Carbon fiber reinforced polymer
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic, is an strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers. The alternative spelling'fibre' is common in British Commonwealth countries. CFRPs can be expensive to produce but are used wherever high strength-to-weight ratio and stiffness are required, such as aerospace, superstructure of ships, civil engineering, sports equipment, an increasing number of consumer and technical applications; the binding polymer is a thermoset resin such as epoxy, but other thermoset or thermoplastic polymers, such as polyester, vinyl ester, or nylon, are sometimes used. The composite material may contain aramid, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene, aluminium, or glass fibers in addition to carbon fibers; the properties of the final CFRP product can be affected by the type of additives introduced to the binding matrix. The most common additive is silica, but other additives such as rubber and carbon nanotubes can be used.
The material is referred to as graphite-reinforced polymer or graphite fiber-reinforced polymer. CFRPs are composite materials. In this case the composite consists of two parts: a reinforcement. In CFRP the reinforcement is carbon fiber; the matrix is a polymer resin, such as epoxy, to bind the reinforcements together. Because CFRP consists of two distinct elements, the material properties depend on these two elements. Reinforcement gives CFRP its rigidity. Unlike isotropic materials like steel and aluminum, CFRP has directional strength properties; the properties of CFRP depend on the layouts of the carbon fiber and the proportion of the carbon fibers relative to the polymer. The two different equations governing the net elastic modulus of composite materials using the properties of the carbon fibers and the polymer matrix can be applied to carbon fiber reinforced plastics; the following equation, E c = V m E m + V f E f is valid for composite materials with the fibers oriented in the direction of the applied load.
E c is the total composite modulus, V m and V f are the volume fractions of the matrix and fiber in the composite, E m and E f are the elastic moduli of the matrix and fibers respectively. The other extreme case of the elastic modulus of the composite with the fibers oriented transverse to the applied load can be found using the following equation: E c = − 1 The fracture toughness of carbon fiber reinforced plastics is governed by the following mechanisms: 1) debonding between the carbon fiber and polymer matrix, 2) fiber pull-out, 3) delamination between the CFRP sheets. Typical epoxy-based CFRPs exhibit no plasticity, with less than 0.5% strain to failure. Although CFRPs with epoxy have high strength and elastic modulus, the brittle fracture mechanics present unique challenges to engineers in failure detection since failure occurs catastrophically; as such, recent efforts to toughen CFRPs include modifying the existing epoxy material and finding alternative polymer matrix. One such material with high promise is PEEK, which exhibits an order of magnitude greater toughness with similar elastic modulus and tensile strength.
However, PEEK is more expensive. Despite its high initial strength-to-weight ratio, a design limitation of CFRP is its lack of a definable fatigue limit; this means, that stress cycle failure cannot be ruled out. While steel and many other structural metals and alloys do have estimable fatigue or endurance limits, the complex failure modes of composites mean that the fatigue failure properties of CFRP are difficult to predict and design for; as a result, when using CFRP for critical cyclic-loading applications, engineers may need to design in considerable strength safety margins to provide suitable component reliability over its service life. Environmental effects such as temperature and humidity can have profound effects on the polymer-based composites, including most CFRPs. While CFRPs demonstrate excellent corrosion resistance, the effect of moisture at wide ranges of temperatures can lead to degradation of the mechanical properties of CFRPs at the matrix-fiber interface. While the carbon fibers themselves are not affected by the moisture diffusing into the material, the moisture plasticizes the polymer matrix.
The epoxy matrix used for engine fan blades is designed to be impervious against jet fuel and rain water, external paint on the composites parts is applied to minimize damage from ultraviolet light. The carbon fibers can cause galvanic corrosion; the primary element of CFRP is a carbon filament.
A diffuser, in an automotive context, is a shaped section of the car underbody which improves the car's aerodynamic properties by enhancing the transition between the high-velocity airflow underneath the car and the much slower freestream airflow of the ambient atmosphere. It works by providing a space for the underbody airflow to decelerate and expand so that it does not cause excessive flow separation and drag, by providing a degree of "wake infill" or more pressure recovery; the diffuser itself accelerates the flow in front of it, which helps generate downforce. When a diffuser is used, the air flows into the underbody from the front of the car and reduces pressure. There is a suction peak at the transition of the flat diffuser; this transition is where the lowest pressure is located and is called the throat of the diffuser. The diffuser eases this high velocity air back to normal velocity and helps fill in the area behind the car making the whole underbody a more efficient downforce producing device by reducing drag on the car and increasing downforce.
