Entertaining Comics, more known as EC Comics, was an American publisher of comic books, which specialized in horror fiction, crime fiction, military fiction, dark fantasy, science fiction from the 1940s through the mid-1950s, notably the Tales from the Crypt series. EC was owned by Maxwell Gaines and specialized in educational and child-oriented stories. After Max Gaines' death in a boating accident in 1947, his son William Gaines took over the company and began to print more mature stories, delving into genres of horror, fantasy, science-fiction and others. Noted for their high quality and shock endings, these stories were unique in their conscious, progressive themes that anticipated the Civil Rights Movement and dawn of 1960s counterculture. In 1954–55, censorship pressures prompted it to concentrate on the humor magazine Mad, leading to the company's greatest and most enduring success. By 1956, the company ceased publishing all of its comic lines besides Mad; the firm, first known as Educational Comics, was founded by Max Gaines, former editor of the comic-book company All-American Publications.
When that company merged with DC Comics in 1944, Gaines retained rights to the comic book Picture Stories from the Bible, began his new company with a plan to market comics about science and the Bible to schools and churches. A decade earlier, Max Gaines had been one of the pioneers of the comic book form, with Eastern Color Printing's proto-comic book Funnies on Parade, with Dell Publishing's Famous Funnies: A Carnival of Comics, considered by historians the first true American comic book; when Max Gaines died in 1947 in a boating accident, his son William inherited the comics company. After four years in the Army Air Corps, Gaines had returned home to finish school at New York University, planning to work as a chemistry teacher, he never instead took over the family business. In 1949 and 1950, Bill Gaines began a line of new titles featuring horror, science fiction, military fiction and crime fiction, his editors, Al Feldstein and Harvey Kurtzman, who drew covers and stories, gave assignments to such prominent and accomplished freelance artists as Johnny Craig, Reed Crandall, Jack Davis, Will Elder, George Evans, Frank Frazetta, Graham Ingels, Jack Kamen, Bernard Krigstein, Joe Orlando, John Severin, Al Williamson, Basil Wolverton, Wally Wood.
With input from Gaines, the stories were written by Kurtzman and Craig. Other writers including Carl Wessler, Jack Oleck, Otto Binder were brought on board. EC had success with its fresh approach and pioneered in forming relationships with its readers through its letters to the editor and its fan organization, the National EC Fan-Addict Club. EC Comics promoted its stable of illustrators, allowing each to sign his art and encouraging them to develop idiosyncratic styles; this was in contrast to the industry's common practice, in which credits were missing, although some artists at other companies, such as the Jack Kirby – Joe Simon team, Jack Cole and Bob Kane had been prominently promoted. EC published distinct lines of titles under its Entertaining Comics umbrella. Most notorious were its horror books, Tales from the Crypt, The Vault of Horror and The Haunt of Fear; these titles reveled in a gruesome joie de vivre, with grimly ironic fates meted out to many of the stories' protagonists. The company's war comics Frontline Combat and Two-Fisted Tales featured weary-eyed, unheroic stories out of step with the jingoistic times.
Shock SuspenStories tackled weighty political and social issues such as racism, drug use, the American way of life. EC always claimed to be "proudest of our science fiction titles", with Weird Science and Weird Fantasy publishing stories unlike the space opera found in such titles as Fiction House's Planet Comics. Crime SuspenStories had many parallels with film noir; as noted by Max Allan Collins in his story annotations for Russ Cochran's 1983 hardcover reprint of Crime SuspenStories, Johnny Craig had developed a "film noir-ish bag of effects" in his visuals, while characters and themes found in the crime stories showed the strong influence of writers associated with film noir, notably James M. Cain. Craig excelled in drawing stories of domestic scheming and conflict, leading David Hajdu to observe: To young people of the postwar years, when the mainstream culture glorified suburban domesticity as the modern American ideal-- the life that made the Cold War worth fighting-- nothing else in the panels of EC comics, not the giant alien cockroach that ate earthlings, not the baseball game played with human body parts, was so subversive as the idea that the exits of the Long Island Expressway emptied onto levels of Hell.
