. Differences from the "originals" include a larger engine capacity, increased from 3.7 to 4.2 litres, a smaller wheel diameter, reduced from 16 inches to 15. The first of the four GT-specification rolling chassis was delivered to Zagato in January 1989 and the fourth in April of the same year, with all four being completed in July 1991. All four cars were given their own chassis numbers, fitting for the 1960s. Rolls-Royce Phantom in 1961 costed £7,000, in 1988 - $300,000; the Zagato factory still had two spare body shells left over after producing the Sanction II Zagatos. In 1992, Richard Williams approached the executive chairman of Aston Martin Lagonda Ltd, Walter Hayes, sought approval for the spare body shells to be used to create two further "Sanction" cars. Walter Hayes gave his approval and the body shells along with two neglected Aston Martin DB4s were completed to form a pair of Aston Martin DB4 GT Zagato "Sanction IIIs" in the year 2000.
Due to the huge popularity high price tag, great look and rarity of the DB4 GT Zagatos, many replica cars have been constructed based on DB4 and DB4 GT chassis. These replica cars bear a close resemblance to the original Zagatos, but were not made by the Italian Zagato company. Aston Martin Heritage – Aston Martin website Fast-Autos – Specification and photos Supercars.net- Specification and photos jalopnik.com – Jalopnik Fantasy Garage
The Bassermann'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, today Bassermann Verlag, is a publisher based in Munich. The publisher is part of Random House; the publisher was founded in 1843 as Bassermann & Mathy by Friedrich Daniel Bassermann and Karl Mathy in Mannheim. At this time, Bassermann published nonfiction and novels by authors such as August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben. After Mathy left the publisher, it was renamed to the Bassermann'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung in 1854. Ten years after the death of the founder, his son, Otto Friedrich Bassermann, took over the management of the publisher and moved its headquarters to Heidelberg. From there it was transferred to Munich in 1878. Bassermann junior succeeded to win the author Wilhelm Busch for his publisher. Busch published between 1872 and 1904 all his books at Bassermann and became the principal author of the Bassermann. In 1973 Frank Sicker moved it from Munich to Niedernhausen; the books published were part of the assortment of the Falken-Verlag, which belonged to Frank Sicker.
The Bassermann'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung did not publish anything until 1988 when Sicker started a new publishing program under the name Bassermann Verlag. In 1998, Random House publishing group bought the publisher and moved its headquarters in 2002 to Munich once again; the Bassermann Verlag describes itself as "dedicated to inexpensive special issues on popular topics in the areas of guides and nonfiction as well as high-quality illustrated books" According to their records they published about 130 new books each year. Official website
Travelers' diarrhea is a stomach and intestinal infection. TD is defined as the passage of unformed stool while traveling, it may be accompanied by abdominal cramps, nausea and bloating. Bloody diarrhea may occur. Most travelers recover within four days with no treatment. About 10% of people may have symptoms for a week. Bacteria are responsible for more than half of cases; the bacteria enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli are the most common except in Southeast Asia, where Campylobacter is more prominent. About 10% to 20% of cases are due to norovirus. Protozoa such as Giardia may cause longer term disease; the risk is greatest among young adults. People affected are more from the developed world. Recommendations for prevention include eating only properly cleaned and cooked food, drinking bottled water, frequent hand washing; the oral cholera vaccine, while effective for cholera, is of questionable use for travelers' diarrhea. Preventive antibiotics are discouraged. Primary treatment includes replacing lost salts.
Antibiotics are recommended for significant or persistent symptoms, can be taken with loperamide to decrease diarrhea. Hospitalization is required in less than 3% of cases. Estimates of the percentage of people affected range from 20 to 50% among travelers to the developing world. TD is common among people travelling to Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Central and South America; the risk is moderate in Southern Europe and China. TD has been linked to irritable bowel syndrome and Guillain–Barré syndrome, it has colloquially been known by a number of names, including "Montezuma's revenge" and "Delhi belly". The onset of TD occurs within the first week of travel, but may occur at any time while traveling, after returning home, depending on the incubation period of the infectious agent. Bacterial TD begins abruptly, but Cryptosporidium may incubate for seven days, Giardia for 14 days or more, before symptoms develop. A traveler experiences four to five loose or watery bowel movements each day. Other associated symptoms are abdominal cramping, bloating and malaise.
Appetite may decrease significantly. Though unpleasant, most cases of TD are mild, resolve in a few days without medical intervention. Blood or mucus in the diarrhea, significant abdominal pain, or high fever suggests a more serious cause, such as cholera, characterized by a rapid onset of weakness and torrents of watery diarrhea with flecks of mucus. Medical care should be sought in such cases. Infectious agents are the primary cause of travelers' diarrhea. Bacterial enteropathogens cause about 80% of cases. Viruses and protozoans account for most of the rest; the most common causative agent isolated in countries surveyed has been enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Enteroaggregative E. coli is recognized. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. are other common bacterial pathogens. Campylobacter, Yersinia and Plesiomonas spp. are less found. Mechanisms of action vary: some bacteria release toxins which bind to the intestinal wall and cause diarrhea. While viruses are associated with less than 20% of adult cases of travelers' diarrhea, they may be responsible for nearly 70% of cases in infants and children.
Diarrhea due to viral agents is unaffected by antibiotic therapy, but is self-limited. Protozoans such as Giardia lamblia and Cyclospora cayetanensis can cause diarrhea. Pathogens implicated in travelers' diarrhea appear in the table in this section. A subtype of travelers' diarrhea afflicting hikers and campers, sometimes known as wilderness diarrhea, may have a somewhat different frequency of distribution of pathogens; the primary source of infection is ingestion of fecally contaminated water. Attack rates are similar for women; the most important determinant of risk is the traveler's destination. High-risk destinations include developing countries in Latin America, the Middle East, Asia. Among backpackers, additional risk factors include drinking untreated surface water and failure to maintain personal hygiene practices and clean cookware. Campsites have primitive sanitation facilities, making them as dangerous as any developing country. Although travelers' diarrhea resolves within three to five days, in about 20% of cases, the illness is severe enough to require bedrest, in 10%, the illness duration exceeds one week.
For those prone to serious infections, such as bacillary dysentery, amoebic dysentery, cholera, TD can be life-threatening. Others at higher-than-average risk include young adults, immunosuppressed persons, persons with inflammatory bowel disease or diabetes, those taking H2 blockers or antacids. Travelers get diarrhea from eating and drinking foods and beverages that have no adverse effects on local residents; this is due to immunity to pathogenic organisms. The extent and duration of exposure necessary to acquire immunity has not been determined. A study among expatriates in Nepal suggests that immunity may take up to seven years to develop—presumably in adults who avoid deliberate p