The diffuser imparts upward momentum to the air which further increases downforce. The trailing or leading edge of a diffuser may receive a nolder — a precise small lip, protuberance or wing to enhance its performance; the aft part of a car underbody is where a rear diffuser is located. It works by accelerating the velocity of the airflow underneath the car; the pressure under the car is affected by the diffuser so that it can expand back to ambient in the diffuser, as the car moves through the air. It uses Bernoulli's principle, such. Since the pressure below the car is lower than on the side and above the car, downforce is produced if implemented correctly; the diffuser "drives" the underbody, which produces the downforce. Front diffusers exist. A poorly designed front diffuser can create a low pressure region toward the front of the car which slows the air behind it down and reduces the effectiveness of the rest of the underbody. Front diffusers route air away from the car so that it doesn't affect the rest of the underbody.
The air can be expelled near the front wheels. Injecting the exhaust into the rear diffuser can help extract the air from below the car; the exhaust gasses energize the boundary layer, helping to raise the pressure of the low-pressure, fast-moving airstream back to the ambient atmospheric pressure at the exit of the diffuser. This fast-moving air helps evacuate the diffuser more which helps drop the pressure at the underbody. However, this makes the diffuser rather sensitive to engine speed; when the driver lifts off the throttle, the exhaust flow is reduced, which makes the diffuser less effective, robbing the vehicle of downforce. Thus, handling is negatively affected; the car's bodywork interacts with the flow through the diffuser. In addition to creating downforce, the front wing and nose try to keep "clean air" flowing around, more under, the car. Clean air under the car prevents flow separation from occurring in the diffuser, which would rob its performance; the rear wing affects the diffuser.
When the wing is mounted low and close to the diffuser, the low pressure under the wing helps suck air through the diffuser. Cars, such as the Toyota Eagle MkIII and the Jaguar XJR-14 employed two-tier wings to enhance this effect. One profile was mounted high, in order to hit clean air; the other profile was mounted flush with the bodywork behind the chassis. This wing's profile is used to drive the diffuser, creating that low pressure area to help move air from the underbody. According to Hiro Fujimori, aerodynamicist for the Toyota Eagle MkIII project, this bi-plane wing produced 18% more downforce for the same drag as a normal wing. Conversely, equal downforce levels could be attained for reduced drag with this "Red Baron" wing. In 2009, the Formula 1 grid was embroiled in controversy; the culprit was the so-called double-decker diffuser introduced at first by Brawn GP, WilliamsF1, Toyota Racing, but put into use by every team. These three teams had exploited a loophole in the rules that allowed for more volume in the diffuser.
The rules stated that the diffuser must start at a point aligned with the centerline of the rear wheels. The loophole allowed for holes in the underbody, perpendicular to the reference plane, that fed a diffuser channel, above the main diffuser; this increased the available downforce, was worth about half a second per lap, according to Mike Gascoyne. The teams decided to allow the double-decker diffusers again for 2010. However, for 2011, the Formula 1 Technical Working Group decided to ban multi-deck diffusers; as the front of the car slows down the air without a diffuser, this is the ideal place for an inlet. A splitter is used here, serving to increase the amount of downforce at the front of the car; the airstream is brought to stagnation above the splitter by an air dam, causing an area of high pressure. Below the splitter, the air is redirected away from the stagnation zone and is accelerated, causing the pressure to drop. This, combined with the high pressure over the splitter, creates downforce.
The larger the area of the splitter, the more downforce is generated. In most closed-wheel race cars, the underside of the splitter smoothly integrates with the undertray, creating one la
Aston Martin DB9
The Aston Martin DB9 is a British grand tourer first shown by Aston Martin at the 2003 Frankfurt Auto Show. Available both in coupé and a convertible bodystyles, the latter being known as the Volante, the DB9 was the successor of the DB7, it was the first model built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility. The DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, has an aluminium construction; the chassis is the Ford developed VH platform whilst the engine is the 5.9-litre V12 from the Vanquish. The 2013 model year facelift saw many improvements to the design, the engine and the overall driving experience; the DB9 is rated well by car critics, who appreciate the car's exterior design. In spite of comments regarding the DB9's poor handling, reviewers liked the car's ride and driving experience; some held issue with the DB9's small rear seats, cargo space and poor satnav. Aston Martin Racing adapted the DB9 for sports car racing, producing the DBR9 for FIA GT1 and the DBRS9 for FIA GT3; these two cars are modified DB9 models adapted for motorsport.