Superior illustrations of stories with surprise endings became EC's trademark. Gaines would stay up late and read large amounts of material while seeking "springboards" for story concepts; the next day he would present each premise until Feldstein found one that he thought he could develop into a story. At EC's peak, Feldstein edited seven titles. Artists were assigned stories specific to their styles. Davis and Ingels drew gruesome, supernatural-themed stories, while Kamen and Evans did tamer material. With hundreds of stories written, common themes surfaced; some of EC's more well-known themes include: An ordinary situation given an ironic and gruesome twist as poetic justice for a character's crimes. In "Collection Completed" a man takes up taxidermy; when he kills and stuffs her beloved cat
The Man-Thing is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writers Stan Lee, Roy Thomas, Gerry Conway and artist Gray Morrow, the character first appeared in Savage Tales #1, went on to be featured in various titles and in his own series, including Adventure into Fear, which introduced the character Howard the Duck. Steve Gerber's 39-issue run on the series is considered to be a cult classic. Man-Thing is a large, slow-moving, humanoid swamp monster living in the Florida Everglades near a Seminole reservation and the fictitious town of Citrusville in Cypress County, Florida. Conan Stevens portrayed the character in the 2005 film Man-Thing; as described in the text featurette "The Story Behind the Scenes" in Savage Tales #1, the black-and-white adventure fantasy magazine in which the character debuted in an 11-page origin story, Man-Thing was conceived in discussions between Marvel Comics editor Stan Lee and writer Roy Thomas, that together they created five possible origins.
Lee provided the name, used for unrelated creatures in Marvel's early science-fiction/fantasy anthology Tales of Suspense #7 and #81, as well as the concept of the man losing sentience. As Thomas recalled in 2002: Stan Lee called me in, he had a couple of sentences or so for the concept — I think it was the notion of a guy working on some experimental drug or something for the government, his being accosted by spies, getting fused with the swamp so that he becomes this creature. The creature itself sounds a lot like the Heap, but neither of us mentioned that character at the time.... I didn't care much for the name'Man-Thing', because we had the Thing, I thought it would be confusing to have another one called Man-Thing. Thomas gave it to Gerry Conway to script. Thomas and Conway are credited with Gray Morrow as artist. A second story, written by Len Wein and drawn by Neal Adams, was prepared at that time, upon Savage Tales' cancellation after that single issue, "took a year or two to see print", according to Thomas.
That occurred in Astonishing Tales #12, in which the seven-page story was integrated in its entirety within the 21-page feature "Ka-Zar", starring Marvel's jungle-lord hero. This black-and-white interlude segued to Man-Thing's introduction to color comics as Ka-Zar's antagonist-turned-ally in this and the following issue; the Wein-written Man-Thing story appeared in between Wein's first and second version of his DC Comics character Swamp Thing. Wein was Conway's roommate at the time and as Thomas recalled in 2008, Gerry and I thought that, the origin in Swamp Thing #1 was a bit too similar to the origin of Man-Thing a year-and-a-half earlier. There was vague talk at the time around Marvel of legal action, but it was never pursued. I don't know if any letters changed hands between Marvel and DC. We weren't happy with the situation over the Swamp Thing #1 origin, but we figured it was an accident. Gerry tried to talk him into changing the Swamp Thing's origin. Len didn't see the similarities, so he went ahead with what he was going to do.
The two characters verged off after that origin, so it didn't make much difference, anyway. Man-Thing received his own 10-page feature, again by Conway, in Adventure into Fear #10, sharing that anthological title with reprinted 1950s horror/fantasy stories. Steve Gerber, who would become Man-Thing's signature writer, succeeded Conway the following issue, with art by Rich Buckler; the feature expanded to 15 pages with #12, became 16 pages two issues and reached the then-standard 19-page length of Marvel superhero comics with issue #15, at which point the series went from bi-monthly to monthly. In Fear #11, page 11, Gerber created the series' narrative tagline, used in captions: "Whatever knows fear burns at the Man-Thing's touch!" After issue # 19, Man-Thing received a solo title The Man-Thing. Following Morrow, the main series' primary pencillers were, Val Mayerik, Mike Ploog, John Buscema, Jim Mooney. A sister publication was the larger, quarterly Giant-Size Man-Thing #1-5, which featured 1950s horror-fantasy and 1960s science fiction/monster reprints as back-up stories, with a two-part Howard the Duck co-feature added in the final two issues.
The unintentional double entendre in this sister series' title has become a recurring joke among comics readers. In the final issue, writer Gerber appeared as a character in the story, claiming he had not been inventing the Man-Thing's adventures but reporting on them and that he had decided to move on. Gerber continued to write Man-Thing guest appearances in other Marvel titles, as well as the serialized, eight-page Man-Thing feature in the omnibus series Marvel Comics Presents #1-12, a supporting role in The Evolutionary War, coming to the aid of Spider-Man. Gerber wrote a graphic novel that Kevin Nowlan spent many years illustrating, but he did not live to see it published. A second Man-Thing series ran 11 issues. Writer Michael Fleisher and penciller Mooney teamed for the first three issues, with the letters page of #3 noting that Fleisher's work had received a great
Marvel Comics is the brand name and primary imprint of Marvel Worldwide Inc. Marvel Publishing, Inc. and Marvel Comics Group, a publisher of American comic books and related media. In 2009, The Walt Disney Company acquired Marvel Worldwide's parent company. Marvel started in 1939 the common name in the Golden Age was Timely Comics, by the early 1950s, had become known as Atlas Comics; the Marvel era began in 1961, the year that the company launched The Fantastic Four and other superhero titles created by Steve Ditko, Stan Lee, Jack Kirby and many others. The Marvel brand had been used over the years, but solidified as the company's only brand with in a couple of years. Marvel counts among its characters such well-known superheroes as Captain America, Iron Man, the Hulk, Spider-Man, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, the Silver Surfer, Ghost Rider, the Punisher and Deadpool, such teams as the Avengers, the X-Men, the Fantastic Four, the Midnight Sons, the Defenders, the Guardians of the Galaxy, supervillains including Galactus, Doctor Doom, Ultron, Green Goblin, Red Skull, Doctor Octopus and Venom.
Most of Marvel's fictional characters operate in a single reality known as the Marvel Universe, with most locations mirroring real-life places. Pulp-magazine publisher Martin Goodman founded the company known as Marvel Comics under the name Timely Publications in 1939. Goodman, who had started with a Western pulp in 1933, was expanding into the emerging—and by already popular—new medium of comic books. Launching his new line from his existing company's offices at 330 West 42nd Street, New York City, he held the titles of editor, managing editor, business manager, with Abraham Goodman listed as publisher. Timely's first publication, Marvel Comics #1, included the first appearance of Carl Burgos' android superhero the Human Torch, the first appearances of Bill Everett's anti-hero Namor the Sub-Mariner, among other features; the issue was a great success. While its contents came from an outside packager, Inc. Timely had its own staff in place by the following year; the company's first true editor, writer-artist Joe Simon, teamed with artist Jack Kirby to create one of the first patriotically themed superheroes, Captain America, in Captain America Comics #1.
It, proved a hit, with sales of nearly one million. Goodman formed Timely Comics, Inc. beginning with comics cover-dated April 1941 or Spring 1941. While no other Timely character would achieve the success of these three characters, some notable heroes—many of which continue to appear in modern-day retcon appearances and flashbacks—include the Whizzer, Miss America, the Destroyer, the original Vision, the Angel. Timely published one of humor cartoonist Basil Wolverton's best-known features, "Powerhouse Pepper", as well as a line of children's funny-animal comics featuring characters like Super Rabbit and the duo Ziggy Pig and Silly Seal. Goodman hired his wife's cousin, Stanley Lieber, as a general office assistant in 1939; when editor Simon left the company in late 1941, Goodman made Lieber—by writing pseudonymously as "Stan Lee"—interim editor of the comics line, a position Lee kept for decades except for three years during his military service in World War II. Lee wrote extensively for Timely.