Additionally, the engine has been tweaked in both the cars to produce torque. Production of the DB9 ended after 12 years in 2016, having been replaced by the DB11 which uses an all-new platform and engine; the DB9 was designed by Henrik Fisker, was first introduced at the 2003 Frankfurt Motor Show. The letters "DB" are the initials of David Brown, the owner of Aston Martin for a significant part of its history. Although it succeeded the DB7, Aston Martin did not name the car DB8 due to fears that the name would suggest that the car was equipped with a V8 engine, it was reported that Aston Martin believed that naming the car "DB8" would indicate a gradual evolution and misrepresent the car. The DB9 is the first model to be built at Aston Martin's Gaydon facility in England. In a 2007 interview, the Aston Martin CEO Dr. Ulrich Bez stated that, though Aston Martin was traditionally a maker of more exclusive automobiles, he believed Aston Martin needed to be more visible and build more cars. At launch, Aston Martin planned to build between 1,500 cars per year.
In 2007, the DB9 was revised with upgraded electrical components which helped reliability, new front seat design, LED approach lights on the door handles and lowered suspension. The DB9 Volante no longer had a 266 km/h top-speed limiter, allowing it to attain an unrestricted top speed of 299 km/h should conditions allow; the DB9 received a facelift in July 2008. This facelift was the increase in engine power and torque, to 477 PS and 600 N⋅m, a redesigned centre console. Externally, the DB9 remained unchanged; the 2013 model year's new facelift design that resembled the 2011 Virage, as well as increased engine power of up to 517 PS and 620 N⋅m of torque. The DB9's interior has a walnut wood trim. In newer editions, the leather joins. On the dashboard and Bluetooth are standard in models. Models offered a Dolby Prologic sound system can be connected to satellite radio, a six-CD changer, an iPod connector, a USB connector, or an auxiliary input jack; this sound system can be upgraded to a Olufsen stereo.
The coupé comes standard with rear seats. A seating package, which removes the back seats and replaces the front seats with lighter seats made of Kevlar and carbon fibre; the boot capacity is 187 L in the coupé or 136 L in the Volante. Made to follow the DB7 model, the DB9 is, according to Aston's initial press release, "a contemporary version of classic DB design elements and characteristics", it retains the traditional Aston Martin grille and side strakes, the design attempts to keep the lines simple and refined. The boot of the car is pronounced, like that of the DB4 and DB5. At the front, DB9 is without a separate nose cone, has no visible bumpers; the exterior skin is made of aluminium, though the front bumpers and bonnet are made of composite materials. For the 2013 model year, Aston Martin made minor changes to the bodywork by adapting designs from the 2011 Virage, including enlarging the recessed headlight clusters with bi-xenon lights and LED daytime running strips, widening the front splitter, updating the grille and side heat extractors, updating the LED rear lights with clear lenses and integrating a new rear spoiler with the boot lid.
The Aston Martin DB9 was launched equipped with a 5.9-litre V12 engine being used in the V12 Vanquish. The generates 570 N⋅m of torque at 5,000 rpm and a maximum power of 456 PS at 6,000 rpm; the DB9 has a top speed of 299 km/h. The engine sits behind the front-axle line to improve weight distribution; the 2009 model year DB9 had an increase of engine power and torque, as the V12 now has a power output of 477 PS and 600 N⋅m of torque, resulting in a power to weight ratio of 271 PS per tonne, an increase of 11 PS per tonne over the previous model. The top speed increased to 306 km/h and the 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time improved by 0.1 seconds to 4.6 seconds for the manual version of the car. Changes to the engine for the 2013 model year DB9 increased the power output to 517 PS and torque to 620 N⋅m; the car's 0 to 97 km/h acceleration time decreased to 4.5 seconds and the top speed stood at 295 km/h. The DB9 can be equipped with either a six-speed convention
Aston Martin Racing
Aston Martin Racing is a British auto racing team established in 2004 as a partnership between automobile manufacturer Aston Martin and engineering group Prodrive. The partnership was created for the purpose of returning Aston Martin to sports car racing with the DBR9, a modified variant of the Aston Martin DB9. Since the DBR9's racing debut in 2005, Aston Martin Racing has expanded to build a variety of cars available to customers, as well as development of Aston Martin's V12 engine for Le Mans Prototype use. Aston Martin Racing's program has earned several successes over the years. Although all cars are built by Prodrive at their factory, Aston Martin plays an integral part in designing the race cars, as well as integrating elements of the race cars back into Aston Martin's road cars. On 23 April 2009, Aston Martin chairman and Prodrive founder David Richards announced his intent to return to Formula One in 2010 with the possibility of using the Aston Martin name, however this never materialised.