Goodman's business strategy involved having his various magazines and comic books published by a number of corporations all operating out of the same office and with the same staff. One of these shell companies through which Timely Comics was published was named Marvel Comics by at least Marvel Mystery Comics #55; as well, some comics' covers, such as All Surprise Comics #12, were labeled "A Marvel Magazine" many years before Goodman would formally adopt the name in 1961. The post-war American comic market saw superheroes falling out of fashion. Goodman's comic book line dropped them for the most part and expanded into a wider variety of genres than Timely had published, featuring horror, humor, funny animal, men's adventure-drama, giant monster and war comics, adding jungle books, romance titles and medieval adventure, Bible stories and sports. Goodman began using the globe logo of the Atlas News Company, the newsstand-distribution company he owned, on comics cover-dated November 1951 though another company, Kable News, continued to distribute his comics through the August 1952 issues.
This globe branding united a line put out by the same publisher and freelancers through 59 shell companies, from Animirth Comics to Zenith Publications. Atlas, rather than innovate, took a proven route of following popular trends in television and movies—Westerns and war dramas prevailing for a time, drive-in movie monsters another time—and other comic books the EC horror line. Atlas published a plethora of children's and teen humor titles, including Dan DeCarlo's Homer the Happy Ghost and Homer Hooper. Atlas unsuccessfully attempted to revive superheroes from late 1953 to mid-1954, with the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Atlas did not achieve any breakout hits and, according to Stan Lee, Atlas survived chiefly because it produced work cheaply, at a passable quality; the first modern comic books under the Marvel Comics brand w
Marie Severin was an American comics artist and colorist best known for her work for Marvel Comics and the 1950s' EC Comics. She was inducted into the Will Eisner Comics Hall of Fame in 2001. Marie Severin was born in East Rockaway, New York, on Long Island, the second and last child of John Edward Severin, born in Oslo, who immigrated to the United States at age 3, a mother, Marguerite Severin, from Syracuse, New York, whose heritage was Irish, her older brother, John Severin, was born in 1922. The family moved to Brooklyn, New York City, when Marie was 4, she attended a Catholic grammar school and the all-girl Bishop McDonnell Memorial High School. The family lived in an apartment in the Bay Ridge neighborhood at the time. Due to the high school's staggered schedule, Severin's class graduated in January 1948, rather than in mid-year as typical. Severin grew up in an artistic household where her father, a World War I veteran became a designer for the fashion company Elizabeth Arden during the 1930s.
In her teens, Severin took what she recalled as "a couple of months" of cartooning and illustration classes, attended Pratt Institute in Brooklyn "for one day and said,'This is a college', I wanted to draw and make money". Her first job was doing clerical work for an insurance company in downtown Manhattan "for a couple of years" while still living at home, she continued living there. Severin was working on Wall Street when her brother John an artist for EC Comics, needed a colorist for his work there. Marie Severin's earliest recorded comic-book work is coloring EC Comics' A Moon, a Girl... Romance #9. In a 2001 interview, she recalled she broke in as a colorist... for all the war books at EC with Kurtzman. I went on to color all their books, they were happy with it, I learned a lot about production color and how everything worked.... I believe. I had the full range. What they liked is that I studied which colors looked best and sharper next to one another, the subtleties of it. I would proofread the colors.
She would contribute coloring across the company's line, including its war comics and its celebrated but notoriously graphic horror comics, worked on the comics' production end, as well as "doing little touch ups and stuff" on the art. When EC ceased publication in the wake of the U. S. Senate hearings on the effects of comic books on children and the establishment of the Comics Code, Severin worked for Marvel Comics' 1950s predecessor, Atlas Comics. After an industry downturn circa 1957, she left and found work with the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, she recalled in 2001, "I did a little bit of everything for them — I did television graphics on economics I did a lot of drawing. I did a comic book that my brother did the finished art on... about checks". Frank Jacobs, in his 1972 biography of EC publisher William M. Gaines, wrote, "There was Marie Severin, Gaines's colorist, a moral Catholic, who made her feelings known by coloring dark blue any panel she thought was in bad taste. Feldstein called her'the conscience of EC.'"Severin has refuted that assertion, which became part of comics lore, while saying she sometimes used coloring to "kind of shield" some gruesome content, noting, I would never assume an editorial position.