Aston Martin had raced in the 1959 and 1960 Formula One seasons but failed to score points in either year. Aston Martin Racing builds cars for international grand tourer classes; the team itself run a squad of DBR9s in the former top class, GT1, while other cars were offered to customers. The GTE class became their next target after the failure of the 2011 season, the car is based on the V8 Vantage; the V8 Vantage is featured in GT3 and GT4 classes. Before GT3 Vantage was introduced the DBRS9 was solely racing in GT3. In 2008, Aston Martin Racing began their entry into the Le Mans Prototype category with the aid of Charouz Racing System, installing a DBR9 V12 into a Lola B08/60 LMP1 prototype. On 27 January 2009, the team announced a full works entry in the Le Mans Prototype category for the 2009 24 Hours of Le Mans with the Lola-Aston Martin B09/60; the entry marks the 50th anniversary of its last outright win at Le Mans. The 2009 programme got off to an unfortunate start at the pre season Paul Ricard test on 8 March when Tomáš Enge destroyed the 007 car in an accident.
Aston Martin Racing subsequently took delivery of a new Lola to replace the written off chassis. The team entered two LMP1 cars bearing the iconic orange livery of Gulf Oil; the aim was to emulate the achievements of the 1959 race win with the DBR1 driven by Carroll Shelby and Roy Salvadori. At Le Mans the AMR Eastern Europe 007 car of Jan Charouz, Tomáš Enge and Stefan Mücke finished fourth behind the factory entries of Peugeot and Audi, as well as being the highest finishing petrol-fuelled car; the 008 car was running as high as 3rd overall in the morning until Anthony Davidson had a collision with a GT1 Aston. Subsequent repairs and a 5-minute stop and go penalty—for causing the collision—dropped the car out of contention; the 009 car was retired after 252 laps. Three cars were entered in the 2010 24 Hours of Le Mans, although only the 007 and 009 cars were run by Aston Martin Racing. Both the 008 and 009 cars suffered from problems and had to be retired, leaving only the 007 to finish 6th overall and completing 365 laps, less than it did in 2009.
In 2011 the B09/60 was succeeded by the Aston Martin AMR-One, powered by a downsized, 2.0 litre turbocharged straight six petrol engine. The car was running poorly. In its first racing event, the 2011 6 Hours of Castellet, it was only as fast as some of the LMP2 cars in qualifying and was plagued with mechanical issues, it completed only 96 laps. They decided not to race it in the rounds of the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup leading up to Le Mans so they can continue private testing with the troubled car in order to sort out the mechanical issues. So around came Le Mans and despite the testing and extra car, they were still lapping in the middle of the LMP2 pack in qualifying and in the race it was much a much worse scenario. Car #009 retired after only two laps around the Circuit de la Sarthe and car #007 retired two laps on lap four. Both cars completed a combined six laps at the 79th Grand Prix of Endurance. After this shocking result, the team raced the old B09/60 for the remainder of the season although a much downgraded version in order to comply with the new 2011 regulations.
For 2012, Aston Martin Racing returned to GT racing with the V8 Vantage GT2. They entered two cars at the 2012 24 Hours of Le Mans with one in the LMGTE-Pro class and one in the LMGTE-Am class, they had a third Vantage in the GTE-Pro class as a reserve entrant. One of the existing AMR-One's has been sold to Pescarolo Sport who are set to compete with that car and naming it the Pescarolo 03, they will use an engine from Judd Power rather than the Aston Martin powerplant. The other AMR-One has formed the base for the new DeltaWing project which debuted at Le Mans in 2012 with Highcroft Racing; the DeltaWing uses the AMR-One's carbon fibre tub. In 2013 to celebrate the centenary of the marque, the team will be entering two 2013 specification Aston Martin Vantage GTE's in the LMGTE PRO class and two 2012 specification Vantage GTE's in LMGTE AM; the team will compete in the full season of the FIA World Endurance Championship with the same cars. Ex-Formula 1 driver Bruno Senna will join the team for the season in the one of the GTE Pro cars partnered by Frédéric Makowiecki and Robert Bell.
The main GTE Pro car will feature AMR regulars Darren Turner and Stefan Mücke and will be joined by Peter Dumbreck for the 24 hours of Le Mans and the Six hours of Spa-Franchorchamps. On the 21st November 2017 Aston Martin revealed the new Vantage: a dynamic successor to the biggest-selling road car in the British marque's history; this evening, in an unprecedented synchronised launch, Aston Martin Racing revealed the new 2018 Vantage GTE: the spectacular
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Canadian Tire Motorsport Park
Canadian Tire Motorsport Park is a multi-track motorsport venue located north of Bowmanville, in Ontario, Canada. The facility features a 10-turn road course; the name "Mosport" is a portmanteau of Motor Sport, came from the enterprise formed to build the track. The circuit was the second purpose-built road race course in Canada after Westwood Motorsport Park in Coquitlam, British Columbia, succeeding Edenvale, Port Albert, Ontario's Green Acres, Nanticoke, Ontario's Harewood Acres, all airport circuits, as Ontario racing venues; the track was built in the late 1950s. The first race to be held on the track was a local event organized by the Oakville Light Car Club in June 1961. Shortly thereafter, on June 35, the venue held its first major race, the Player's 200, a sports car race bringing drivers from the world over to rural Ontario. Stirling Moss won the two-heat event in a Lotus 19. Second was Joakim Bonnier with Olivier Gendebien third; the proposed hairpin was expanded into two discrete corners, to be of greater challenge to the drivers and more interesting for the spectators, at his suggestion, is named Moss Corner in his honour.
This is a source of lingering confusion. Unlike many historic motorsport venues, Mosport's track layout has remained unchanged from its original form. For 2001, the entire circuit was repaved to meet FIA specifications, is now 42 feet wide. Drivers were consulted to ensure the character of the "old" track. Mosport achieved acclaim though a series of international sports car races under the title "Canadian Grand Prix" reserved for Formula 1 races. Many events were wildly popular, breaking Canadian sports attendance records with each successive race; the success of these races led Mosport to be seen as a key component in the founding of the Can Am Series. The CanAm first visited the track in its inaugural season in 1966, Mosport hosted at least one event in every year of the series' history, except 1968. In 1967, Canada's centennial year, Mosport hosted Formula One, USAC, a 500cc Motorcycle Grand Prix. F1's Grand Prix of Canada remained at the track until 1977. Mosport has hosted a wide variety of series throughout its history.
The circuit has held Formula One, USAC, World Sportscar Championship, Can-Am, Formula 5000, many other sports car, open-wheel, motorcycle series. Mosport has had several fatalities, both track crew and riders, the most recognized being German Formula One driver Manfred Winkelhock, killed in 1985 when his Porsche 962C crashed into a concrete wall. Another fatality at the track was in 2008 during the 29th annual Vintage Automobile Racing Association of Canada Racing Festival. Driver Dino Crescentini of Rochester Hills, MI – a ten-year veteran of vintage racing – lost control of his 1977 Wolf Dallara Can-Am car, driven by Gilles Villeneuve; the most recent fatality was in 2018 when 61 year old former Pro Mazda driver Jeff Green speared off the racetrack at turn 8, slammed into the barrier. He was attended to but was unable to survive the crash; the fastest recorded lap was taken by Rinaldo Capello, in an Audi R10 TDI, in qualifying for the 2008 Grand Prix of Mosport, with a time of 1:04.094. The lap record was set in the race for that meeting with Capello's Audi Sport North America teammate Marco Werner lapping in a time of 1:05.823.
Mosport has had a succession of owners. Two of those prior owners, Norm Namerow and Harvey Hudes, have both been inducted into the Canadian Motorsport Hall of Fame for their contribution to the sport in Canada. In 1998, Panoz Motorsports purchased the facility, in 1999, the newly formed American Le Mans Series visited Mosport for the first time. Canadian Motorsports Ventures Ltd. which includes Orlando Corp. Chairman Carlo Fidani and Canadian road racing driver Ron Fellows, purchased the facility in June 2011. In February 2012, a partnership between Mosport and Canadian Tire was announced; the partnership includes a renaming of the track to Canadian Tire Motorsport Park. The partnership will help to upgrade the facility, improve the experience for spectators, race teams, corporate sponsors. In the spring of 2000, Mosport opened the Driver Development Centre, a second 1.7 km, 12 turn training circuit designed for driver development. The new course was designed by the owners and instructors of the Bridgestone Racing Academy and was designed with fewer guard rails and minimum blind corners to meet the needs of their driver and mechanic training program.
Due to significant scheduling demands on the original grand prix circuit, the original academy course was reconstructed and lengthened to a full racing course in the fall of 2013. The new track features two configuration options. Mosport Speedway was a one-half-mile oval speedway located on the northwest c