What I would do often is, if somebody was being dismembered, I would rather color it in yellow because it's garish, you could see what was going on. Or red, for the blood element, but not to subdue the artwork.... I mean, the main reason these people were buying these books was to see somebody's head cut off, y'know?... And trusted me with a lot a stuff, they knew. In 1959, when the industry had picked up again during the period fans and historians call the Silver Age of Comic Books, Severin again worked for Marvel Comics in production. Severin recalled in 2001 that when Esquire magazine requested an artist to illustrate a story "on the college drug culture", Marvel production manager Sol Brodsky offered Severin rather than one of the regular artists, who were on deadline, her illustration for the magazine led Marvel editor-in-chief Stan Lee to assign her the feature "Doctor Strange" in Strange Tales, replacing Bill Everett, who had succeeded character co-creator Steve Ditko. With Lee, Severin co-created the fictional cosmic entity the Living Tribunal in Strange Tales #157.
Severin was Marvel's head colorist until 1972, at which point she turned most of her coloring duties over to George Roussos so that she could do more penciling assignments. She continued to expand from colorist to do penciling and inking, also lettering, on various titles, she drew stories of the Sub-Mariner and the Hulk, the covers or interiors of titles including Iron Man, Conan the Barbarian, Kull the Conqueror, The Cat, Daredevil. Additionally, she worked on Marvel's satiric humor magazine Crazy Magazine, as well as the company's self-lampooning comic book, Not Brand Echh. In 1976, Severin co-created Spider-Woman, she co-created Howard the Duck villain Doctor Bong in 1977. Two years she provided the art for the Spider-Man
Stan Lee was an American comic book writer, editor and producer. He rose through the ranks of a family-run business to become Marvel Comics' primary creative leader for two decades, leading its expansion from a small division of a publishing house to a multimedia corporation that dominated the comics industry. In collaboration with others at Marvel—particularly co-writer/artists Jack Kirby and Steve Ditko—he co-created numerous popular fictional characters, including superheroes Spider-Man, the X-Men, Iron Man, the Hulk, the Fantastic Four, Black Panther, Doctor Strange, Scarlet Witch and Ant-Man. In doing so, he pioneered a more naturalistic approach to writing superhero comics in the 1960s, in the 1970s he challenged the restrictions of the Comics Code Authority, indirectly leading to changes in its policies. In the 1980s he pursued development of Marvel properties with mixed results. Following his retirement from Marvel in the 1990s, he remained a public figurehead for the company, made cameo appearances in films and television shows based on Marvel characters, on which he received an executive producer credit.
Meanwhile, he continued independent creative ventures into his 90s, until his death in 2018. Lee was inducted into the comic book industry's Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame in 1994 and the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame in 1995, he received the NEA's National Medal of Arts in 2008. Lee was raised in a Jewish family. In a 2002 survey of whether he believed in God, he stated, "Well, let me put it this way... No, I'm not going to try to be clever. I don't know. I just don't know."From 1945 to 1947, Lee lived in the rented top floor of a brownstone in the East 90s in Manhattan. He married Joan Clayton Boocock from Newcastle, England, on December 5, 1947, in 1949, the couple bought a house in Woodmere, New York, on Long Island, living there through 1952, their daughter Joan Celia "J. C." Lee was born in 1950. Another daughter, Jan Lee, died three days after delivery in 1953; the Lees resided in the Long Island town of Hewlett Harbor, New York, from 1952 to 1980. They owned a condominium on East 63rd Street in Manhattan from 1975 to 1980, during the 1970s owned a vacation home in Remsenburg, New York.
For their move to the West Coast in 1981, they bought a home in West Hollywood, California owned by comedian Jack Benny's radio announcer Don Wilson. In September 2012, Lee underwent an operation to insert a pacemaker, which required cancelling planned appearances at conventions. On July 6, 2017, his wife of 69 years, died of complications from a stroke, she was 95 years old. In April 2018, The Hollywood Reporter published a report that claimed Lee was a victim of elder abuse. In August 2018, Morgan was issued a restraining order to stay away from Lee, his daughter, or his associates for three years. Stanley Martin Lieber was born on December 28, 1922, in Manhattan, New York City, in the apartment of his Romanian-born Jewish immigrant parents and Jack Lieber, at the corner of West 98th Street and West End Avenue in Manhattan, his father, trained as a dress cutter, worked only sporadically after the Great Depression, the family moved further uptown to Fort Washington Avenue, in Washington Heights, Manhattan.
Lee had one younger brother named Larry Lieber. He said in 2006 that as a child he was influenced by books and movies those with Errol Flynn playing heroic roles. By the time Lee was in his teens, the family was living in an apartment at 1720 University Avenue in The Bronx. Lee described it as "a third-floor apartment facing out back". Lee and his brother shared the bedroom. Lee attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx. In his youth, Lee enjoyed writing and entertained dreams of writing the "Great American Novel" one day, he said that in his youth he worked such part-time jobs as writing obituaries for a news service and press releases for the National Tuberculosis Center. At fifteen, Lee entered a high school essay competition sponsored by the New York Herald Tribune, called "The Biggest News of the Week Contest." Lee claimed to have won the prize for three straight weeks, goading the newspaper to write him and ask him to let someone else win. The paper suggested he look into writing professionally, which Lee claimed "probably changed my life."
He graduated from high school early, aged sixteen and a half, in 1939 and joined the WPA Federal Theatre Project. The Stan Lee Foundation was founded in 2010 to focus on literacy and the arts, its stated goals include supporting programs and ideas that improve access to literacy resources, as well as promoting diversity, national literacy and the arts. Lee donated portions of his personal effects to the University of Wyoming at various times, between 1981 and 2001. Lee died at the age of 95 at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, on November 12, 2018, after being rushed there in a medical emergency earlier in the day. Earlier that year, Lee revealed to the public that he had been battling pneumonia and in February was rushed to the hospital for worsening conditions at around the same time; the immediate cause
Webcomics are comics published on a website or mobile app. While many are published on the web, others are published in magazines, newspapers or in comic books. Webcomics can be compared to self-published print comics in that anyone with an Internet connection can publish their own webcomic. Readership levels vary widely. Webcomics range from traditional comic strips and graphic novels to avant garde comics, cover many genres and subjects, they sometimes take on the role of a comic blog. The term web cartoonist is sometimes used to refer to someone who creates webcomics. There are several differences between webcomics and print comics. With webcomics the restrictions of the traditional newspapers or magazines can be lifted, allowing artists and writers to take advantage of the web's unique capabilities; the freedom webcomics provide allows artists to work in nontraditional styles. Clip art or photo comics are two types of webcomics that do not use traditional artwork. A Softer World, for example, is made by overlaying photographs with strips of typewriter-style text.
As in the constrained comics tradition, a few webcomics, such as Dinosaur Comics by Ryan North, are created with most strips having art copied from one template comics and only the text changing. Pixel art, such as that created by Richard Stevens of Diesel Sweeties, is similar to that of sprite comics but instead uses low-resolution images created by the artist himself. However, it is common for artists to use traditional styles and layouts, similar to those published in newspapers or comic books. Webcomics that are independently published are not subject to the content restrictions of book publishers or newspaper syndicates, enjoying an artistic freedom similar to underground and alternative comics; some webcomics stretch the boundaries of taste, taking advantage of the fact that internet censorship is nonexistent in countries like the United States. The content of webcomics can still cause problems, such as Leisure Town artist Tristan Farnon's legal trouble after creating a homoerotic Dilbert parody, or the Catholic League's protest of artist Eric Millikin's "blasphemous treatment of Jesus."
Webcomics come in a large variation of formats throughout the world. Comic strips consisting of three or four panels, have traditionally been a popular format for webcomics. Other webcomics may mimic the pages of traditional comic books and graphic novels, sometimes in the hopes of being published in print. Scott McCloud, one of the first advocates of webcomics, pioneered the idea of the "infinite canvas" where, rather than being confined to normal print dimensions, artists are free to spread out in any direction indefinitely with their comics; such a format proved successful in South-Korean webcomics when JunKoo Kim implemented an infinite scrolling mechanism in Line Webtoon in 2004. In 2009, French web cartoonist Balak described Turbomedia, a format for webcomics where a reader only views one panel at a time, in which the reader decides their own reading rhythm by going forward one panel at a time; some web cartoonists, such as political cartoonist Mark Fiore or Charley Parker with Argon Zark!, incorporate animations or interactive elements into their webcomics.
There are attempts to combine comic books presentation with live-action video sequences by Scottish company Rextale. The first comics to be shared through the Internet were created in the mid-1980s. Services such as CompuServe and Usenet were used before the World Wide Web started to rise in popularity in 1993. Early webcomics were derivatives from strips in college newspapers, but when the Web became popular in the mid-1990s, more people started creating comics for this medium. By the year 2000, various webcomic creators were financially successful and webcomics became more artistically recognized. Unique genres and styles became popular during this period. In the second half of the 2000s, webcomics became less financially sustainable due to the rise of social media and consumers' disinterest in certain kinds of merchandise. However, crowdsourcing through Kickstarter and Patreon became popular in this period, allowing readers to donate money to webcomic creators directly; the 2010s saw the rise of webtoons in South Korea, where the form has become prominent.
This decade has seen an larger number of successful webcomics being adapted into animated series in China and Japan. In March 1995, Bebe Williams launched the webcomics portal Art Comics Daily, an online gallery of several webcomics. In March 2000, Chris Crosby, Crosby's mother Teri, Darren Bleuel founded the webcomics portal Keenspot. In July 2000, Austin Osueke launched eigoMANGA a web portal that published original online manga "webmanga". Within this year, eigoMANGA brought comic book industry attention to webcomics after being featured in many comic book web magazine articles and appearing in the March 2001 issue of Wizard Magazine. In 2001, the subscription webcomics site Cool Beans World was launched after a high-profile publicity campaign including extensive print advertising, it won Internet Magazine's "Site of the Month" award in October 2001. Contributors included, amongst others, UK-based comic book creators Pat Mills, Simon Bisley, John Bolton and Kevin O'Neill, the author Clive Barker.
Serialised content included Scarlet Traces and Marshal Law. In March 2001, Shannon Denton and Patrick Coyle launched Komikwerks.com serving free strips from comics and animation professionals. The site launched with 9 titles including Steve Conl
George Pérez is a retired American comic book artist and writer, whose titles include The Avengers, Teen Titans, Wonder Woman. Writer Peter David has named Pérez his favorite artistic collaborator. George Pérez was born in the South Bronx, New York City, on June 9, 1954, to Jorge Guzman Pérez and Luz Maria Izquierdo, who were both from Caguas, Puerto Rico, but who did not meet until 1949 or 1950, after both had settled in New Jersey while searching for job opportunities, they married in October 26, 1954 and subsequently moved to New York, where Jorge worked in the meat packing industry while Luz was a homemaker. George's younger brother David was born May 28, 1955. Both brothers aspired at a young age to be artists. With George Pérez beginning to draw at the age of five. Pérez's first involvement with the professional comics industry was as artist Rich Buckler's assistant in 1973, he made his professional debut in Marvel Comics' Astonishing Tales #25 as penciler of an untitled two-page satire of Buckler's character Deathlok, star of that comic's main feature.
Soon Pérez became a Marvel regular, penciling a run of "Sons of the Tiger", a serialized action-adventure strip published in Marvel's long-running Deadly Hands of Kung Fu magazine and authored by Bill Mantlo. He and Mantlo co-created the White Tiger a character that soon appeared in Marvel's color comics, most notably the Spider-Man titles. Pérez came to prominence with Marvel's superhero-team comic The Avengers, starting with issue #141. In the 1970s, Pérez illustrated several other Marvel titles, including Creatures on the Loose, featuring the Man-Wolf. Writer Roy Thomas and Pérez crafted a metafictional story for Fantastic Four #176 in which the Impossible Man visited the offices of Marvel Comics and met numerous comics creators. Whilst most of Pérez' Fantastic Four issues were written by Roy Thomas or Len Wein, it would be a Fantastic Four Annual where he would have his first major collaboration with writer Marv Wolfman. Pérez drew the first part of writer Jim Shooter's "The Korvac Saga", which featured nearly every Avenger who joined the team up to that point.
Shooter and Pérez introduced the character of Henry Peter Gyrich, the Avengers' liaison to the United States National Security Council in the second chapter of that same storyline. Writer David Michelinie and Pérez created the Taskmaster in The Avengers #195. In 1980, while still drawing The Avengers for Marvel, Pérez began working for their rival DC Comics. Offered the art chores for the launch of The New Teen Titans, written by Wolfman, Pérez' real incentive was the opportunity to draw Justice League of America. Long-time Justice League artist Dick Dillin died right around that time, providing an opportunity for Pérez to step in as regular artist. While Pérez's stint on the JLA was popular with fans, his career took off with the New Teen Titans; the New Teen Titans was launched in a special preview in DC Comics Presents #26. This incarnation of the Titans was intended to be DC's answer to Marvel's popular X-Men comic, Wolfman and Pérez indeed struck gold. A New Teen Titans drug awareness comic book sponsored by the Keebler Company, drawn by Pérez was published in cooperation with The President's Drug Awareness Campaign in 1983.
In August 1984, a second series of The New Teen Titans was launched by Pérez. Moreover, Pérez's facility with layouts and faces improved enormously during his four years on the book, making him one of the most popular artists in comics as evidenced by the numerous industry awards he would receive during this time. Pérez took a leave of absence from The New Teen Titans in 1984 to focus on his next project with Marv Wolfman, DC's 1985 50th-anniversary event, Crisis on Infinite Earths. Crisis purportedly featured every single character DC owned, in a story which radically restructured the DC universe's continuity. Pérez was inked on the series by Dick Giordano, Mike DeCarlo, Jerry Ordway. After Crisis, Pérez inked the final issue of Superman in September 1986, over Curt Swan's pencils for part one of the two-part story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?" by writer Alan Moore. The following month, Pérez was one of the artists on Batman #400 Wolfman and Pérez teamed again to produce the History of the DC Universe limited series to summarize the company's new history.
Pérez drew the cover for the DC Heroes roleplaying game from Mayfair Games as well as the cover for the fourth edition of the Champions roleplaying game from Hero Games. Wonder Woman was rebooted in 1987. Writer Greg Potter spent several months working with editor Janice Race on new concepts for the character, before being joined by Pérez. Inspired by John Byrne and Frank Miller's work on refashioning Superman and Batman, Pérez came in as the plotter and penciler of Wonder Woman; the relaunch tied the character more to the Greek gods and jettisoned many of the extraneous elements of her history. Pérez at first worked with Potter and Len Wein on the stories, but took over the full scripting chores. Mindy Newell joined Pérez as co-writer for nearly a year. While not as popular as either Titans or Crisis, the series was a successful relaunch of one of DC's flagship characters. Pérez would work on the title for five years, leaving as artist after issue #24, but remaining as writer up to issue #62, leaving in 1992.
In 2001, Pérez returned to the character, co-writing a two-part story in issues #168–169 with writer/artist Phil Jimenez. Pérez drew the cover for Wonder Woman #600 a